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This article gives an overview of the opportunities offered by a novel technique, the components of MR-compatible robotic systems, the history of MR-compatible robotics, and the main challenges and directions for future developments. Robotic interfaces can dynamically interact with humans performing movements and can be used to study neuromuscular adaptation. A haptic interface that could be used in conjunction with fMRI would enable neuroscientists to view and investigate the brain mechanisms involved in human motor control and related dysfunctions. This could become a critical tool in neuroscience and rehabilitation. It is concluded that with all robotic systems for medical applications, the community needs to demonstrate the ability of such systems in assisting surgeons and augmenting their performance.