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AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1989
Author(s): Grimson, W.; Patil, R.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Computing & Processing (Hardware/Software)
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Abstract

This collection of essays by 12 members of the MIT staff, provides an inside report on the scope and expectations of current research in one of the world's major AI centers. The chapters on artificial intelligence, expert systems, vision, robotics, and natural language provide both a broad overview of current areas of activity and an assessment of the field at a time of great public interest and rapid technological progress.Contents: Artificial Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased Systems (Randall Davis). Expert-System Tools and Techniques (Peter Szolovits). Medical Diagnosis: Evolution of Systems Building Expertise (Ramesh S. Patil). Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering (Charles Rich and Richard C. Waters). Intelligent Natural Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding (Victor W. Zue). Robot Programming and Artificial Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). Robot Hands and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). Intelligent Vision (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). Autonomous Mobile Robots (Rodney A. Brooks).W. Eric L. Grimson, author of From Images to Surfaces: A Computational Study of the Human Early Vision System (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are both Assistant Professors in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. AI in the 1980s and Beyond is included in the Artificial Intelligence Series, edited by Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady.

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      Front Matter

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): i - xi
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, The MIT Press Series in Artificial Intelligence, Title, Copyright, Contents, Series Foreword, Preface, Half Title View full abstract»

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      Artificial Intelligence: A Perspective

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 1 - 11
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Past: Six Ages, The Successes, Expert Systems, Work and Play, Robotics, Today and Tomorrow, For More Information View full abstract»

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      Knowledge-Based Systems: The View in 1986

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 13 - 41
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Knowledge-Based Systems, Rule-Based Systems, Frame-Based Systems, Roles, Successes and Limitations, Commercialization of the Technology, Reasoning “From First Principles”, Troubleshooting, Design and Test Programming, Summary, References View full abstract»

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      Expert Systems Tools and Techniques: Past, Present and Future

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 43 - 74
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Expert Systems, Classical Models of Expert System Construction, What is an Expert System Tool?, Evaluating Expert System Tools, Epistemology, Inference, Assumptions, Uncertainty, Meaning, User Interface, Performance and Practicality, The Future of Expert System Tools, Generic Tasks and Generic Methods, New Techniques from Applied Artificial Intelligence Research, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      A Case Study on Evolution of System Building Expertise: Medical Diagnosis

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 75 - 108
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Historical Perspective, Artificial Intelligence and Diagnostic Reasoning, Hypothetico-deductive nature of Diagnostic Process, Origins of Research in Medical Diagnosis at MIT, Limiting the Number of Active Hypotheses, Hierarchic Organization of Hypotheses, Diagnostic Reasoning using Multiple Hierarchies, Problems in Dealing with Multiple Disorders, Diagnosing Multiple Interacting Diseases, Organization of Medical Knowledge in ABEL, Composite Hypotheses, Diagnostic Problem Solving in ABEL, Where do we Stand?, Lessons from the field of AIM, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Artificial Intelligence Engineering

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 109 - 154
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Automatic Programming, Cutting the Problem Down, Theorem-Proving Techniques, Deductive Synthesis, Program Verification, Transformational Approaches, Specification Techniques, Natural Language Specifications, Very High Level Languages, Programming by Example, Intelligent Assistants, Programming Tutors, Knowledge Representation, Programming Knowledge, Domain Knowledge, Artificial Intelligence Programming, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Intelligent Natural Language Processing: Current Trends and Future Prospects

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 155 - 183
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Dictionary Processing, Parsing Conjunctions: The Importance of the Right Representation, From Rules To Constraints: NL Systems of the Future, Summary: The Future of Natural Language Processing, References for Part I: Current NL Systems, References for Part II: Discourse and Future NL Systems View full abstract»

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      Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 185 - 200
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Understanding the Task and the Signal, Understanding the Signal, Current Status, Selected References View full abstract»

