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Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2012

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1001 - 1002
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  • Editorial: From "Information Technology in Biomedicine" to "Biomedical and Health Informatics"

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1003 - 1004
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB)  

    The IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine (T-ITB) will be retitled as the IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics (J-BHI) starting in January, 2013. The IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine was launched with four issues per year in 1997. After more than a decade of steady growth, the journal ventured into new challenges: open access of publication and rapid expansion in all health informatics-related fields. In this concluding issue of T-ITB the authors would like to take this opportunity to report briefly some historical retrospectives of journal with known statistics of it and to extend a special appreciation from the current editorial office to readers, authors, reviewers, associate editors, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) relevant committees, IEEE publication staff, and especially two previous Editors-in-Chief for their great contributions to make the Transactions successful. The launching of the J-BHI as the new title of T-ITB is an outcome of the vision of the EMBS's 2011 Publications Committee. The title change and scope revision were accomplished through more than two years of team efforts by T-ITB Editorial Board, EMBS Executive Office, Publication Committee, and AdCom. In the next editorial to be published on January issue of J-BHI, we will discuss the rationale behind the title change and scope revision as well as the grand challenges in health informatics with future perspectives. View full abstract»

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  • Guest EditorialMultimedia Services and Technologies for E-Health (MUST-EH)

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1005 - 1006
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    The 11 papers in this special section focus on multimedia services and technologies for E-Health (MUST-EH). View full abstract»

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  • Cross-Layer Design for Optimized Region of Interest of Ultrasound Video Data Over Mobile WiMAX

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1007 - 1014
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of advanced error concealment techniques applied as a postprocess to conceal lost video information in error-prone channels, such as the wireless channel, demands additional processing at the receiver. This increases the delivery delay and needs more computational power. However, in general, only a small region within medical video is of interest to the physician and thus if only this area is considered, the number of computations can be curtailed. In this paper, we present a technique whereby the region of interest specified by the physician is used to delimit the area where the more complex concealment techniques are applied. A cross-layer design approach in mobile worldwide interoperability for microwave access wireless communication environment is adopted in this paper to provide an optimized quality of experience in the region that matters most to the mobile physician while relaxing the requirements in the background, ensuring real-time delivery. Results show that a diagnostically acceptable peak signal-to-noise-ratio of about 36 dB can still be achieved within reasonable decoding time. View full abstract»

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  • Data Interoperability and Multimedia Content Management in e-Health Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1015 - 1023
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (770 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    e-Health systems provide a collaborative platform for sharing patients' medical data typically stored in distributed autonomous healthcare data sources. Each autonomous source stores its medical and multimedia data without following any global structure. This causes heterogeneity in the underlying sources with respect to the data and storage structure. Therefore, a data interoperability mechanism is required for sharing the data among the heterogeneous sources. A proper metadata structure is also necessary to represent multimedia content in the sources to enable efficient query processing. Considering these needs, we present an interoperability solution for sharing data among heterogeneous data sources. We also propose a metadata management framework for medical multimedia content including X-ray, ECG, MRI, and ultrasound images. The framework identifies features, generates and represents metadata, and produces identifiers for the medical multimedia content to facilitate efficient query processing. The framework has been tested with various user queries and the accuracy of the query results evaluated by means of precision, recall, and user feedback methods. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual Caregiver: An Ambient-Aware Elderly Monitoring System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1024 - 1031
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The growing number of elderly population at home and abroad necessitates improved approaches to elderly care provision. Elders, often with cognitive and physical impairment, need assistance in their activities of daily living (ADLs), which is usually provided by human caregivers (HCGs). As the demand for caregiver's assistance increases, the shortage of traditional care resources becomes obvious. In this paper, we present the Virtual Caregiver (ViCare) framework that supports a HCG to monitor continuously the elderly by being aware of their surroundings. The ViCare system attempts to understand the elderly persons' activities and contexts based on the data captured by the sensors placed in their environment and dynamically decides what services to provide them or whether there is a need to interrupt HCG depending on the type of activities. It not only minimizes the cognitive load of the HCG but also provides a seamless assistance to the elderly toward their improved health and well-being in their living environment. We conducted the experiments in an instrumented home environment and obtained positive results in terms of the satisfaction of the elderly, interaction event handling, caregiver's acceptance, and their engagement. View full abstract»

