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The Biquad: Part I-Some practical design considerations

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1 Author(s)

The use of active elements in linear networks offers new degrees of freedom to both network and system designers. A comprehensive report on the Biquad, an active topology based on analog computer concepts, is given. We describe the electrical characteristics of the Biquad that make it a manufacturable realization for precision networks. Analysis and experimental data describe the dependence of Biquad performance on nonideal operational amplifiers. Compensation techniques are derived which allow high- Q operation at several hundred kilohertz with existing devices. The 8-V rms signal capacity and 80-dB dynamic range of the voice-frequency Biquad are illustrated.

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Circuit Theory, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:18 ,  Issue: 3 )