Smart Cities:Foundations, Principles, and Applications

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2017
Author(s): Houbing Song; Ravi Srinivasan; Tamim Sookoor; Sabina Jeschke
Book Type: Wiley Telecom
Content Type : Books
Topics: Aerospace ;  Communication, Networking & Broadcasting ;  Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Computing & Processing ;  Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics ;  Photonics & Electro-Optics ;  Signal Processing & Analysis ;  Transportation
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Abstract

Provides the foundations and principles needed for addressing the various challenges of developing smart cities

Smart cities are emerging as a priority for research and development across the world. They open up significant opportunities in several areas, such as economic growth, health, wellness, energy efficiency, and transportation, to promote the sustainable development of cities. This book provides the basics of smart cities, and it examines the possible future trends of this technology. Smart Cities: Foundations, Principles, and Applications provides a systems science perspective in presenting the foundations and principles that span multiple disciplines for the development of smart cities.

Divided into three parts—foundations, principles, and applications—Smart Cities addresses the various challenges and opportunities of creating smart cities and all that they have to offer. It also covers smart city theory modeling and simulation and examines case studies of existing smart cities from all around the world. In addition, the book:

  • Addresses how to develop a smart city and how to present the state of the art and practice of them all over the world
  • Focuses on the foundations and principles needed for advancing the science, engineering, and technology of smart cities—including system design, system verification, real-time control and adaptation, Internet of Things, and test beds
  • Covers applications of smart cities as they relate to smart transportation/connected vehicle (CV) and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for improved mobility, safety, and environmental protection

Smart Cities: Foundations, Principles, and Applications is a welcome reference for the many researchers and professionals working on the development of smart cities and smart city-related industries.

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      Front Matter

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      The prelims comprise: Half‐Title Page Title Page Copyright Page Table of Contents Editors Biographies List of Contributors Foreword Preface Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Cyber–Physical Systems in Smart Cities – Mastering Technological, Economic, and Social Challenges

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      The “smart city” notion has become synonymous with visions of future urban development, which is marked by the widespread digitization of services. A major objective of smart cities is to achieve triple sustainability in social, economic, and environmental issues. This chapter intends to broaden the conceptual and analytical views, as is required for effective policy making, by employing the perspectives of economic geography to cyber‐physical system (CPS)‐supported smart city development. It then highlights social challenges of CPS‐based smart city development that relate to aspects of acceptability, qualification, and adaptation. The chapter further explores how visions of smart city developments could potentially profit from using CPS applications in order to enhance system efficiency. Finally, it explains how the process fields of CPS‐enhanced smart city formation are embedded in wider economic contexts on a regional, national, and global scale, and it also raises issues of social acceptability. View full abstract»

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      Big Data Analytics Processes and Platforms Facilitating Smart Cities

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      Information technology (IT), especially data analytics, along with a flexible and futuristic strategy is to play a very critical role in shaping up the sliding and sagging cities. This chapter discusses how big data analytics (BDA) serves immeasurably and immaculately for the faster realization and sustenance of next‐generation cities. It is designed for demystifying the hidden niceties and ingenuities of the raging BDA. Integrated big data platforms are essential in order to automate several tasks enshrined in the data capture, analysis, and knowledge discovery processes. New advancements in the form of predictive and prescriptive analytics are emerging fast with the maturity and stability of big data technologies, platforms, infrastructures, tools, and finally a cornucopia of sophisticated data mining and analysis algorithms. Thus, platforms need to be fitted with new features, functionalities, and facilities in order to provide next‐generation insights. View full abstract»

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      Multi‐Scale Computing for a Sustainable Built Environment

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      The need to promote sustainable human settlements and to mitigate the spatial, demographic, social, economic, and environmental impacts, determined by the rapid global urbanization trend, is creating a concentration of research and development efforts in the built environment area. Considering the urbanization trend at the global level, cities constitute a priority for research and development in sustainability transitions, which should necessarily face techno‐ and socio economic problems. Energy use and technology affect sustainability in its fundamental components, society, environment, and economy. This chapter introduces readers to the concept of multi‐level perspective modeling in sustainability transitions planning. It describes the most relevant characteristics and attributes of modeling techniques and data schemes for built environment performance modeling. The chapter also describes ongoing research on multi‐scale computing for the built environment. Finally, it discusses the essential features of methodological and computational tools for the built environment. View full abstract»

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      Autonomous Radios and Open Spectrum in Smart Cities

