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Rapid changes in the semiconductor industry will continue toward higher functionality that leads to higher input/outputs (I/O) counts, pushing packaging towards higher density architectures. In the next two to three years, the I/O pitch will fall within 100 μm for area array die and 30 μm for periphery die. That raises an important question to the packaging industry: How will the rapid shrinkage of the I/O pitch affect the package substrate for chip attaching? The answer is sub-10 micron copper line technology. Theoretical and experimental studies on the limitations of using mercury i-line ultraviolet photolithography have been carried at the Packaging Research Center at Georgia Tech. Furthermore, ultra fine copper line routing substrates are demonstrated for flip chip attaching by using semi-additive metallization process.