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Cluster adaptive training of hidden Markov models

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1 Author(s)
Gales, M.J.F. ; IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA

When performing speaker adaptation, there are two conflicting requirements. First, the speaker transform must be powerful enough to represent the speaker. Second, the transform must be quickly and easily estimated for any particular speaker. The most popular adaptation schemes have used many parameters to adapt the models to be representative of an individual speaker. This limits how rapidly the models may be adapted to a new speaker or the acoustic environment. This paper examines an adaptation scheme requiring very few parameters, cluster adaptive training (CAT). CAT may be viewed as a simple extension to speaker clustering. Rather than selecting a single cluster as representative of a particular speaker, a linear interpolation of all the cluster means is used as the mean of the particular speaker. This scheme naturally falls into an adaptive training framework. Maximum likelihood estimates of the interpolation weights are given. Furthermore, simple re-estimation formulae for cluster means, represented both explicitly and by sets of transforms of some canonical mean, are given. On a speaker-independent task CAT reduced the word error rate using very little adaptation data. In addition when combined with other adaptation schemes it gave a 5% reduction in word error rate over adapting a speaker-independent model set

Published in:

Speech and Audio Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 4 )