Scheduled System Maintenance:
On May 6th, single article purchases and IEEE account management will be unavailable from 8:00 AM - 12:00 PM ET (12:00 - 16:00 UTC). We apologize for the inconvenience.
By Topic

Practical Power System Operation

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2014
Author(s): Vaahedi, E.
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Communication, Networking & Broadcasting ;  Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas ;  Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
  • Print
  •   Click to expandTable of Contents

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Front Matter

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.fmatter
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Series Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Dedicated Page
      Table of Contents
      Foreword
      Preface
      General Introduction View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Introduction

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch1
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The main objectives of power system operation are safety, reliability, and efficiency. The electricity deregulation in the last decade created a new landscape for the energy industry. This change coupled with the potential for increasing penetration of large amounts of integrated and variable generation and the move toward smart grid, including advancing generation, transmission, and distribution technologies as well as customer enablement technologies continue to increase the complexity of power system operation. In power system operation, there are three main actors: operator, process and technology. Operators are responsible to manage system operation with the objectives of safety, reliability, and operational efficiency. To fulfill their functions, operators need to develop business processes for each function. To enable and facilitate business processes, technology solutions are required. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) was established following the blackout of Northeast USA with the mandate of developing operation and planning reliability standards. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Power System Monitoring

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch2
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Power system monitoring is the most fundamental function of a system operator. Operators need to examine the prevailing system condition to establish whether the system is operating within acceptable thresholds. The decision system required for power system monitoring includes the infrastructure to measure signals such as voltages and reactive and active power flows, status of switches, and transferring them to the control center. The infrastructure used for measuring and transporting the information to the control is called Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system while the decision support tool that filters and recreates the missing information is called State Estimation. SCADA performs the two main functions of data acquisition and supervisory control. Recently, there have been methods developed that not only identify if a system is observable or not, they can identify how much a single measurement observes different state variables and basically comes up with quantitative observability. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Power System Scenario Analysis

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch3
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      While monitoring the prevailing operating conditions, an operator is constantly presented with situations in which he needs to make a decision on his next move. As part of the system operating order or process book, utilities document closely what the operational limits and thresholds are for their major substations, transmission lines, and transformers. They also document broadly the type of mitigating actions operators need to take to return the system to within these operating limits so as to remove problems such as voltage and power flow violations. The decision support system required for power system control includes the infrastructure to perform switching actions and a tool for scenario analysis. Different assumptions and specifications regarding the controls in a power flow can be used to represent different scenarios of the system. These scenarios include prefault and postfault system conditions. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Power System Posturing

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch4
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The process of posturing a power system after any credible condition involves the examination of the system after all credible contingencies establishing whether the system is operating within acceptable thresholds of substation voltage limits, transmission line thermal limits, and generator operating limits. There are two sets of technologies needed for static security posturing: contingency analysis application and implementation of remedial action schemes (RAS). Contingency selection and ranking is the most computationally demanding portion of contingency analysis and has been the focus of a lot of developmental effort. The contingencies to be considered for postfault security assessment depend on the utility and their observed reliability criteria. Contingency selection involves screening and ranking of the contingency cases. Contingency evaluation should be performed using a power flow. The power flow solution technique should be selected based on which method best satisfies all user requirements. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Power System Posturing

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch5
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      An operator needs to ensure that a power system can ride through any contingency without losing its angular stability glue keeping the generators together. The main question that the operator needs to answer is if the system will be OK after any credible contingency and to the extent that it is not, what actions he or she needs to take to posture the system so that it is operationally feasible. The process of posturing the power system for angular stability involves developing preventive and corrective measures without any manual interaction from operators after the contingencies. There are two sets of technologies needed for posturing angular stability: (i) angular stability assessment; and (ii) implementation of angular stability limits and remedial action schemes. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Power System Posturing

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch6
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The security of a power system is characterized by the presence of acceptable operating conditions before and after a contingency. It is also characterized by the ability of the system to ride through the contingency and to reach the postcontingency operating condition without becoming unstable. The operator needs to ensure that the system can ride through any contingency without becoming voltage-unstable. Voltage stability is a slower phenomenon than transient stability, taking normally a few minutes to make the system unstable after contingencies. Operators are provided with a combination of precontingency nomograms or operating condition constraints as well as corrective actions that must be activated to ensure system transient stability. There are two sets of technologies needed for voltage stability posturing: voltage stability assessment and implementation of voltage stability limits and remedial action schemes. This chapter provides some generalized guidelines for developing and applying security assessment methods. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Power System Generation Load Balance