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      This chapter discusses the needs and challenges of future smart cities and the critical role wireless devices play in conveying the information needed to operate the smart cities. It shows that the open spectrum regime provides a compelling solution to the demands of having a connected city, that cognitive radio (CR) is the solution to exploit this free spectrum, and that the frequency envelope modulation (FEM) and network organization scheme provides a way for CRs to effectively form ad hoc networks in an efficient manner. Smart cities essentially require augmenting a city's existing infrastructure with an advanced command and control network to control the flow of resources. The issues relating to resource sharing have been studied extensively in the literature. At the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers, spectrum sensing, spectrum handoff, and spectrum management are fundamental issues. View full abstract»

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      Mobile Crowd‐Sensing for Smart Cities

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      This chapter reviews the literature of mobile crowd‐sensing (MCS) for smart cities is reviewed thoroughly including motivation, possible applications, and issues that are key to successful deployment of such services. It discusses the challenges of crowd‐sensing in the context of smart city followed by a brief overview of existing frameworks. The chapter also discusses the issues regarding task assignment, user profiling and trustworthiness, design of incentive mechanisms, localized analytics, and security and privacy. While crowd‐sourcing is aimed to utilize collective intelligence of the crowd to solve complex tasks by breaking them down to smaller tasks, crowd‐sensing splits the responsibility of gathering correct information to the crowd. Toward this, a geo‐social model of MCS is proposed. This model is based on a distributed architecture for task design, assessment, and execution. McSense is a framework that is also proposed for MCS. This framework talks about monetary or service incentives given to users. View full abstract»

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      Wide‐Area Monitoring and Control of Smart Energy Cyber‐Physical Systems (CPS)

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      This chapter presents the stabilization aspect of energy cyber‐physical systems (CPSs). It focuses on wide‐area monitoring and control of smart grids, which is enabled by remote signals communicated from the phasor measurement units (PMUs) to the control center through a phasor data concentrator (PDC). The chapter gives a brief introduction of wide‐area control, and discusses the challenges and opportunities in the areas of wide‐area monitoring, wide‐area damping control, and wind farms (WFs). It also presents solutions to these problems. The chapter further presents a case study for latency compensation in wide‐area control using the phasor approach. The idea of the phasor approach is to extract the oscillatory component(s) as space phasor(s) in synchronously rotating d‐q reference frame(s). This approach is used for estimation of modal frequency, damping, and relative mode shape in near real time during transient conditions. View full abstract»

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      Smart Technologies and Vehicle‐to‐X (V2X) Infrastructures for Smart Mobility Cities

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      The vehicle‐to‐X (V2X) infrastructure plays a vital role in connecting individual vehicles that travel across the smart city. Smart traffic routing and advising services are both essential components of a smart traffic system. To study the technological challenges of integrating these into an efficient smart city infrastructure, this chapter is organized as follows: various aspects of data communications within a smart city are presented followed by the economic aspects of infrastructural deployment. It then takes a closer look at the issues as well as the benefits of connecting each and every vehicle in a smart city environment. It further takes a brief look at selected case studies in telemedicine, green city, intelligent transportation, and autonomous vehicles. The chapter ends with a discussion on vehicular communications infrastructure interoperability and reliability such that the network can be made scalable to cater for future expansion in terms of both increased traffic volume and area of coverage. View full abstract»

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      Smart Ecology of Cities: Integrating Development Impacts on Ecosystem Services for Land Parcels

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      This chapter discusses the state of building‐ and urban‐scale sustainability assessment systems and what questions the concept of smart ecology for cities addresses, and describes a novel means of accounting for urban ecosystem services using a case study site. Ecosystem services are included in the form of carbon sequestration, PM10 removal, and other greenhouse gas removal that can be quantified while also determining the health and density of tree cover. The chapter provides details on the methodology used to calculate carbon sequestration, drainage, and PM10 filtration for Alachua County land parcels. It also discusses the implementation of development impacts in the dynamic‐sustainability information modeling (Dynamic‐SIM) platform. The chapter further details the assumptions and limitations that are inherent to the method that was developed, as well as speculating on potential extensions to the model that can be pursued in the future. View full abstract»

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      Data‐Driven Modeling, Control, and Tools for Smart Cities

