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    Narrowband Direction of Arrival Estimation for Antenna Arrays

    Foutz, J. ; Spanias, A. ; Banavar, M.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00118ED1V01Y200805ANT008
    Copyright Year: 2008

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book provides an introduction to narrowband array signal processing, classical and subspace-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation with an extensive discussion on adaptive direction of arrival algorithms. The book begins with a presentation of the basic theory, equations, and data models of narrowband arrays. It then discusses basic beamforming methods and describes how they relate to DOA estimation. Several of the most common classical and subspace-based direction of arrival methods are discussed. The book concludes with an introduction to subspace tracking and shows how subspace tracking algorithms can be used to form an adaptive DOA estimator. Simulation software and additional bibliography are given at the end of the book. Table of Contents: Introduction / Background on Array Processing / Nonadaptive Direction of Arrival Estimation / Adaptive Direction of Arrival Estimation / Appendix View full abstract»

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    Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone:Part II

    Barrett, S.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00283ED1V01Y201005DCS029
    Copyright Year: 2010

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book is about the Arduino microcontroller and the Arduino concept. The visionary Arduino team of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis launched a new innovation in microcontroller hardware in 2005, the concept of open source hardware. Their approach was to openly share details of microcontroller-based hardware design platforms to stimulate the sharing of ideas and promote innovation. This concept has been popular in the software world for many years. This book is intended for a wide variety of audiences including students of the fine arts, middle and senior high school students, engineering design students, and practicing scientists and engineers. To meet this wide audience, the book has been divided into sections to satisfy the need of each reader. The book contains many software and hardware examples to assist the reader in developing a wide variety of systems. For the examples, the Arduino Duemilanove and the Atmel ATmega328 is employed as the target processor. View full abstract»

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    Partial Update Least-Square Adaptive Filtering

    Xie, B. ; Bose, T.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00575ED1V01Y201403COM010
    Copyright Year: 2014

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    Adaptive filters play an important role in the fields related to digital signal processing and communication, such as system identification, noise cancellation, channel equalization, and beamforming. In practical applications, the computational complexity of an adaptive filter is an important consideration. The Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is widely used because of its low computational complexity ($O(N)$) and simplicity in implementation. The least squares algorithms, such as Recursive Least Squares (RLS), Conjugate Gradient (CG), and Euclidean Direction Search (EDS), can converge faster and have lower steady-state mean square error (MSE) than LMS. However, their high computational complexity ($O(N^2)$) makes them unsuitable for many real-time applications. A well-known approach to controlling computational complexity is applying partial update (PU) method to adaptive filters. A partial update method can reduce the adaptive algorithm complexity by updating part of the weight vec or instead of the entire vector or by updating part of the time. In the literature, there are only a few analyses of these partial update adaptive filter algorithms. Most analyses are based on partial update LMS and its variants. Only a few papers have addressed partial update RLS and Affine Projection (AP). Therefore, analyses for PU least-squares adaptive filter algorithms are necessary and meaningful. This monograph mostly focuses on the analyses of the partial update least-squares adaptive filter algorithms. Basic partial update methods are applied to adaptive filter algorithms including Least Squares CMA (LSCMA), EDS, and CG. The PU methods are also applied to CMA1-2 and NCMA to compare with the performance of the LSCMA. Mathematical derivation and performance analysis are provided including convergence condition, steady-state mean and mean-square performance for a time-invariant system. The steady-state mean and mean-square performance are also presented for a time-varying syste . Computational complexity is calculated for each adaptive filter algorithm. Numerical examples are shown to compare the computational complexity of the PU adaptive filters with the full-update filters. Computer simulation examples, including system identification and channel equalization, are used to demonstrate the mathematical analysis and show the performance of PU adaptive filter algorithms. They also show the convergence performance of PU adaptive filters. The performance is compared between the original adaptive filter algorithms and different partial-update methods. The performance is also compared among similar PU least-squares adaptive filter algorithms, such as PU RLS, PU CG, and PU EDS. In addition to the generic applications of system identification and channel equalization, two special applications of using partial update adaptive filters are also presented. One application uses PU adaptive filters to detect Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in a local GSM system using the Open Base Transceiver Station (OpenBTS) and Asterisk Private Branch Exchange (PBX). The other application uses PU adaptive filters to do image compression in a system combining hyperspectral image compression and classification. View full abstract»

