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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date September 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 233
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 1980 Best Paper Award

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 234
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  • Electrical Characteristics of Polymer Thick Film Resistors, Part I: Experiemental Results

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 283 - 288
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    The electrical characteristics of some polymer thick film (PTF) resistors have been studied. There are four different kinds of carbon blacks and two different kinds of polymer resin, i.e., epoxy resin and polyimide resin, selected in the preparations of the PTF resistors. In this paper, the electrical characteristics, which include the sheet resistivity, current noise indices (CNI), temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the percentage variations of resistance ( \Delta R/R, %), are discussed. It will be shown that there exists a correlation between the "structure" of the carbon blacks and the electrical characteristics of the PTF resistors. The effects of the blended carbon blacks on the electrical characteristics of the PTF resistors are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Characteristics of Polymer Thick Film Resistors, Part II: Phenomenological Explanation

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 289 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Phenomenologicai explanations of the electrical characteristics of the polymer thick film resistors [1] are given. The conduction mechanism is discussed on the basis that the sheet resistivity is dependent on the average gap distance between carbon black conducting particles or chains. The effect of the "structure'! of carbon blacks has also been incorporated. The dependencies of sheet resistivity on both the content of carbon blacks and the structure of carbon blacks have been studied. The current noise indices (CNI) of the polymer thick film (PTF) resistors have been explained, qualitatively, by the same model. The relationships between sheet resistivity and the CNI, and the resistor geometries on the CNI have been examined with the aid of a model of noise generators. The temperature coefficient of resistance and the percentage variations of resistance was studied on the basis of the thermal motion (Brownian) of the Carbon black particles and the thermal expansion of the polymer resins. The improved electrical characteristics of the PTF resistors, prepared with the blended carbon blacks, were also studied. View full abstract»

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  • Nondestructive Infrared Inspection of Hybrid Microcircuit Substrate-to-Package Thermal Adhesive Bonds

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 257 - 260
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
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    A method for nondestructive inspection of the thermal transfer effectiveness of adhesive bonds between the substrate and package (case) in the production of hybrid microcircuits is described. Because this bond is a series element in the thermal path for removal of the power dissipated by the microcircuit, its effectiveness is crucial to maintaining relatively low component-operating temperatures. As is well known, this can be directly equated to increasing reliability. Because the bonding material is between two opaque surfaces, it cannot be visually inspected. This situation motivated the work described here, which yielded the following results. 1) A nondestructive inspection technique employing infrared (IR) thermography was developed; the inspection can be performed in a production environment before the expensive step of completing wire bonding to the case has occurred. 2) The ability of the technique to distinguish between good and bad thermal bonds was demonstrated using two specially prepared test hybrids. 3) An analysis of the test method for use in planning inspection tests and interpretation of the test results was developed. The results show that this thermal imaging inspection technique affords a method to improve the quality of hybrid thermal bonding. View full abstract»

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  • Resistors Screen Printed on Ceramic-Coated Steel Substrates

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 235 - 239
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    Steel substrates covered with ceramic insulating coating were tested for their ability to be used in thick film technology. The first intermediate ground coating was prepared by means of a special glass powder applied to the steel sheet and was fired at temperatures up to 960°C. The final coating was produced by screen printing or by some other method from a dielectric composition and fired at 800°C960°C. Various conductor and resistor compositions were screen printed on the substrates mentioned above and fired up to the required temperatures (650°C-860°C). By the above method, resistors with a relatively low temperature coefficient of resistance and a suitable long-term stability were achieved. Ceramic-coated steel substrates, unlike enameled substrates, make possible the application of resistor compositions designed for use on ceramic substrates. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric Keyboard Electric Design Condition

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 304 - 310
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    A design method for an electronic keyboard with a piezoelectric transducer having a planar shape which aims at low cost and flexible structure is described. Electrical design conditions can be obtained from two physical quantities, namely electrostatic capacity and kinetic energy. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Evaluation of RC Active Filters for Hybrid Thick Film Implementation

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 273 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The resistance-capacitance (RC) active simulation of low sensitivity inductance--capacitance (LC) ladder filters has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Most known methods for the design of either RC active driving point impedances or general impedance converters (GIC's) use the well-known two opamp structure of Antoniou. Recently, some general second-order driving point impedances using only one opamp were introduced. In this paper both structures are considered for hybrid thick film implementation. They are compared with respect to sensitivity to component tolerances and tuning errors, and a method is given for optimizing the single opamp driving point branches with a view to realization in hybrid thick film form. Furthermore, a method is developed that permits the substrate area requirements of thick film RC active filters to be assessed. Finally, sensitivity and substrate area performance functions are introduced and applied, providing an "optimized" design of single opamp branches. Using the methods reported in this paper, typical improvements of close to 40 percent in circuit yield and ten percent in substrate area were achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Environmental Effects on Copper Thick Film Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 250 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Performance and reliability of copper thick film microcircuits have been investigated under ambient and accelerated aging environments. Results of the multilayer circuits tested at ambient conditions have demonstrated their quality performance in both unprotected as well as hermetically packaged systems. Performance of these microcircuits match and in some aspects surpass the functional behavior of conventional gold thick film hybrids. Since copper is inherently more reactive than noble materials, close attention has been given to oxidation, corrosion, and migration under elevated temperature/humidity conditions both with and without electrical biasing. Observations of unprotected copper multilayer microcircuits showed that exposure to high humidity promotes oxidation, lowers insulation resistance, reduces breakdown voltage, increases the dissipation factors, and under specific conditions develops electrical shorts. Comparable tests using conventional gold thick film hybrids showed similar electrical behavior but to a lesser degree. Moisture sensitivity in multilayer structui'es has been directly correlated with the dielectric porosity and is dependent on both material composition and processing relationships. Electrical insulation properties of thick film dielectrics are basically controlled by the glass type, refractory materials, and the formulation ratio. Processing in neutral atmosphere furnaces introduces some constraints on the choice of paste vehicles in that total pyrolysis is necessary to achieve nonporous microstructures. Because of the demonstrated moisture sensitivity and potential activity of copper thick film materials, hermetic packaging is advised for high reliability applications. The use of conformal coatings and/or thick film encapsulants will reduce oxidation, modify corrosion behavior, and prevent electrical shorts caused by condensation, but will not entirely eliminate changes in electrical properties due to moisture permeation of the thick film dielectrics. Research and engineering efforts are continuing tO develop low porosity dielectrics, to identify encapsulant materials for protection from moisture, and to improve long-term reliability of copper thick film microcircuits. View full abstract»

