Frontiers of Modulators: Trends and Challenges

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2 Author(s)

This chapter gives an overview of reported cutting-edge ?>?> modulator ICs fabricated in CMOS technologies. The main purpose of this overview is to make an exhaustive analysis of the evolution trends, design challenges, and reported solutions in order to extract practical conclusions and guidelines which may be useful for designers in their own projects. The chapter gives an overview of the state-of-the-art ?>?>Ms, comparing their performance with Nyquist-rate ADCs. The diverse families of ?>?>M architectures and circuit techniques are exhaustively analyzed and compared in order to extract practical and empirical design guidelines. Then, it reviews some of the most significant cutting-edge ?>?>M techniques, analyzing the design trends and challenges in the frontiers of ?>?>Ms. The chapter concludes with a classified description of state-of-the-art references.