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    Introduction to Logic Synthesis using Verilog HDL

    Reese, R. ; Thornton, M.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00060ED1V01Y200610DCS006
    Copyright Year: 2006

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    Introduction to Logic Synthesis Using Verilog HDL explains how to write accurate Verilog descriptions of digital systems that can be synthesized into digital system netlists with desirable characteristics. The book contains numerous Verilog examples that begin with simple combinational networks and progress to synchronous sequential logic systems. Common pitfalls in the development of synthesizable Verilog HDL are also discussed along with methods for avoiding them. The target audience is anyone with a basic understanding of digital logic principles who wishes to learn how to model digital systems in the Verilog HDL in a manner that also allows for automatic synthesis. A wide range of readers, from hobbyists and undergraduate students to seasoned professionals, will find this a compelling and approachable work. The book provides concise coverage of the material and includes many examples, enabling readers to quickly generate high-quality synthesizable Verilog models. View full abstract»

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    PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines

    Tobin, P.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00069ED1V01Y200611DCS008
    Copyright Year: 2007

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the ‘cookbook approach’ so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exacting manner. Switched-capacitor filter circuits are examined and here we see how useful PSpice/Probe is in demonstrating how these filters, filter, as it were. Two-port networks are discussed as an introduction to transmission lines and, using a series of problems, we demonstrate quarter-wave and single-stub matching. The concept of time domain reflectrometry as a fault location tool on transmission lines is then examined. In the last chapter we discuss the technique of importing and exporting speech signals into a PSpice schematic using a tailored-made program Wav2ascii. This is a novel technique that greatly extends the simulation boundaries of PSpice. Various digital circuits are also examined at the end of this chapter to demonstrate the use of the bus structure and other techniques. View full abstract»

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    Models of Horizontal Eye Movements:Part 4, A Multiscale Neuron and Muscle Fiber-Based Linear Saccade Model

    Ghahari, A. ; Enderle, J.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00627ED1V01Y201501BME055
    Copyright Year: 2015

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    There are five different types of eye movements: saccades, smooth pursuit, vestibular ocular eye movements, optokinetic eye movements, and vergence eye movements. The purpose of this book series is focused primarily on mathematical models of the horizontal saccadic eye movement system and the smooth pursuit system, rather than on how visual information is processed. In Part 1, early models of saccades and smooth pursuit are presented. A number of oculomotor plant models are described here beginning with the Westheimer model published in 1954, and up through our 1995 model involving a 4th order oculomotor plant model. In Part 2, a 2009 version of a state-of-the-art model is presented for horizontal saccades that is 3rd-order and linear, and controlled by a physiologically based time-optimal neural network. Part 3 describes a model of the saccade system, focusing on the neural network. It presents a neural network model of biophysical neurons in the midbrain for controlling oculomotor m scles during horizontal human saccades. In this book, a multiscale model of the saccade system is presented, focusing on a multiscale neural network and muscle fiber model. Chapter 1 presents a comprehensive model for the control of horizontal saccades using a muscle fiber model for the lateral and medial rectus muscles. The importance of this model is that each muscle fiber has a separate neural input. This model is robust and accounts for the neural activity for both large and small saccades. The muscle fiber model consists of serial sequences of muscle fibers in parallel with other serial sequences of muscle fibers. Each muscle fiber is described by a parallel combination of a linear length tension element, viscous element, and active-state tension generator. Chapter 2 presents a biophysically realistic neural network model in the midbrain to drive a muscle fiber oculomotor plant during horizontal monkey saccades. Neural circuitry, including omnipause neuron, premotor excitatory an inhibitory burst neurons, long lead burst neuron, tonic neuron, interneuron, abducens nucleus, and oculomotor nucleus, is developed to examine saccade dynamics. The time-optimal control mechanism demonstrates how the neural commands are encoded in the downstream saccadic pathway by realization of agonist and antagonist controller models. Consequently, each agonist muscle fiber is stimulated by an agonist neuron, while an antagonist muscle fiber is unstimulated by a pause and step from the antagonist neuron. It is concluded that the neural network is constrained by a minimum duration of the agonist pulse, and that the most dominant factor in determining the saccade magnitude is the number of active neurons for the small saccades. For the large saccades, however, the duration of agonist burst firing significantly affects the control of saccades. The proposed saccadic circuitry establishes a complete model of saccade generation since it not only includes the neural circuits at both the remotor and motor stages of the saccade generator, but it also uses a time-optimal controller to yield the desired saccade magnitude. View full abstract»

