Polarimetric Scattering and SAR Information Retrieval

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2013
Author(s): Ya-Qiu Jin; Feng Xu
Book Type: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books
Topics: Aerospace ;  Communication, Networking & Broadcasting ;  Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas ;  Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics ;  Signal Processing & Analysis
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Abstract

An essential reference on polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), this book uses scattering theory and radiative transfer theory as a basis for its treatment of topics. It is organized to include theoretical scattering models and SAR data analysis techniques, and presents cutting-edge research on theoretical modeling of terrain surface. The authors include quantitative approaches for remote sensing, such as the analysis of the Mueller matrix solution of random media, and mono-static and bistatic SAR image simulation. Jin and Xu also cover new parameters for unsupervised surface classification, DEM inversion, change detection from multi-temporal SAR images, reconstruction of building objects from multi-aspect SAR images, and polarimetric pulse echoes from multi-layering scatter media.

Structured to encourage methodical learning, earlier chapters cover core material, while later sections involve more advanced new topics which are important for researchers. The final chapter compl tes the book as a reference by covering SAR interferometry, a core topic in the remote sensing community.

The book is designed for researchers, engineers and scientists working on polarimetric SAR hardware and software, application developers of SAR and polarimetric SAR, and remote sensing specialists working with SAR data, using ESA, Radarsat and ALOS data. The book is also geared for a number of other related readers:

  • Users of the technology in agriculture, earth science, environmental sciences, forestry, oceanography
  • Students and specialists working in geomatics and using remote sensing data in hazardous areas for earthquakes, landslides, and floods
  • Graduate students in electric engineering, physics, earth and space sciences
  • Features theoretical scattering models and SAR data analysis techniques
  • Explains the simulation of SAR images for mono- and bi-static radars, covering both qualitative and quantitative information retrie al
  • Chapter topics include: theoretical scattering models; SAR data analysis and processing techniques; and theoretical quantitative simulation reconstruction and inversion techniques
  • Structured to enable both academic learning and independent study, laying down the foundations first of all before advancing to more complex topics
  • Experienced author team presents mathematical derivations and figures so that they are easy for readers to understand
  • Pitched at graduate-level students in electrical engineering, physics, earth and space sciences, as well as researchers
  • MATLAB code available for readers to run their own routines

  •   Click to expandTable of Contents

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      Front Matter

      Page(s): i - xiii
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Table of Contents
      Preface View full abstract»

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      Basics of Polarimetric Scattering

      Page(s): 1 - 27
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Chapter 1 introduces some basics of electromagnetic polarimetric scattering, e.g. the concepts of scattering matrix, polarization vector, four Stokes parameters, the Mueller matrix solutions for volumetric and surface scattering. View full abstract»

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      Vector Radiative Transfer

      Page(s): 29 - 77
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Chapter 2 introduces the vector radiative transfer (VRT) theory of random media. It provides the scattering, absorption and extinction coefficients and the phase matrix of non-spherical scatterers in natural media. The first-order Mueller matrix solution of VRT for vegetation canopy model is derived. Polarization indexes, eigen-analysis and entropy are presented. Statistics of multi-look SAR images and covariance matrix are also investigated. View full abstract»

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      Imaging Simulation of Polarimetric SAR: Mapping and Projection Algorithm

      Page(s): 79 - 122
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Chapter 3 first introduces some fundamentals for polarimetric SAR (POL-SAR) technology, such as ranging and pulse compression, and SAR imaging algorithm. A new approach to SAR imaging simulation (MPA, mapping and projection algorithm) for comprehensive scenarios is developed. The MPA presents a complete SAR raw data simulation chain, based on scattering models of natural and artificial media and a time domain raw-data generator. View full abstract»

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      Bistatic SAR: Simulation, Processing, and Interpretation

      Page(s): 123 - 165
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Chapter 4 extends the MPA to bistatic POL-SAR (BISAR) images. The BISAR-MPA involves the physical scattering process of multiple terrain objects, and bistatic polarimetry. The unified bistatic polarization bases are discussed, and polarimetric characteristics of BISAR image are analyzed. Finally, raw data processing of stripmap BISAR is explored. View full abstract»

