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Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1994
Author(s): Bobrow, D.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Computing & Processing (Hardware/Software)
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Abstract

This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre.

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      Front Matter

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): i - viii
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      Dedication

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 1 - 3
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      Artificial intelligence in perspective: a retrospective on fifty volumes of the Artificial Intelligence Journal

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 5 - 20
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: History of this issue, The contents of this issue, Conclusion, Bibliography of highly cited papers View full abstract»

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      Foundations

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 21
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      History of circumscription

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 23 - 26
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, What else are we all missing?, References View full abstract»

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      Autoepistemic logic revisited

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 27 - 30
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: References View full abstract»

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      Reflections on the knowledge level

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 31 - 38
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The genesis of the knowledge level, What has happened?, What will happen?, References View full abstract»

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      Probabilistic logic revisited

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 39 - 42
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Origins, Main contribution, Open issues, Subsequent work, Conclusions, References View full abstract»

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      A method for managing evidential reasoning in a hierarchical hypothesis space: a retrospective

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 43 - 47
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: References View full abstract»

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      Belief networks revisited

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 49 - 56
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Origins, Motivations and speculations, The main contributions, Recent progress, Regrets and near misses, References View full abstract»

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      The complexity of constraint satisfaction revisited

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 57 - 62
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This paper is a retrospective account of some of the developments leading up to, and ensuing from, the analysis of the complexity of some polynomial network consistency algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems View full abstract»

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      A perspective on assumption-based truth maintenance

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 63 - 67
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Prehistory: LOCAL and SOPHIE, Development of the ATMS, QPE and GDE, The future, References View full abstract»

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      Vision

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 69
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      Retrospective on “Interpreting line drawings as three-dimensional surfaces”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 71 - 80
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Context, Contributions, Developments, Open issues, Hindsight, Acknowledgement, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      “Determining optical flow”: a retrospective

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 81 - 87
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Overview, Origins, Variational approach to machine vision problems, False leads, Unfortunate side-effects, What was left out, Optical flow and the motion field, Where did the work go from there, What can be built more easily as a result of the paper?, References View full abstract»

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      Comment on “Numerical shape from shading and occluding boundaries”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 89 - 94
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The paper “Numerical shape from shading and occluding boundaries” [101 proposed a method to determine the 3D shape of an object from a single brightness image using the smoothness constraint on surface orientations, and the orientations of the surface given along ari occluding boundary. This paper contributed both a specific algorithm for solving a specific problem, and a general approach that could be applied in other low-level vision problems View full abstract»

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      From a real chair to a negative chair

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 95 - 101
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: How it started, The Origami world, Multiple interpretations and qualitative shapes, Quantitative recovery of plausible shapes, Computer vision as a physical science, References View full abstract»

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      Qualitative reasoning

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 103
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      A view on qualitative physics

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 105 - 114
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, The confusion seminar, Qualitative reasoning for solving physics problems, Qualitative and causal reasoning for circuit diagnosis, Qualitative and causal reasoning for design, Whither qualitative physics?, References View full abstract»

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      Qualitative process theory: twelve years after

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 115 - 123
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Context, Contributions, A cautionary note, Towards tutor compilers and learning machines, References View full abstract»

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      Reasoning with qualitative models

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 125 - 132
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Context, Contributions and applications, Open problems, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Qualitative simulation: then and now

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 133 - 140
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Background, Abstraction, soundness, and incompleteness, Progress in qualitative simulation, Open problems, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Retrospective on “Causality in device behavior”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 141 - 146
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Simon:, Iwasaki:, Iwasaki and Simon:, Acknowledgement, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Diagnosis

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 147
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      Retrospective on “Diagnostic reasoning based on structure and behavior”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 149 - 157
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Origins, Key intellectual contributions, What was misunderstood?, Open issues, The future of the work, References View full abstract»

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      From Dart to Designworld: a chronicle of research on automated engineering in the Stanford Logic Group

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 159 - 165
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Background, Dart, Helios, Designworld, Conclusion, Reference View full abstract»

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      Categorical and probabilistic reasoning in medicine revisited

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 167 - 180
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Reasoning about multiple diagnoses, Reasoning at multiple levels of detail, Doing probabilities “right”, Reasoning about therapy, Machinable data, Problem breadth, New themes in medicine, Conclusions, References View full abstract»

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      Retrospective on “Production rules as a representation for a knowledge-based consultation program”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 181 - 189
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Origins, Key intellectual contributions, What was misunderstood or lost?, Open issues, What can we build more easily as a result?, What would we write differently?, The future of the work, References View full abstract»

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      Notes on “Heuristic classification”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 191 - 196
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, A few clarifications, Redescribing by revisualizing, Revisualizing is reconceiving, not deriving, mapping, or compiling, Lessons and impact, References View full abstract»

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      Notes on “Epistemology of a rule-based expert system”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 197 - 204
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, 2. Structure-strategy-support design rationales, Knowledge bases and generative models, The role of rationalization reconsidered, Subsequent research, References View full abstract»

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      Architectures

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 205
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      Prototypical knowledge for expert systems: a retrospective analysis

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 207 - 211
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Two themes, Today's systems, So what's missing, In hindsight..., Reference View full abstract»

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      Intelligent control

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 213 - 220
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The key ideas, Research context, Hindsight, Acknowledgement, References View full abstract»

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      Retrospective on “The organization of expert systems, a tutorial”

