Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation

22-28 April 1996

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  • Proceedings 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation - Volume 4

    Publication Year: 1996
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Optimization of the inertial and acceleration characteristics of manipulators

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2883 - 2889 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (595 KB)

    Investigates the problem of manipulator design for increased dynamic performance. Optimization techniques are used to determine the design parameters which improve manipulator performance. The dynamic performance of a manipulator is characterized by the inertial and acceleration properties of the end-effector. Our study of inertial and acceleration properties have provided separate descriptions of... View full abstract»

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  • A systems-level modular design approach to field robotics

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2890 - 2895 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB)

    Long development times and high costs prevent robots from being practical for use in many important field missions. Here a modular design approach is proposed to produce a rapidly deployable low cost field robotic system. An inventory of components such as actuated joints, links, power supplies, and software modules are assembled to produce a field robotic system for a specified task. The proposed... View full abstract»

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  • Rapid analysis manipulator program (RAMP) as a design tool for serial revolute robots

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2896 - 2901 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB)

    This paper describes a program (RAMP) which facilitates robot design analysis, project management, and design documentation. Requirements for such a program are proposed, and the literature is investigated. Design of the program is discussed in an object-oriented manner, and the system-level objects are described. The extent and method of implemented analysis objects is presented in more detail. E... View full abstract»

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  • Development of 4-DOF manipulator using mechanical impedance adjuster

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2902 - 2907 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)

    The objective of our study is to realize passive impedance of the robot joint by mechanical elements (MIA), and to develop an anthropomorphic multiple DOF manipulator using this mechanism. This mechanism has the advantage of a conventional method of force control in realizing high compliance. This paper presents the development of the 4-DOF MIA ARM which is an upper arm of the manipulator. This pa... View full abstract»

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  • Visual head tracking and slaving for visual telepresence

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2908 - 2914 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (859 KB)

    This paper describes a system for visual telepresence that slaves the motion of an electromechanical stereo head/eye platform to that of an operator's head. Features on the operator's head are detected using an external static camera and tracked over time, using three or more features to find pose (orientation and translation) with a novel algorithm which avoids explicit recovery of the features 3... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic selection of control points for deformable-model-based target tracking

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2915 - 2920 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB)

    A novel curve segmentation algorithm for determining control points for deformable-model-based target tracking is proposed. The algorithm is parameterless enabling a fully-fledged automated tracking regardless of the shape of the object being tracked. Compared with other curve segmentation algorithms, it selects a minimal number of control points that yet deliver a superior shape description. The ... View full abstract»

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  • Visual tracking based on cooperation of multiple attention regions

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2921 - 2928 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1026 KB)

    This paper describes a method for tracking moving objects with multiple cooperative visual attention regions. Each attention region is tracked using a sum of absolute difference (SAD) correlation technique. The method is based on an implementation of a transputer-based multi-processor vision system with a correlation processor. The vision system provides a large number of attention regions, each o... View full abstract»

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  • Using active-deformable models to track deformable objects in robotic visual servoing experiments

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2929 - 2934 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (793 KB)

    Presents a model-based approach for visual tracking and eye-in-hand robotic visual servoing. Our approach uses active deformable models to track a rigid or a semi-rigid object in the manipulator's workspace. These deformable models approximate the contour of the object boundary, defined by a set of control points. During tracking, the control points are updated at frame rates by minimizing an ener... View full abstract»

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  • Planning nonholonomic motions for manipulated objects

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2935 - 2942 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    Considers the motions of objects moved by manipulators that can only perform some specific actions. These motions are fundamentally nonholonomic. They consist of a sequence of maneuvers, each one being a permitted action of a manipulator. We present a general method for planning such motions while minimizing the number of maneuvers. The object's state space is searched by performing step motions c... View full abstract»

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  • Near-optimal motion planning for nonholonomic systems using multi-point shooting method

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2943 - 2948 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB)

    A nonlinear optimal control scheme is developed for mechanical systems subject to nonholonomic constraints. Using the performance criteria involving the final state errors and control effort, the motion planning of nonholonomic systems can be recast as a nonlinear optimal control problem. Based on the variational principle, an optimal path and control depend on the solution of the two-point bounda... View full abstract»

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  • A method of progressive constraints for nonholonomic motion planning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2949 - 2955 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)

    Presents a general method for nonholonomic motion planning (NMP), that is able to solve problems for systems with high-dimensional configuration spaces. The original NMP problem is replaced by a series of progressively constrained ones that are solved successively, and whose solution path converges towards a solution of the original problem. The nonholonomic constraints are introduced progressivel... View full abstract»

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  • Nonholonomic motion planning: a polynomial fitting approach

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2956 - 2961 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB)

    Nonholonomic systems are governed by constraints of motion that are nonintegrable differential expressions. The mathematical tools commonly used for investigating such a nonholonomic system are Stroke's theorem, nonlinear control theory and Lie Algebras, and the flatness of the system. In this paper, we show that the problem of steering systems with nonholonomic constraints between any two arbitra... View full abstract»