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  • X-Ray and Microscopic Investigations of Resistors Containing CdO and RuO2

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 245 - 249
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the crystalline phases of cadmium and ruthenium present after processing thick film resistors formulated from CdO, RuO2, and cadmium-lead-barium borate glass. On firing a phase with diffraction pattern characteristic of the pyrochlore-structure type is formed through reaction of RuO2and the modifying ions present in the glass. The observed cubic lattice parameter a0 corresponds closely to that reported for Pb2Ru206. The observed decrease in RuO2 correlated well with variations in resistance associated with changes in the firing temperature. It was observed that increased CdO content resulted in deterioration of the stability of the thick film resistors formed. Scanning electron microscopy showed that resistors high in CdO showed a higher concentration of voids than those formed from composites containing 70-80 percent glass. View full abstract»

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  • Chip Carriers Mounted on Large Thick Film Multilayer Boards

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 268 - 272
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    Two memory systems with 8 MHz clock frequency have been designed. One system contains 67 chip carriers mounted on an alumina substrate 9 x 12.5 cm and the other system contains 79 chip carriers mounted on an alumina substrate 9 x 14 cm. The experiences from the prototype manufacturing and testing are reported. Electrical measurements are made and the signals are compared with the same signals in a wire-wrapped prototype. Comparisons are also made with the capacitances usual in epoxy multilayer boards (MLB's). From an electrical point of view the ceramic multilayer boards made with thick film technique have both advantages and disadvantages compared with epoxy two-sided and multi!ayer boards. Thermal measurements are reported and a building technique is presented which allows a very powerful airborne computer consisting of 650 chip carriers to be built occupying a volume of 3 x 16 x 23 cm, i.e., 1.1 liters. It is shown that the combination of this building system with the chip carriers mounted on big alumina substrates give a system which is very reliable and occupies a very small volume compared with conventional technique (dual in-line packages (DIP's) and printed circuit boards (PCB's)). Yet the total hardware cost of the system is the same or lower for the chip carrier system as for the conventional system. View full abstract»

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  • The Design of Composite Resistors

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 261 - 267
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    The design of composite systems in order to achieve desirable resistor properties is discussed, with regard to obtaining a wide range of resistance by means of simple variation of the proportion of the constituents. The subsequent temperature dependence, electrical noise, and stability are also discussed along with the structure and properties of commercial thick film printed resistors for comparison. Experimental results, based mainly on the arc plasma spraying preparation of thick films, are also presented, in which attempts were made at achieving a suitable physical structure, required by design considerations. Although a commercially practical system was not obtained, some interesting insight has been gained into the viability of processes such as arc plasma spraying as competitors to the conventional screen printing techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Cadmium Oxide Thick Film Resistors

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 239 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Use of cadmium oxide as a nonprecious conducting material for thick film resistors was investigated. Screen printed resistors were evaluated over a firing temperature range of 630°C to 760°C. By adjusting the ratio of cadmium oxide to glass, the sheet e resistance could be varied from about 1 k Omeg / Box$^b to 1 M Omeg / Box$^b . The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) was typically -500 ppm/ °C, regardless of the amount and type of glass employed in the resistor compositions. It was shown that small amounts of RuO2 or Pb2Ru206, added separately or together, to the resistor compositions, reduced the sheet resistance several orders of magnitude and changed the TCR from a negative to positive value. Through proper adjustment of the ratio of CdO to RuO2, TCR's of approximately zero were achieved. Through use of a CdO/RuO2functional phase in conjunction with a lead-cadmium glass system, sheet resistances ranging from about 10 Omeg / Box$^b to 100 k Omeg / Box$^b with controllable TCR's were obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Preliminary Studies of Tin and Tin Rich Coatings as Electrical Contact Materials

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 294 - 303
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The soaring price of gold has led the gold-using industries to search for alternative materials. Gold plating on electrical connectors and circuit boards has been commonplace, and in some cases, the only viable material. However in other cases its use is an unnecessary expense. Tin and tin alloy coatings have been used extensively in the electronics industry, particularly to confer solderability to the substrate, and many people have seen them as possible alternatives to gold plating in a number of connector applications. First the literature on the properties of tin and tin alloys pertaining to their use as contact materials is reviewed, including some information regarding contact resistance and the effects of atmospheric pollutants. Second, some of the basic theory regarding contact resistance are reviewed; and last, an experimental procedure devised to provide basic contact resistance and data on different tin-based coatings for different loads using conical, hemispherical, and chisel shaped indenters are described. The results of these measurements are reported and compared with gold-plated finishes. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope