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Breast cancer is the second-most common and leading cause of cancer death among women. It has become a major health issue in the world over the past 50 years, and its incidence has increased in recent years. Early detection is an effective way to diagnose and manage breast cancer. Computer-aided detection or diagnosis (CAD) systems can play a key role in the early detection of breast cancer and can reduce the death rate among women with breast cancer. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent advances in the development of CAD systems and related techniques. We begin with a brief introduction to some basic concepts related to breast cancer detection and diagnosis. We then focus on key CAD techniques developed recently for breast cancer, including detection of calcifications, detection of masses, detection of architectural distortion, detection of bilateral asymmetry, image enhancement, and image retrieval.