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This paper presents the development of a novel active visual measurement technique, laterally sampled white-light interferometry (L-SWLI), which is capable of real-time visual tracking of six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) rigid body motion with near-nanometer precision. The visual tracking system is integrated with a 6-DOF motion stage to realize an ultraprecision six-axis visual servo-control system. Contrary to conventional interferometric techniques, L-SWLI obtains the complete pose of the target object from a single image frame, therefore allowing real-time tracking. Six-DOF motions are obtained from measuring the fringe pattern on multiple surfaces of the object or from a single surface with additional information gained from conventional image-processing techniques. The feasibility of the visually servoed motion scheme was demonstrated on a micro cantilever. The cantilever was maneuvered in a three-dimensional space with near-nanometer motion resolution in all three translational axes.