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  • Human-to-robot skill transfer using the SPORE approximation

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2962 - 2967 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB)

    We propose a framework for programming robotic tasks using human-to-robot skill transfer. We assume that there exists a human expert who can accomplish a task in an unstructured environment by using various sensor displays and controls. The human expert performs the desired task a number of times while his/her input/output pairs are being recorded by the robot. The robot then uses this recorded da... View full abstract»

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  • Robotic office room to support office work by human behavior understanding function with networked machines

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2968 - 2975 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    This paper proposes a novel human-robot symbiosis system, named a robotic office room (ROR). The understanding, recording and retrieving of telephone call behavior are successfully demonstrated as a typical example of an office work-supporting function of ROR. A unique object model is proposed, which accumulates information concerning motion of the object. This model enables the system to understa... View full abstract»

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  • Multi-agent based implementation of robot skills

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2976 - 2981 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB)

    This paper proposes a multi-agent based implementation of robot skills. As an example, a skill motion for assembly tasks, "move-to-touch", has been implemented on a multi-agent robot control system developed on a transputer network. The skill motion is constructed as an integration of several agents, a motion control agent, event detection agents and a management agent. Our implementation has achi... View full abstract»

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  • Online, interactive learning of gestures for human/robot interfaces

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2982 - 2987 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (72)  |  Patents (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)

    We have developed a gesture recognition system, based on hidden Markov models, which can interactively recognize gestures and perform online learning of new gestures. In addition, it is able to update its model of a gesture iteratively with each example it recognizes. This system has demonstrated reliable recognition of 14 different gestures after only one or two examples of each. The system is cu... View full abstract»

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  • A control basis for multilegged walking

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2988 - 2993 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (771 KB)

    This paper presents a distributed control approach to legged locomotion that constructs behavior online by activating combinations of reusable feedback control laws drawn from a control basis. Sequences of such controller activation result in flexible aperiodic step sequences based on local sensory information. Different tasks are achieved by varying the composition functions over the same basis c... View full abstract»

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  • Perception-based control for a quadruped walking robot

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):2994 - 3001 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (851 KB)

    The progress made so far in the study of legged robots has dealt mostly with the issues of leg coordination, gait control, stability, incorporation of various types of sensors, etc. But what is missing in most of these robots is some perception-based high-level control that would permit a robot to operate intelligently. For the high-level control, a model-based method to recognize a staircase usin... View full abstract»

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  • Intermittent trot gait of a quadruped walking machine dynamic stability control of an omnidirectional walk

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):3002 - 3007 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (753 KB)

    This paper discusses an algorithm to make a quadruped machine walk dynamically and omnidirectionally following a real-time command from an operator. To produce a smooth body motion at high speed locomotion, we introduced a new gait, named the "intermittent trot gait", in which a four-leg-supporting phase and a two-diagonal-leg-supporting phase appear in orders. In this gait, the pitching and rolli... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the dynamics of a biped robot with seven degrees of freedom

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):3008 - 3013 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (530 KB)

    This paper studies the dynamics of a biped walking robot with seven degrees of freedom. The main features of the biped robot include variable length legs and a translatable balance weight in the body. Dynamically stable walking of the biped robot is realized by maintaining the zero moment point (ZMP), which is the virtual total ground reaction point, within the region of the supporting foot during... View full abstract»

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  • On the expected complexity of random path planning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):3014 - 3019 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB)

    This paper gives an account of the convergence property of potential field based path planning algorithms that use random motions to escape local minima. Their probabilistic convergence is proved and we provide a finite estimate of the convergence time. The proof is based on the study of Markov chains and diffusion processes. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of probabilistic roadmaps for path planning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):3020 - 3025 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB)

    Provides an analysis of a path planning method which uses probabilistic roadmaps. This method has proven very successful in practice, but the theoretical understanding of its performance is still limited. Assuming that a path /spl gamma/ exists between two configurations a and b of the robot, we study the dependence of the failure probability to connect a and b on (i) the length of /spl gamma/, (i... View full abstract»

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  • Sensor motion planning with active uncertainty reduction: gripping and docking tasks

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):3026 - 3033 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB)

    This paper deals with planning of motion for a robot approaching a box shaped object using a range sensor. The plan is given as the minimizing solution of a criterion approximating the expectation of the quadratic error for the final position. The expectation is calculated using Gaussian sum approximations for the distributions of the stochastic variables involved. An approximation of the informat... View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating motion strategies under nondeterministic or probabilistic uncertainties in sensing and control

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):3034 - 3039 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB)

    Provides a method for characterizing future configurations under the implementation of a motion strategy in the presence of sensing and control uncertainties. We provide general techniques which can apply to either nondeterministic models of uncertainty (as typically considered in preimage planning research) or probabilistic models. Information-space concepts from modern control theory are utilize... View full abstract»

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