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  • A Serious Game for Learning Ultrasound-Guided Needle Placement Skills

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1032 - 1042
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrasound-guided needle placement is a key step in a lot of radiological intervention procedures such as biopsy, local anesthesia, and fluid drainage. To help training future intervention radiologists, we develop a serious game to teach the skills involved. We introduce novel techniques for realistic simulation and integrate game elements for active and effective learning. This game is designed in the context of needle placement training based on the some essential characteristics of serious games. Training scenarios are interactively generated via a block-based construction scheme. A novel example-based texture synthesis technique is proposed to simulate corresponding ultrasound images. Game levels are defined based on the difficulties of the generated scenarios. Interactive recommendation of desirable insertion paths is provided during the training as an adaptation mechanism. We also develop a fast physics-based approach to reproduce the shadowing effect of needles in ultrasound images. Game elements such as time-attack tasks, hints, and performance evaluation tools are also integrated in our system. Extensive experiments are performed to validate its feasibility for training. View full abstract»

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  • Bio-Patch Design and Implementation Based on a Low-Power System-on-Chip and Paper-Based Inkjet Printing Technology

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1043 - 1050
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power system-on-chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of biosignals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 μW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nanoparticle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes, and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel biosignals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Thermal and Nonthermal Effects of UHF RFID Exposure on Biological Drugs

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1051 - 1057
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology promises to improve several processes in the healthcare scenario, especially those related to the traceability of people and things. Unfortunately, there are still some barriers limiting the large-scale deployment of these innovative technologies in the healthcare field. Among these, the evaluation of potential thermal and nonthermal effects due to the exposure of biopharmaceutical products to electromagnetic fields is very challenging, but still slightly investigated. This paper aims to setup a controlled RF exposure environment, in order to reproduce a worst case exposure of pharmaceutical products to the electromagnetic fields generated by the UHF RFID devices placed along the supply chain. Radiated powers several times higher than recommended by current normative limits were applied (10 and 20 W). The electric field strength at the exposed sample location, used in tests, was as high as 100 V/m. Nonthermal effects were evaluated by chromatography techniques and in vitro assays. The results obtained for a particular case study, the ActrapidTM human insulin preparation, showed temperature increases lower than 0.5 °C and no significant changes in the structure and performance of the considered drug. View full abstract»

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  • Equipment Location in Hospitals Using RFID-Based Positioning System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1058 - 1069
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Throughout various complex processes within hospitals, context-aware services and applications can help to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. For example, sensors and radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies for e-health have been deployed to improve the flow of material, equipment, personal, and patient. Bed tracking, patient monitoring, real-time logistic analysis, and critical equipment tracking are famous applications of real-time location systems (RTLS) in hospitals. In fact, existing case studies show that RTLS can improve service quality and safety, and optimize emergency management and time critical processes. In this paper, we propose a robust system for position and orientation determination of equipment. Our system utilizes passive (RFID) technology mounted on flooring plates and several peripherals for sensor data interpretation. The system is implemented and tested through extensive experiments. The results show that our system's average positioning and orientation measurement outperforms existing systems in terms of accuracy. The details of the system as well as the experimental results are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • ECG-Cryptography and Authentication in Body Area Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1070 - 1078
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person's medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighboring nodes in BANs to share a common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement for the message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data commnications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of serval performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs. View full abstract»

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  • 3-D Streaming Supplying Partner Protocols for Mobile Collaborative Exergaming for Health