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 221 - 224
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The context, Contributions of the work, Side-effects, Retrospecting and prospecting, References View full abstract»

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      Systems

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 225
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      STRIPS, a retrospective

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 227 - 232
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, The STRIPS automatic plan generator, The STRIPS execution monitor, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      DENDRAL and Meta-DENDRAL: roots of knowledge systems and expert system applications

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 233 - 240
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: DENDRAL in the context of its time: more history, Did DENDRAL make a difference?, Well, DENDRAL, what have you done for us lately?, What about Meta-DENDRAL? What did it do for AI? For industry?, References View full abstract»

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      R1 (“XCON”) at age 12: lessons from an elementary school achiever

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 241 - 247
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The first lesson repeated, The second lesson reconstructed, The third lesson, Acknowledgement, References View full abstract»

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      Allen Newell

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 249
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

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      Allen Newell: the entry into complex information processing

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 251 - 259
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The career, How it began, The commitment, The Logic Theorist, References View full abstract»

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      Editorial: Eight reviews of Unified Theories of Cognition and a response

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 261 - 263
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Book Review: Allen Newell, Unified Theories of Cognition

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 265 - 283
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Soar: a general cognitive architecture, Differing criteria for a human cognitive architecture, Schema theory cognitive architecture rooted in computer architecture, Connectionism ≠ brain theory, The Great Move: searching for a conclusion, References View full abstract»

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      Book Review: Allen Newell, Unified Theories of Cognition

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 285 - 294
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: ab]This chapter contains sections titled: References View full abstract»

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      Book Review: Unified theories of cognition: modeling cognitive competence

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 295 - 328
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      In his recent text, Unified Theories of Cognition, Allen Newell offers an exciting mixture of theoretical and methodological advice to cognitive scientists on how to begin developing more comprehensive accounts of human problem solving. Newell's perspective is at once both exciting and frustrating. His concept of a unified theory of cognition (UTC), and his attempt to illustrate a UTC with his Soar problem solving architecture, is exciting because it suggests how scientists might use the computational methods of cognitive science and artificial intelligence to formulate and explore both broader and deeper aspects of intelligence in people and in machines. Newell's perspective is equally frustrating because it dictates a behaviorist methodology for evaluating cognitive models. Newell views a UTC as a simulation of behavior. I explore the surprising similarity of Newell's approach to theory to the approaches of classical behaviorists such as John Watson and Edward Chace Tolman. I suggest that Newell's behaviorist methodology is incompatible with his commitment to building theories in terms of complex computational systems. I offer a modification to Newell's approach in which a UTC provides an architecture in which to explore the nature of competence—the requisite body of knowledge—that underlies an intelligent agent's ability to perform tasks in a particular domain. I compare this normative perspective to Newell's commitment to performance modeling. I conclude that his key theoretical concepts, such as the problem space hypothesis, knowledge level systems, and intelligence as approximation to the knowledge level are fundamentally competence constructs. I raise specific concerns about the indeterminacy of evaluating a UTC like Soar against performance data. Finally, I suggest that competence modeling more tho roughly exploits the insights of cognitive scientists like Newell and reduces the gap between the aims of cognitive science and artificial intelligence View full abstract»

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      Book Review: On building integrated cognitive agents: a review of Allen Newell's Unified Theories of Cognition

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 329 - 341
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, The goal: unified theories of cognition, The paradigm: mechanistic theories and empirical evaluation, Requirements for intelligence, Generality, integration, and the structure of the research program, Acknowledgement View full abstract»

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      Book Review: Allen Newell, Unified Theories of Cognition

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 343 - 354
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, The organic brain, The speed of thought, A framework for representing knowledge?, Society of Mind theories, Reformulation and natural language understanding, Conclusions, References View full abstract»

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      Book Review: On wings of knowledge: a review of Allen Newell's Unified Theories of Cognition

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 355 - 369
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Artificial intelligence and mechanical flight, Deconstructing the myths of mechanical flight, Physical law versus software law, Conclusion, References View full abstract»

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      Book Review: Brain or mind? A review of Allen Newell's Unified Theories of Cognition

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 371 - 373
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Book Review: Issues for psychology, AI, and education: a review of Newell's Unified Theories of Cognition

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 375 - 388
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, On psychology, On AI, On education View full abstract»

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      Response: On Unified Theories of Cognition: a response to the reviews

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 389 - 413
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Foundations, Soar, Summary, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Interview with Allen Newell

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 415 - 449
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Search and interaction, Models and reasoning, History of problem spaces, Search and planning, Chunking and learning, The Soar community, Chunking and interaction, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Bobrow, D.
      Artificial Intelligence in Perspective

      Page(s): 451 - 462
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This major collection of short essays reviews the scope and progress of research in artificial intelligence over the past two decades. Seminal and most-cited papers from the journal Artificial Intelligence are revisited by the authors who describe how their research has been developed, both by themselves and by others, since the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide variety of domains, including truth maintainance systems and qualitative process theory, chemical structure analysis, diagnosis of faulty circuits, and understanding visual scenes; they also span a broad range of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to systems architecture.The volume is dedicated to Allen Newell and concludes with a section of fourteen essays devoted to a retrospective on the strength and vision of his work.Sections/Contributors:- Artificial Intelligence in Perspective, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. K. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- Vision. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. K. P. Horn and B. Schunck, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, K. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- Diagnosis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- Systems. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre. View full abstract»




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