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      This chapter first presents a method called demand response‐advisor (DR‐Advisor), which acts as a recommender system for the building's facilities manager and provides the power consumption prediction and control actions for meeting the required load curtailment and maximizing the economic reward. Using historical meter and weather data along with set point and schedule information, DR‐Advisor builds a family of interpretable regression trees to learn non parametric data‐driven models for predicting the power consumption of the building. The chapter also presents how data‐driven algorithms can be used for the problems associated with DR and a new algorithm to perform control with regression trees for synthesizing DR strategies. It then describes the MATLAB‐based DR‐Advisor toolbox and provides a comprehensive case study with DR‐Advisor using data from several real buildings. Finally, it summarizes the authors' results and a discussion about future directions. View full abstract»

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      Bringing Named Data Networks into Smart Cities

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      This chapter describes the recently proposed Future Internet architectures followed by insight and discussion on named data networking (NDN). It also describes the possible applicability of NDN in smart cities and its potentials. To date, Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) proposed a promising Future Internet architecture named as CCN. The NDN is providing its part to further enhance CCN project and is funded by the US Future Internet Architecture program. The chapter also summarizes the current advancements in the field of CNN and named data networks that are relevant to the smart cities. CCN claims and focuses on securing the content using public key encryption rather than the connection, which means that it promises that the content is same as it asserts. Finally, the chapter provides variant application scenarios for NDN‐enabled smart cities and future research road map for researchers. View full abstract»

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      Human Context Sensing in Smart Cities

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      This chapter discusses the concept of human context sensing, the definitions of the four main types of human contexts, and the current technological sensing mechanisms. The types of human context sensing are physiological sensing, emotive sensing, functional sensing, and location sensing. Together, these facets capture the mental states, physical body conditions, lifestyles, and location of individuals. The goals and applications for each category unify in improving the quality of life of an individual by monitoring different aspects of life that can help the smart city provide an individual with the right level of assistance and facilities. the chapter also discusses the impact of the four main technological thrusts in each category of human context sensing: video and audio, wearables, smartphones, and environmental sensing. Each type of technology has a unique set of sensing abilities as well as constraints. Additionally, each has practical uses, costs, and privacy implications for use in a smart city. View full abstract»

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      Smart Cities and the Symbiotic Relationship between Smart Governance and Citizen Engagement

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      This chapter recognizes that cities are at the forefront of innovation and are increasingly competing for scarce resources. It suggests that for smart cities to succeed they must facilitate human connection. This can be achieved through smart governance, circumspect implementation of the tenants of smart cities, along with human‐centered planning and design. The daily experiences of a city's population represent an often‐untapped source of knowledge about how the city could be improved. Tapping into this knowledge base is essential for smart governance. The symbiotic relationship between citizen engagement and smart governance is explored through a case study on Somerville, Massachusetts. Somerville, Massachusetts, exemplifies the possibility of municipal leadership and urban innovation. Citizen engagement insures that hyperlocal insights can be leveraged to inform the system and identify leverage points for community improvements and growth. Smart governance is needed to facilitate this fine‐grained engagement and to maximize the use of smart cities technology. View full abstract»

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      Smart Economic Development

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      Smart economic development is dependent upon holistic and routine evaluation of economic and societal frameworks. These frameworks need to be assessed and modified as part of an ongoing continuous improvement process. This chapter describes the relationship between smart economic development and sustainability. It prompts evaluation in the mechanics of sustainability‐focused education. It also establishes the view that the measurement of success of smart economic development may not be captured in present, standardly used metrics, namely, gross domestic product (GDP), given that the underlying values that support GDP expansion may be inconsistent with the success parameters associated with sustainability. The chapter also discusses the significance of culture, specifically conscious consumption in enabling sustainable outcomes. Establishment of rational agent decision‐making and responsible conscious consumption provides the conduit for paradigm shifting from consumerism to sustainability. View full abstract»

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      Managing the Cyber Security Life‐Cycle of Smart Cities

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      This chapter considers the key services of smart city: smart transportation, smart grid, smart water management, and smart healthcare. Smart city functionalities are enabled by a wide variety of technologies across different service sectors. The chapter discusses some of the important and widely used ones. It deals with cyber security and privacy issues associated with different services of smart city. The chapter also discusses the different phases of cyber security and privacy management life cycle. It further proposes a life‐cycle approach to manage the various phases of cyber security of smart cities. Risk assessment is performed to identify and comprehend the risks that can potentially breach the cyber security of the smart city. The process of developing and deploying a proper cyber security program for a smart city is a continual process of analysis, design, implementation, monitoring, and adaptation to changing needs. View full abstract»

