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Task allocation is one of the research focuses of multi-robot system. On the base of presenting the utility values matrix of robots relative to tasks and analyzing the characteristics of multi-robot task allocation, we build the multi-robot task allocation model based on robotic utility value. In order to prevent the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm from converging on local optimum, this paper proposes a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm by introducing the linear decrease mechanism of inertia weight and the concept of adjustment operator and adjustment sequence. With the evolution of velocity in the MPSO algorithm, particle not only studies from the historical optimum individual of itself and population, but also studies from the other stochastic individuals with some probability. Finally, the MPSO algorithm is used to solve the task allocation problem of RoboCup 2D soccer robot system, the efficiency of this modified algorithm is proved through simulation results.