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1079 - 1095
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1549 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Childhood obesity is nowadays considered one of the major health problems that many societies suffer from today. The obesity epidemic leads to several life threatening conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and mental health problems like depression, anxiety, and loneliness just to mention a few. Several approaches, including physical exercises, strict diet, and exergames among others, have been adopted to address the obesity epidemic. Exergames are considered the innovative approach for fighting several health problems such as obesity, where a combination of “exercise” and 3-D “gaming” are proposed to incite kids to exercise as a team. Collaborative exergaming became even more popular given that it addresses the social side of the obesity epidemic, and it motivates kids to socialize with other kids. Traditional exergames are based on the client-server approach where the server is responsible for streaming the 3-D environment. However, this can lead to latency and server bottleneck if many clients participate in the exergame, which leads to the kids stopping exercising. Having an exergame application that does not suffer from networking problem such as delay, is very important given that it increases the exercise hours. In this paper, we propose a new trend of mobile collaborative exergaming applications that is based on the peer-to-peer architecture, as well as two supplying partner selection protocols that aim at selecting the suitable source responsible for streaming the relevant 3-D data. Our system, that we refer to as MOSAIC, is intended for mobile collaborative exergames that incite kids to move inside a large area, using thin mobile devices such as head-mounted devices, have physical exercises, and collaborate with other kids which in consequence address several health problems such as the obesity epidemic on the physical and social plans. Our proposed mobile collaborative exergame aims at inciting t- e kids to exercise as a team for a longer time by improving the quality of the streaming and reducing the delay. This is accomplished by our proposed supplying partner selection protocols that provide a quick discovery of multiple supplying partners, by minimizing the time required to acquire the data. The performance evaluation that we have obtained to evaluate our suite of protocols using a realistic set of exergame scenarios for obese kids is then presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Knowledge Editing Service for Multisource Data Management in Remote Health Monitoring

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1096 - 1104
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1089 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Remote health monitoring (RHM) programmes are being increasingly developed to face the pervasive diffusion of chronic diseases. RHM strongly relies on Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) intelligent platforms devised to remotely acquire multisource data, process these according to specific domain knowledge, and support clinical decision making. However, since RHM domain is continuously evolving and the pertinent knowledge is not yet consolidated, there is a great demand for services and tools that allow the encoded knowledge to be modified and enriched. This paper presents a knowledge editing service (KES), which aims at enabling clinicians to insert novel knowledge, in a controlled fashion, into an ICT intelligent platform. The solution proposed is innovative since it addresses synergistically peculiar issues related to 1) RHM knowledge format; 2) controlled editing patterns; 3) knowledge verification; and 4) cooperative knowledge editing. None of the existing methods and systems for knowledge authoring tackles all these aspects at the same time. A prototype of the KES has been implemented and evaluated in real operational conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Mandibular Angle Reduction Surgical Simulation With Haptic Rendering

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1105 - 1114
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mandibular angle reduction is a popular and efficient procedure widely used to alter the facial contour. The primary surgical instruments, the reciprocating saw, and the round burr, employed in the surgery have a common feature: operating at a high speed. Generally, inexperienced surgeons need a long-time practice to learn how to minimize the risks caused by the uncontrolled contacts and cutting motions in manipulation of instruments with high-speed reciprocation or rotation. A virtual reality-based surgical simulator for the mandibular angle reduction was designed and implemented on a compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-based platform in this paper. High-fidelity visual and haptic feedbacks are provided to enhance the perception in a realistic virtual surgical environment. The impulse-based haptic models were employed to simulate the contact forces and torques on the instruments. It provides convincing haptic sensation for surgeons to control the instruments under different reciprocation or rotation velocities. The real-time methods for bone removal and reconstruction during surgical procedures have been proposed to support realistic visual feedbacks. The simulated contact forces were verified by comparing against the actual force data measured through the constructed mechanical platform. An empirical study based on the patient-specific data was conducted to evaluate the ability of the proposed system in training surgeons with various experiences. The results confirm the validity of our simulator. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed System for Cognitive Stimulation Over Interactive TV

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1115 - 1121
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (594 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper details the full design, implementation, and validation of an e-health service in order to improve the community health care services for patients with cognitive disorders. Specifically, the new service allows Parkinson's disease patients benefit from the possibility of doing cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) at home by using a familiar device such as a TV set. Its use instead of a PC could be a major advantage for some patients whose lack of familiarity with the use of a PC means that they can do therapy only in the presence of a therapist. For these patients this solution could bring about a great improvement in their autonomy. At the same time, this service provides therapists with the ability to conduct follow-up of therapy sessions via the web, benefiting from greater and easier control of the therapy exercises performed by patients and allowing them to customize new exercises in accordance with the particular needs of each patient. As a result, this kind of CST is considered to be a complement of other therapies oriented to the Parkinson patients. Furthermore, with small changes, the system could be useful for patients with a different cognitive disease such as Alzheimer's or mild cognitive impairment. View full abstract»

