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Input design is of essential importance in system identification for providing sufficient probing capabilities to guarantee convergence of parameter estimates to their true values. This paper presents conditions on input signals that characterize their probing richness for strongly consistent parameter estimation of linear systems with binary-valued output observations. Necessary and sufficient conditions on periodic signals are derived for sufficient richness. These conditions are further studied under different system configurations including open-loop and feedback systems, and different scenarios of noises including actuator noise, input measurement noise, and output measurement noise. In addition to system parameter estimation, essential properties of identifiability and input conditions are also derived when sensor thresholds or noise distribution functions are unknown. The findings of this paper provide a foundation to study identification of systems that either use binary-valued or quantized sensors or involve communication channels, which mandate quantization of signals.