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This chapter examines the differences between IPv4 and IPv6 from a security perspective and highlights key considerations for updating your security policy. It highlights suggested security policies in the context of potential vulnerabilities each seeks to mitigate. Many organizations protect their internal networks by having a strong perimeter and intrusion detection systems in place. But internal protections are also necessary to protect against internal attacks, intentional or accidental, and as a second line of defense should an external attacker gain access to an internal host. The last line of defense for network and end user devices is of course security measures for each device itself. Common host security measures used today in IPv4 networks apply as well to IPv6. Other topics covered in the chapter are mobile IPv6 security, and IPv4/IPv6 coexistence measures.