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      Mobility as a Service

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      This chapter introduces the concept of Mobility as a Service (Maas). Maas comprises a sophisticated conglomerate of heterogeneous transportation means, physical infrastructures, and information and communications technologies (ICTs) working in combination to enable citizens to reach their destinations efficiently. Smart cities are those urban areas that make use of the available ICT with the aim of creating public value that in turn improves the quality of life of their citizens. This chapter intends to summarize the functionalities, technologies, and representative projects arisen in the field over the last years. It discusses the functional and technical aspects of MaaS systems. The chapter also describes the changes in attitudes and mind in regard to mobility behind the new generation of Millennials, the role of physical transportation infrastructures and ICTs to provide interoperable mobility solutions, the appearance of autonomous and connected vehicles, and the mobility from the perspective of sharing economy. View full abstract»

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      Clustering and Fuzzy Reasoning as Data Mining Methods for the Development of Retrofit Strategies for Building Stocks

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      This chapter discusses the application of hierarchical agglomerative clustering and fuzzy reasoning as data mining methods for the building stock management and strategic planning. It familiarizes the reader with data mining methods for the development of effective retrofit strategies for a building stock, including energy efficiency measures (EEMs) and automated network identification (ANI) for smart energy networks. Applied data mining methods identify groups of buildings for exactly defined purposes, that is, to find buildings that react similarly to retrofitting measures. This allows for the development of intelligent systemic strategies instead of isolated approaches to individual buildings. The chapter also identifies the benefits and methodological differences between sparse information approaches, that is, the type‐age classification, and novel approaches based on information available from building catalogs and databases, measurements, as well as data mining methods in smart city contexts. View full abstract»

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      A Framework to Achieve Large Scale Energy Savings for Building Stocks through Targeted Occupancy Interventions

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      This chapter presents a framework that defines the relationship between occupants' energy use characteristics and the effectiveness of occupancy‐focused intervention strategies. This approach will lead to the design of cost‐effective and efficient energy policy tools for large‐scale energy savings in building stocks (e.g., university campus, community, and city). This framework will also help in encouraging pro‐environmental behavior for occupants in a stock of buildings and providing a more sustainable behavior pattern. This framework adopted MOA approach from the consumer and social marketing field to establish an analogy that enables occupancy‐focused intervention strategies to encourage the building occupants to adopt the desired energy use characteristics. To identify occupants' MOA level preexposure to occupancy‐focused interventions, an online survey was distributed to the occupants in the case study building. This survey includes 39 questions and focuses on evaluating occupants' control level on energy systems, office environment conditions, energy conservation motivation level, and energy conservation knowledge level. View full abstract»

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      Sustainability in Smart Cities: Balancing Social, Economic, Environmental, and Institutional Aspects of Urban Life

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      This chapter first introduces the concept of sustainability and its dimensions, and then focuses on the assessment of sustainability, its current practices, and the existing limitations and shortcomings. It also provides a complete list of smart cities' definitions from perspective of various stakeholders. The chapter further discusses how the concept of sustainability has been adopted and integrated in such definitions, and how smart cities can help in improving limitations in sustainability assessment. The initial definitional focus of the concept of smart cities was on the significance of ICT with regard to modern infrastructures within cities. Later, some experts criticized such definitions as being too technically oriented and suggested to add a strong governance‐oriented approach that emphasizes the role of social capital and governance into this conceptual framework. Finally, the chapter defines a smart city as a city where information and communication technology (ICT) is used to achieve a balanced and intergenerational sustainability in urban life. View full abstract»

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      Toward Resilience of the Electric Grid

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      Electric grids play critical roles in urban operation, providing electricity to citizens and supporting other critical infrastructures. This chapter discusses various questions for building a resilient electric grid in smart cities by presenting both real examples and technical principles of power systems' response to cyber and physical threats. It also presents a comprehensive classification of cyber attacks: control attack, monitoring attack, control‐monitoring (CM) attack, and monitoring‐control (MC) attack. Defending against threats to electric grids includes three stages: detecting the existence of the threats, identifying the types and sources of the threats, and mitigating the negative impacts from the threats. The focus of technology development in each stage may depend on the nature of threats. Finally, the chapter distinguishes the concepts of reliability (which could be enhanced by optimally increasing the redundancy of power delivery equipment of the electric grid) and resilience (which requires more sophisticated and intelligent analysis and operation in real‐time). View full abstract»

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      Smart Energy and Grid: Novel Approaches for the Efficient Generation, Storage, and Usage of Energy in the Smart Home and the Smart Grid Linkup