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      Intelligent Vision

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 201 - 241
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Vision at Work, Ripening Fruits, Computer architectures, Image reconstruction, Structured illumination, Edge finding, Curve Encoding, Recognizing overlapped parts, Two-dimensional shape representation, Motion, Stereo, Surface reconstruction, Research Trends, Parallelism, Sensor integration, Three-dimensional shape representation, Geometric reasoning, Visual systems integration, The Future of Vision, Selected References View full abstract»

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      Making Robots See and Feel

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 243 - 280
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Acquisition of Sensory Data, The Interpretation of Sensory Data, Summary, Selected References View full abstract»

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      Robot Programming and Artificial Intelligence

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 281 - 315
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Challenges, Towards Automatic Programming of Robots, Task Planning, References View full abstract»

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      Robot Hands and Tactile Sensing

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 317 - 342
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Multifingered Robot Hands, Electrotechnical Labs (1977), The Stanford/JPL Hand (1982), The Utah/MIT Hand (1985), The Hitachi Hand (1985), Other Hand Efforts, Hanafusa and Asada (1977), Pennsylvania Articulated Mechanical Hand (1983), Hanafusa, Kobayashi, and Terasaki (1983), Advanced Robot Technology Research Association (1990), Victory Intelligent Dexterous Hand and Forearm, Clarkson Hand, Tactile Sensors, Capacitance Rubber Sensors, Conductive Rubber Sensors, Fiber Optic Sensors, Solid State Sensors, Piezoelectric Sensors, Thermal Sensors, Grasping, Tactile Sensing, Skin Mechanical Properties in Sensing, Skin Mechanical Properties in Grasping, Discussion View full abstract»

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      Autonomous Mobile Robots

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 343 - 363
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Past and present mobile robots, Why is it hard?, Research strategies, Controlling Mobile Robots, Levels and Layers, Levels of Competence, Layers of Control, The Structure of Layers, A Robot Control System Instance, Performance, Mass Market Robots, Selected References View full abstract»

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      Index

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 365 - 374
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This collection of essays by 12 members of the MIT staff, provides an inside report on the scope and expectations of current research in one of the world's major AI centers. The chapters on artificial intelligence, expert systems, vision, robotics, and natural language provide both a broad overview of current areas of activity and an assessment of the field at a time of great public interest and rapid technological progress.Contents: Artificial Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased Systems (Randall Davis). Expert-System Tools and Techniques (Peter Szolovits). Medical Diagnosis: Evolution of Systems Building Expertise (Ramesh S. Patil). Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering (Charles Rich and Richard C. Waters). Intelligent Natural Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding (Victor W. Zue). Robot Programming and Artificial Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). Robot Hands and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). Intelligent Vision (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). Autonomous Mobile Robots (Rodney A. Brooks).W. Eric L. Grimson, author of From Images to Surfaces: A Computational Study of the Human Early Vision System (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are both Assistant Professors in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. AI in the 1980s and Beyond is included in the Artificial Intelligence Series, edited by Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Back Matter

      Grimson, W. ; Patil, R.
      AI in the 1980s and Beyond:An MIT Survey

      Page(s): 375
      Copyright Year: 1989

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This collection of essays by 12 members of the MIT staff, provides an inside report on the scope and expectations of current research in one of the world's major AI centers. The chapters on artificial intelligence, expert systems, vision, robotics, and natural language provide both a broad overview of current areas of activity and an assessment of the field at a time of great public interest and rapid technological progress.Contents: Artificial Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased Systems (Randall Davis). Expert-System Tools and Techniques (Peter Szolovits). Medical Diagnosis: Evolution of Systems Building Expertise (Ramesh S. Patil). Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering (Charles Rich and Richard C. Waters). Intelligent Natural Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding (Victor W. Zue). Robot Programming and Artificial Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). Robot Hands and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). Intelligent Vision (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). Autonomous Mobile Robots (Rodney A. Brooks).W. Eric L. Grimson, author of From Images to Surfaces: A Computational Study of the Human Early Vision System (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are both Assistant Professors in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. AI in the 1980s and Beyond is included in the Artificial Intelligence Series, edited by Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady. View full abstract»