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch7
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A fundamental responsibility of power system operators is to balance load and generation in real-time, where load represents the summation of system native load and the scheduled exchanges to other utilities. To balance load and generation in real-time, a power system operator needs to ensure that the automatic generation control (AGC) system that regulates a number of generating units to match generation to load is working within the North American Reliability Council's (NERC) established reliability standards. The objective of AGC is to balance generation and load on a minute-to-minute basis when operators do not have sufficient time to control generators. AGC system consists of two technology elements: (i) AGC application; and (ii) AGC infrastructure. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Power System Operation Optimization

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch8
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The application of optimization to power system generation operation constitutes the most significant element of power system optimization. This chapter covers the operator's questions and the processes associated with the time frames of operations planning and near real-time. Regardless of the utility model, the generation sufficiency objectives and processes are similar, as they focus on ensuring that there is sufficient generation for reliably operating the system in different time frames. These processes are elaborated in the chapter. The generation sufficiency process uses a general optimization engine developed for power systems called optimal power flow (OPF). OPF forms the fundamental engine of the electricity and ancillary services markets, as well as the conventional generation portfolio optimization solution. Generation sufficiency technology consists of two technology elements: (i) generation sufficiency applications; and (ii) generation sufficiency infrastructure. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      System Operation Control Centers

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch9
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter commences with a description of the criteria and required attributes of modern control centers. Then it focuses on the modern control center configurations providing the required redundancy. The modern control center configuration and design trend that satisfies the required attributes is described. The most fundamental attribute for a modern control center design is the service availability measured by service restoration time and yearly availability. For example, BC Hydro's modern control center design was based on a service restoration time of 15 minutes and a yearly availability of 99.95%. Redundancy at the control center is achieved through two different architectures: duplicate systems at the same site and duplicate control centers. With the advancement in technology, the trend for modern control center design has shifted to the consolidation of functions of transmission and distribution control centers to cut costs and achieve better coordination of operations across the power system. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Energy Management Systems

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch10
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Energy management systems (EMSs) are real-time computer systems that were initially introduced in the early 1970s to provide system operators with the means to manage the power system grid in a reliable and efficient manner. EMSs achieve their objectives by providing decision support systems and control means for generation and transmission systems. The EMS functionality can be divided into three categories: (i) system monitoring; (ii) decision support tools; (iii) control. The requirement of the EMS to provide high availability for critical functions forces a double redundant design or a quadruple design. The chapter illustrates how information flows from remote terminal units (RTUs) to the control centers. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Distribution Management System

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch11
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The objectives for distribution management system (DMS) implementation are: (i) enhancing safety by providing better visibility and control on system energization and de-energization; (ii) extending the useful life span of power system assets by properly managing their operation; (iii) improving system reliability by reducing system outage times; and (iv) enhancing system efficiency and optimizing the use of available resources. DMS functionality can be broadly divided system monitoring, decision support tools and control. The DMS acquires a significant number of real-time and near-real-time information about the current status, performance, and loading of distribution system power apparatus. The high availability requirement feature of the DMS for system operation critical functions forces a double redundant design or a quadruple design. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Evolving Power System Operation Solutions

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.ch12
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter covers the evolving and state of the art in power system operation solutions. These solutions, which cover different domains of transmission and distribution operation, have different levels of maturity and will be available for production deployment in different time frames. To provide context on the evolution maturity, the solutions presented in the chapter are categorized under the following three availability time frames: (i) readily available; (ii) mid term; and (iii) long term. Some of the power system operation solutions discussed in the chapter are: online transient stability, online voltage stability, total transfer capability (TTC) calculator, and transmission outage scheduling system. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Appendix A

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.app1
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      A.1 INTRODUCTION
      A.2 PHASOR REPRESENTATION
      A.3 PER-UNIT REPRESENTATION
      A.4 MATRIX ALGEBRA
      A.5 STEADY-STATE COMPONENT MODELING View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      References

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.refs
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.index
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

      Vaahedi, E.
      Practical Power System Operation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118915110.oth1
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»