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  • Blind Integrity Verification of Medical Images

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1122 - 1126
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (314 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the first method of digital blind forensics within the medical imaging field with the objective to detect whether an image has been modified by some processing (e.g., filtering, lossy compression, and so on). It compares two image features: the histogram statistics of reorganized block-based discrete cosine transform coefficients, originally proposed for steganalysis purposes, and the histogram statistics of reorganized block-based Tchebichef moments. Both features serve as input of a set of support vector machine classifiers built in order to discriminate tampered images from original ones as well as to identify the nature of the global modification one image may have undergone. Performance evaluation, conducted in application to different medical image modalities, shows that these image features can help, independently or jointly, to blindly distinguish image processing or modifications with a detection rate greater than 70%. They also underline the complementarity of these features. View full abstract»

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  • Multiparametric Decision Support System for the Prediction of Oral Cancer Reoccurrence

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1127 - 1134
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1098 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes the predominant neoplasm of the head and neck region, featuring particularly aggressive nature, associated with quite unfavorable prognosis. In this paper, we formulate a decision support system that integrates a multitude of heterogeneous data (clinical, imaging, and genomic), thus, framing all manifestations of the disease. Our primary aim is to identify the factors that dictate OSCC progression and subsequently predict potential relapses (local or metastatic) of the disease. The discrimination potential of each source of data is initially explored separately, and afterward the individual predictions are combined to yield a consensus decision achieving complete discrimination between patients with and without a disease relapse. View full abstract»

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  • Classification of Seizure and Nonseizure EEG Signals Using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1135 - 1142
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a new method for classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. The intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) generated by EMD method can be considered as a set of amplitude and frequency modulated (AM-FM) signals. The Hilbert transformation of IMFs provides an analytic signal representation of the IMFs. The two bandwidths, namely amplitude modulation bandwidth (BAM) and frequency modulation bandwidth (BFM), computed from the analytic IMFs, have been used as an input to least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) for classifying seizure and nonseizure EEG signals. The proposed method for classification of EEG signals based on the bandwidth features (BAM and BFM) and the LS-SVM has provided better classification accuracy than the method adopted by Liang and coworkers in their study published in 2010. The experimental results with the recorded EEG signals from a published dataset are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed method for EEG signal classification. View full abstract»

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  • An Examination of the Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) in Muscles Paralyzed by Spinal Cord Injury

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1143 - 1149
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this study was to assess whether there is evidence of motor unit loss in muscles paralyzed by spinal cord injury (SCI), using a measurement called motor unit number index (MUNIX). The MUNIX technique was applied in SCI (n=12) and neurologically intact (n=12) subjects. The maximum M waves and voluntary surface electromyography (EMG) signals at different muscle contraction levels were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in each subject. The MUNIX values were estimated using a mathematical model describing the relation between the surface EMG signal and the ideal motor unit number count derived from the M wave and surface EMG measurements. We recorded a significant decrease in both maximum M wave amplitude and in estimated MUNIX values in paralyzed FDI muscles, as compared with neurologically intact muscles. Across all subjects, the maximum M wave amplitude was 8.3±4.4 mV for the paralyzed muscles and 14.4±2.0 mV for the neurologically intact muscles (p <; 0.0001). These measurements, when combined with voluntary EMG recordings, resulted in a mean MUNIX value of 112±71 for the paralyzed muscles, much lower than the mean MUNIX value of 228±49 for the neurologically intact muscles (p <; 0.00001). A motor unit size index was also calculated using the maximum M wave recording and the MUNIX values. We found that paralyzed muscles showed a mean motor unit size index value of 80.7±17.7 μV, significantly higher than the mean value of 64.9±10.1 μV obtained from neurologically intact muscles (p <; 0.001). The MUNIX method used in this study offers several practical benefits compared with the traditional motor unit number estimation technique because it is noninvasive, induces minimal discomfort due to electrical nerve stimulation, and can be performed quickly. The findings from this study help understand the complicated determinants of SCI induced muscle weakness an- provide further evidence of motoneuron degeneration after a spinal injury. View full abstract»

