Gas Insulated Substations

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2014
Author(s): Hermann J. Koch
Book Type: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books
Topics: Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas ;  Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
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Abstract

Gas Insulated Substations is an all-inclusive reference guide to gas insulated substations (GIS) which takes account of its basic principles, technology, application, design specification, testing and ownership issues. Practical and theoretical aspects are handled by acknowledged GIS experts who have been involved with the technology from the start. They provide the reader with the knowledge needed to identify a project with GIS, manage the GIS process and then assemble and later maintain that system. This learning resource offers engineering students and manufacturing professionals a sound insight into this important technology at a time when application of GIS is spreading as fresh projects are being launched and more companies are becoming involved.

Key features:

  • Written by leading GIS experts who have been involved in the development of the technology since its invention
  • Discusses both the practical and theoretical aspects of GIS
  • Details dvanced and basic material, accessible for both existing GIS users and those planning to implement the technology
  • Chapters are written as tutorials and provide helpful references for further reading and study
  • Invaluable guide to practicing electrical, mechanical and civil engineers as well as third and fourth year electric power engineering students

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      Front Matter

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      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Contents
      List of Contributors
      Foreword
      Acknowledgements View full abstract»

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      Introduction

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      This introductory chapter of this book focuses on the tutorial and panel sessions presented by the experts of gas insulated substations in the working group K2 of the IEEE Substations Committee. In this working group the content of the tutorial has been worked out and discussed before the tutorials have been presented. In the present case, the tutorial content will be revised and finally published as a GIS Handbook. The GIS Handbook is based on definitions used in IEEE and IEC standards. The chapter lists some of the most important definitions for better understanding of the hand book. Finally, it discusses the purpose of ratings to correctly apply GIS equipment based on electric system topology and characteristics while reducing the variety of technical possibilities and guiding manufacturers. These ratings provide standardized solutions that are recognized across the industry and reduce cost.

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      Basic Information

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      The first gas insulated switchgear (GIS) assemblies were designed for high voltage levels in the 1920s using oil as the insulating medium. This chapter provides a brief and simplified explanation of GIS and gaseous insulation physics. The failure distributions of the single components of GIS have been investigated for circuit breakers (CB), disconnect and earthing/grounding switches (DS/GS), and instrument transformers (IT). It describes each of the basic design elements such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas, conductors, enclosures, solid support insulators, conductor contacts, and enclosure joints. Next each functional component will be described. The arrangement of the components to match typical electrical one-lines will then be explained. Personnel safety holds a very high priority status when operating a GIS.

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      Technology

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      The gas insulated substations (GIS) technology is a continuous development process involving new materials, technical functionality, manufacturing processes, quality, and reliability improvements. The design of a GIS follows the rules of pressure vessel design with the exception of the repetitive pressure test after installation. The use of SF6 within the power energy supply is mainly driven by the gas insulated switchgear. To manufacture GIS special requirements related to high voltage conditions need to be fulfilled. GIS are assembled using standard equipment modules to construct a substation that matches the desired electrical one-line diagram of the substation. These standard modules include circuit breakers, current transformers, voltage transformers, disconnect switches, grounding switches, interconnecting bus, surge arresters, and connections to the surrounding power system, such as SF6 gas-to-air bushings, cable sealing ends, and transformer interface modules.

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      Control and Monitoring

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      This chapter covers monitoring topics including gas monitoring, partial discharge measurements, and circuit breaker monitoring. The control topics of bay controllers and control schemes are also covered. A special topic, related to digital monitoring in substations, is also discussed. The chapter covers the types of defect causing partial discharges, and gives information on partial discharge measuring methods, where electric and acoustic, chemical specific strategies of partial discharge monitoring with GIS are explained. It explains current and voltage or potential transformer wiring including a mimic diagram and the function of the bay controller with all its basic functions. Control schemes of different mode selections and interlockings are given and examples are shown. The chapter explains basic digital communication standards and their relations to other standards. It defines switchgear related communication standards of GIS, and explains the locations of the controls in the GIS and their timing operations.

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      Testing

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      The testing is determined to confirm the technical data as well as safe operation of the gas insulated substations (GIS) over its life duration. Related to the GIS use, the main tests are dielectric tests; short-circuit tests, mechanical tests and temperature rise tests. Two different test procedures apply: type tests and routine tests. As an important step in the development of a GIS, type tests were carried out to verify the performance of the GIS. The routine tests are performed for each GIS after assembly and marks a major quality gate before the GIS leaves the factory. The test parameters are based on the type test results, which means that, within certain tolerances, the routine tests need to reflect the type test data.

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      Installation

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      In this chapter, practical information has been collected from hundreds of GIS projects over the last thirty years. The assembly of GIS equipment is complex and requires detailed planning and coordination of the work. Safety considerations and helpful assembly tips are provided. It describes that the individuals involved in the installation of GIS should be fully qualified, aware of the high voltage electrical and mechanical hazards, and the chemical handling aspects of the work. The project planning includes preliminary site surveys, core borings, security assessments, identification of environmentally sensitive areas, training etc. Visual inspections, testing for control of cables, bus leakage and gas quality checks, main circuit resistance measurement, mechanical switching checks, interlocking checks, grounding measurements are some of the recommended tests are explained.

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      Operation and Maintenance

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      This Chapter focuses on gas insulated substation (GIS) operations and maintenance. It provides practical experiences from existing GIS in use for more than 30 years. The chapter explains the nature and sources of faults including their repair and advanced planning. Common maintenance procedures on measures to define the quality of the insulating gas SF6, visual and optical inspections, gas handling records, and leak detection methods are given. Information is given on the types of expected failures, which require repair of a GIS, how much time needs to be expected, and how service continuity is related to the design. Extensions, explains how a GIS can be extended after it has been installed and operated for many years. The chapter provides information about the definition of the interface between two GIS of different dimensions.

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      Applications

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      This chapter reflects various areas of gas insulated substation (GIS) applications during the last 40 years on a world-wide basis from the perspective of the world's leading manufacturers and users. An overview of layout concepts for GIS is given with single bus, double bus, ring bus, H-scheme, and breaker and half-scheme arrangements in principle. Several practical applications are shown and the reasons why GIS has been chosen in these cases are given. A case study is presented on how to expand an existing substation with a 500/230 kV GIS in a limited space and Mobile GIS solutions are also explained. The chapter provides examples of a gas insulated bus (GIB) and explains the possibilities of mixed technology substations. The chapter deals with different technical combinations of gas insulated and air insulated substation equipment.

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      Other Topics

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      This chapter includes subjects that are related to Gas Insulated Substations (GIS). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment is increasingly important in view of total life cycle assessment and the environmental impact assessment of the product during its entire life cycle, the commissioning and decommissioning processes and with consultations with authorities. Life cycle cost analysis is of relevance to initial purchasing when searching for the best and most economical solution. The chapter discusses the effects and influences of insulation coordination, and explains the impact of overvoltages and the grounding system. It examines the very fast transient (VFT) voltages and transient enclosure voltages (TEVs) for GIS, and details the planning issues for the project scope development. The chapter also explains the health and safety impact of GIS. The electric field in operation and during short circuit of GIS is also described.

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      Conclusion

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      Gas insulated switchgear or substations (GIS) have been successfully in use for almost 40 years with an increasing use world wide. High reliability and higher efficiency has been reached over the last four decades. The share of GIS of all projects world wide is increasing in comparison to air insulated substations and mixted technology substations reflects this situation in numbers. This conclusion chapter states that the book focuses on the general typically GIS solution, with many examples.

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      Further Reading

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      Index

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      Wiley End User License Agreement

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