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      Radar Polarimetry and Deorientation Theory

      Page(s): 167 - 214
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      Chapter 5 introduces the radar polarimetry and target decomposition. The de-orientation theory for surface classification of POL-SAR image is presented. The parameterized model of random non-spherical scatter media and its Mueller matrix solution for de-orientation validation are developed. A new set of the parameters of polarimetric scattering targets is defined for describing target orientation, orderly or randomly, and scatter surface classification. A classification spectrum of terrain surface is presented. View full abstract»

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      Inversions from Polarimetric SAR Images

      Page(s): 215 - 233
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      Chapter 6 presents some inversion applications using POL-SAR images. From the Mueller matrix, the -shift is derived for inversion of the digital elevation mapping (DEM) of the terrain surface. Imaging positions of single-, double- and triple-order scattering based on de-orientation are applied for inversion of the bridge height. View full abstract»

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      Automatic Reconstruction of Building Objects from Multi-Aspect SAR Images

      Page(s): 235 - 274
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      Chapter 7 introduces an approach of automatic reconstruction of building objects from multi-aspect SAR images (AMAR, automatic multi-aspect reconstruction). The POL-CFAR detector, Hough transform, probabilistic description of the detected façade-images, and the maximum-likelihood estimation (ML) of building objects from multi-aspect observed façade-images are discussed. Eventually, in association with a hybrid priority rule of inversion reliability, an automatic algorithm is designed to match multi-aspect façade-images and reconstruct the building objects. View full abstract»

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      Faraday Rotation on Polarimetric SAR Image at UHF/VHF Bands

      Page(s): 275 - 290
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Chapter 8 introduces the Faraday rotation (FR) on POL-SAR image at UHF/VHF bands. The Mueller Matrix with FR is derived, and then recovered to one without FR. The algorithm of phase unwrapping is also studied. View full abstract»

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      Change Detection from Multi-Temporal SAR Images

      Page(s): 291 - 309
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Chapter 9 introduces an algorithm of change detection, i.e. two-threshold expectation maximum (EM) and Markov random field (MRF) algorithms (2EM-MRF). It is applied to change detection of those backscattering enhanced, reduced and unchanged regimes from the SAR difference image. View full abstract»

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      Temporal Mueller Matrix for Polarimetric Scattering

      Page(s): 311 - 349
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      Chapter 10 introduces the temporal Mueller matrix solution for polarimetric scattering and radiative transfer as a pulse wave incident upon inhomogeneous random. The Mueller matrix solution for seven scattering mechanism describes temporal polarimetric scattering and propagation through inhomogeneous scatter media. Two applications, i.e. pulses from lunar regolith layer and monitoring debris/landslides, are discussed. View full abstract»

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      Fast Computation of Composite Scattering from an Electrically Large Target over a Randomly Rough Surface

      Page(s): 351 - 374
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Chapter 11 introduces a bidirectional analytic ray tracing (BART) method. The basic idea is to launch ray tubes both from the source and observation, trace among the facets, and then record the illumination areas of rays shooting on facets and edges. For each pair of forward and backward rays illuminating the same facet/edge, a scattering path from source to observation is constructed by linking the forward and backward rays, and corresponding scattering contribution is added up to the total scattering. Numerical results are presented in the examples. View full abstract»

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      Reconstruction of a 3D Complex Target Using Downward-Looking Step-Frequency Radar

      Page(s): 375 - 393
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Chapter 12 introduces a numerical train of simulated pol-scattering-imaging-reconstruction for a complex-shaped electric-large object above a dielectric rough surface. The step-frequency (SF) radar technique is employed to 3D-SAR imaging using the downward-looking spotlight mode to alleviate the sheltering and layover effect. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Page(s): 395 - 397
      Copyright Year: 2013

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      No abstract. View full abstract»