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  • Increasing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio by Using Vertically Stacked Phased Array Coils for Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1150 - 1156
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (791 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method is introduced to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems by using a vertically stacked phased coil array. It is shown theoretically that the SNR is increased with the square root of the number of coils in the array if the array signals are properly combined to remove the mutual coupling effect. Based on this, a number of vertically stacked phased coil arrays have been designed and characterized by a numerical simulation method. The performance of these arrays confirms the significant increase of SNR by increasing the number of coils in the arrays. This provides a simple and efficient method to improve the SNR for low-field MRI systems. View full abstract»

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  • A Feasibility Study of Enhancing Independent Task Performance for People with Cognitive Impairments Through the Use of a Handheld Location-Based Prompting System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1157 - 1163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (365 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An autonomous task-prompting system is presented to increase workplace and life independence for people with cognitive impairments such as traumatic brain injury, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and down syndrome. This paper describes an approach to providing distributed cognition support of work engagement for persons with cognitive disabilities. In the pilot study, a prototype was built and tested in a community-based rehabilitation program involving preservice food preparation training of eight participants with cognitive impairments. The results show improvement in helping with task engagement is statistically significant compared to the oral-instruction method. A follow-up comparative study with two participants evaluated the shadow-team approach against the proposed system. Although the number of participants was few, the participants were studied in depth and the findings were very promising. The results in the autonomous task prompting without staff intervention indicate that the performance is statistically as good as the shadow-team approach. Our findings suggest that acquisition of job skills may be facilitated by the proposed system in conjunction with operant conditioning strategies. View full abstract»

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  • A Distributed Trust Evaluation Model and Its Application Scenarios for Medical Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1164 - 1175
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of medical sensor networks (MSNs) is imperative for e-healthcare, but security remains a formidable challenge yet to be resolved. Traditional cryptographic mechanisms do not suffice given the unique characteristics of MSNs, and the fact that MSNs are susceptible to a variety of node misbehaviors. In such situations, the security and performance of MSNs depend on the cooperative and trust nature of the distributed nodes, and it is important for each node to evaluate the trustworthiness of other nodes. In this paper, we identify the unique features of MSNs and introduce relevant node behaviors, such as transmission rate and leaving time, into trust evaluation to detect malicious nodes. We then propose an application-independent and distributed trust evaluation model for MSNs. The trust management is carried out through the use of simple cryptographic techniques. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can be used to effectively identify malicious behaviors and thereby exclude malicious nodes. This paper also reports the experimental results of the Collection Tree Protocol with the addition of our proposed model in a network of TelosB motes, which show that the network performance can be significantly improved in practice. Further, some suggestions are given on how to employ such a trust evaluation model in some application scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • System Identification and Closed-Loop Control of End-Tidal CO _{\bf 2} in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1176 - 1184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a systematic approach to system identification and closed-loop control of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2) in mechanically ventilated patients. An empirical model consisting of a linear dynamic system followed by an affine transform is proposed to derive a low-order and high-fidelity representation that can reproduce the positive and inversely proportional dynamic input-output relationship between PETCO2 and minute ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients. The predictive capability of the empirical model was evaluated using experimental respiratory data collected from 18 mechanically ventilated human subjects. The model predicted PETCO2 response accurately with a root-mean-squared error of 0.22 ± 0.16 mmHg and a coefficient of determination r2 of 0.81 ± 0.18 (mean ± SD) when a second-order rational transfer function was used as its linear dynamic component. Using the proposed model, a closed-loop control method for PETCO2 based on a proportional-integral (PI) compensator was proposed by systematic analysis of the system root locus. For the 18 mechanically ventilated patient models identified, the PI compensator exhibited acceptable closed-loop response with a settling time of 1.27 ± 0.20 min and a negligible overshoot (0.51 ± 1.17%), in addition to zero steady-state PETCO2 set point tracking. The physiologic implication of the proposed empirical model was analyzed by comparing it with the traditional multicompartmental model widely used in pharmacological modeling. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine publishes basic and applied papers of information technology applications in health, healthcare and biomedicine.

 

This Transaction ceased publication in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuan-ting Zhang
427, Ho Sin Hang Engineering Building, The Chinese
University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong
ytzhang@ee.cuhk.edu.hk
Phone:+852 2609-8458
Fax:+852 2609-5558