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      This chapter presents novel approaches for the efficient generation, storage, and usage of energy in the smart home environment and their link to the smart grid. It also demonstrates innovative concepts and their feasibility for these purposes. The generation of renewable energy on the level of individual homes and housing estates is achieved by aerodynamically and aeroacoustically optimized small wind turbines as well as combined heat and power (CHP) micro plants using organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) to complement solar energy. The chapter further discusses the intelligent distribution of electric energy between the smart home and the smart grid. In order to tackle the transition of the electric power supply toward a renewable‐based generation plant system, it is necessary to fully exploit locally available energy sources and to generate production surpluses in rural areas for the supply of urban agglomerations and industrial centers. View full abstract»

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      Building Cyber‐Physical Systems – A Smart Building Use Case

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      This chapter explores the concept of smart home and smart building based on internet‐of‐things (IoT) and cyber‐physical system (CPS) technologies. By reviewing the challenges of the smart home vision, it highlights that CPS‐based smart environments are best suited to support the integration of heterogeneous devices with different application domains and architectures. To illustrate the concept of a CPS‐based smart building installation with self‐configuration and self‐organization abilities, the chapter presents implementation of smart home use cases based on the paradigms of “Industry 4.0”. In addition, it also analyzes and discusses the performance of the implemented prototype. The concept of “Industry 4.0” provides a vision for the application of CPS in industrial automation. The chapter then proposes an approach based on OPC unified architecture (OPC UA) that supports self‐description by using a common ontology and self‐organization through the use of multi‐agent systems (MAS) theory. View full abstract»

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      Climate Resilience and the Design of Smart Buildings

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      This chapter discusses various efforts at curbing emissions and processes by which the mitigation targets can be realized. It also discusses the impact of future climate variation on building energy use and identifies a method to incorporate climate resilience planning as part of the design process. Reducing energy use offers an optimum path to build resilience to changing climate by lowering grid dependency for normal building operation. This effort should first begin with the design community. High performance building design should be based on customized local strategies rather than one‐size‐fits‐all approach, but has not been viewed in this light by policymakers. This oversight presents a serious limitation in current industry practices, since there are no policies or guidelines for architects and engineers to incorporate the most adaptive design upgrades in their building projects. The chapter illustrates this limitation through three case studies. View full abstract»

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      Smart Audio Sensing‐Based HVAC Monitoring

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      This chapter proposes a Smart Audio SEnsing‐based Maintenance (SASEM) system that has a single unifying intellectual focus, that is, enabling predictive maintenance of building equipment by autonomously monitoring and analyzing their acoustic emissions. Through SASEM, it aims to develop and mature the science of using acoustic signals for system assessment prognosis of centralized HVAC systems. Acoustic data of centralized HVAC systems is gathered in real time and processed for environmental decision making from four buildings ‐ the three are in the University of Florida (UFL) campus and the fourth is the Flexible Research Platform situated in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) campus. The chapter also proposes novel hardware and middleware for audio data gathering using wireless acoustic sensor networks and cloud computing and effective machine learning‐based classifiers to identify acoustic characteristics of building equipment. View full abstract»

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      Smart Lighting

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      This chapter discusses the concept of smart lighting in smart cities, its development, and its applications. The development of smart lighting technique consists of two stages. The first stage is that the conventional bulbs are replaced by the new technology, light‐emitting diodes (LEDs). The second stage of development of smart lighting is the lighting control algorithm. Adaptive lighting control solutions are the aims for this stage to make smart lighting system have higher performance efficiency, satisfy users' illumination requirements, and provide wireless network connections. Smart lighting technique is one of the most significant branches in smart cities, which can be used in many aspects such as dimmable outdoor environment lighting, vehicle safety, indoor illumination and communications, smart lighting positioning, and so on. The chapter also introduces indoor smart lighting communication principles, power allocation algorithms, and practice considerations. It further defines smart lighting system as a combination system, which includes illumination, safety alarm, positioning, and communication. View full abstract»

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      Large Scale Air‐Quality Monitoring in Smart and Sustainable Cities

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      This chapter presents a novel cloud‐based approach to the problem in air quality monitoring. This approach can be easily extended to other types of environmental monitoring in smart cities. The chapter guides readers through the design of two sensor front ends ‐ a stationary air quality sensor that connects to the cloud via Ethernet and GPRS and a portable sensor that connects to the smartphone via Bluetooth 4.0. It also describes the design of APIs, interfaces, and web services for the third‐party developers to create applications on top of this systems. The chapter further introduces a combination of data analysis and machine learning techniques for signal conditioning, sensor calibration, and inference. A novel client‐cloud system, called AirCloud, is used to address the numerous challenges in city‐scale air quality monitoring that is both accurate and affordable. AirCloud uses a heterogeneous set of data sources as inputs. View full abstract»

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      The Smart City Production System

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      This chapter explores manufacturing in the smart city, and presents a framework that integrates distributed manufacturing with smart city technologies (such as big data and the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)). This framework aims to explore the interplay of smart city technology with production organization and design. The following are the interplay of smart city technologies with four production system characteristics: network design, manufacturing, distribution, and service. The chapter builds on the post‐Fordist and Toyota Production System (TPS) production system paradigms to focus on the development of the smart city production system. This is identified in the matrix and has been characterized by flexible and low scale production runs. There are low levels of inventory as the point of production is located close to consumption points and within city boundaries (local production). View full abstract»

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      Smart Health Monitoring Using Smart Systems

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      This chapter discusses the concept of using smart grid technologies for applications beyond their intended use. It mainly focuses on one key and important element of the smart grid, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The AMI provides bidirectional communication between the consumer and the rest of the smart grid. Smart meters are seen as one of the most important components of the AMI and smart grid. The chapter investigates the use of smart meters for the behavioral analysis of individual patients with healthcare conditions. Utilizing smart meter data provides the ability to detect changes in: sleep patterns; eating; activity; social interaction; routines; and behavioral changes. Detecting changes in behavior, routine, and immobility is possible by monitoring a patient's electricity usage. This, in turn, enables earlier intervention, where needed, and the possibility for independent living. Finally, the chapter highlights how the data can be utilized to achieve different monitoring applications. View full abstract»

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      Significance of Automated Driving in Japan

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      This chapter discusses the issues specific to the automated driving systems and the near‐future market introduction, including a short history and the expected benefits of automated driving systems, and the significance of automated driving systems of road vehicles in Japan. Japan has a long history in the research and development of automated driving systems of not only passenger cars but also heavy trucks, transit buses, and small low‐speed vehicles. Fully automated vehicles have technological, legal, and institutional issues to overcome; therefore, the safety validation of fully automated vehicles will require tremendously long‐distance driving tests, which must be undertaken during almost all kinds of weather. The chapter discusses the introduction of automated truck platoons and automated small, low‐speed vehicles for vulnerable road users, that is, after an introduction is given about the population issues in Japan. Therefore, automation in these types of vehicles is very necessary. View full abstract»

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      Environmental‐Assisted Vehicular Data in Smart Cities

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      This chapter discusses the concept of location proof for vehicular trajectory data in smart cities. Compared to location‐based services or mobile social networks, the moving trajectories of vehicles within a region are more predicable due to traffic restrictions. Regarding the aspects of security and privacy, this unique feature makes the construction of verifiable vehicular data indexes become cheaper than that of a series of location proofs in a mobile social network, which is strongly dependent on the cryptographic keys among different participants. The chapter also presents a detailed framework by using the wireless signals from roadside units (RSUs) to generate the location proof. It then discusses the use of environmental factors to develop “evidence of presence” for the intelligent vehicle system. It further considers how to use the measured wireless signal from RSUs to verify and index data, and also discusses the optimal RSU placement problem and the location‐time synchronization problem among RSUs. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Copyright Year: 2017

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      Provides the foundations and principles needed for addressing the various challenges of developing smart cities

      Smart cities are emerging as a priority for research and development across the world. They open up significant opportunities in several areas, such as economic growth, health, wellness, energy efficiency, and transportation, to promote the sustainable development of cities. This book provides the basics of smart cities, and it examines the possible future trends of this technology. Smart Cities: Foundations, Principles, and Applications provides a systems science perspective in presenting the foundations and principles that span multiple disciplines for the development of smart cities.

      Divided into three parts—foundations, principles, and applications—Smart Cities addresses the various challenges and opportunities of creating smart cities and all that they have to offer. It also covers smart city theory modeling and simulation and examines case studies of existing smart cities from all around the world. In addition, the book:

      • Addresses how to develop a smart city and how to present the state of the art and practice of them all over the world
      • Focuses on the foundations and principles needed for advancing the science, engineering, and technology of smart cities—including system design, system verification, real-time control and adaptation, Internet of Things, and test beds
      • Covers applications of smart cities as they relate to smart transportation/connected vehicle (CV) and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for improved mobility, safety, and environmental protection

      Smart Cities: Foundations, Principles, and Applications is a welcome reference for the many researchers and professionals working on the development of smart cities and smart city-related industries. View full abstract»