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    Mobile Interactions in Context:A Designerly Way Toward Digital Ecology

    Kjeldskov, J.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00584ED1V01Y201406HCI021
    Copyright Year: 2014

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book presents a contextual approach to designing contemporary interactive mobile computer systems as integral parts of ubiquitous computing environments. Interactive mobile systems, services, and devices have become functional design objects that we care deeply about. Although their look, feel, and features impact our everyday lives as we orchestrate them in concert with a plethora of other computing technologies, these artifacts are not well understood or created through traditional methods of user-centered design and usability engineering. Contrary to more traditional IT artifacts, they constitute holistic user experiences of value and pleasure that require careful attention to the variety, complexity, and dynamics of their usage. Hence, the design of mobile interactions proposed in this book transcends existing approaches by using the ensemble of form and context as its central unit of analysis. As such, it promotes a designerly way of achieving convergence between form and co text through a contextually grounded, wholeness sensitive, and continually unfolding process of design. View full abstract»

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    Biomedical Signals and Systems

    Tranquillo, J.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00551ED1V01Y201311BME052
    Copyright Year: 2013

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time and frequency analysis and filters. Embedded within each chapter are examples from the biological world, ranging from medical devices to cell and molecular biology. While the focus of the book is on the theory of analog signals and systems, many chapters also introduce the corresponding topics in the digital realm. Although some derivations appear, the focus is on the concepts and how to apply th m. Throughout the text, systems vocabulary is introduced which will allow the reader to read more advanced literature and communicate with scientist and engineers. Homework and Matlab simulation exercises are presented at the end of each chapter and challenge readers to not only perform calculations and simulations but also to recognize the real-world signals and systems around them. Table of Contents: Preface / Acknowledgments / Introduction / System Types / System Models / Laplace Transform / Block Diagrams / Stability / Feedback / System Response / Control / Time Domain Analysis / Frequency Domain Analysis / Filters / Author's Biography View full abstract»

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    Circuit Analysis with Multisim

    Baez-Lopez, D. ; Guerrero-Castro, F.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00386ED1V01Y201109DCS035
    Copyright Year: 2011

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis. It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or both. Fourier analysis is discussed in the context of transient analysis. Next, we make a treatment of AC analysis to simulate the frequency response of a circuit. Then, we introduce diodes, transistors, and circuits composed by them and perform DC, transient, and AC analyses. The book ends with simulation of digital circuits. A practical approach is followed through the chapters, using step-by-st p examples to introduce new Multisim circuit elements, tools, analyses, and virtual instruments for measurement. The examples are clearly commented and illustrated. The different tools available on Multisim are used when appropriate so readers learn which analyses are available to them. This is part of the learning outcomes that should result after each set of end-of-chapter exercises is worked out. Table of Contents: Introduction to Circuit Simulation / Resistive Circuits / Time Domain Analysis -- Transient Analysis / Frequency Domain Analysis -- AC Analysis / Semiconductor Devices / Digital Circuits View full abstract»

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    Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra

    Thornton, M.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00579ED1V01Y201404DCS044
    Copyright Year: 2014

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra describes an approach for modeling digital information and circuitry that is an alternative to Boolean algebra. While the Boolean algebraic model has been wildly successful and is responsible for many advances in modern information technology, the approach described in this book offers new insight and different ways of solving problems. Modeling the bit as a vector instead of a scalar value in the set {0, 1} allows digital circuits to be characterized with transfer functions in the form of a linear transformation matrix. The use of transfer functions is ubiquitous in many areas of engineering and their rich background in linear systems theory and signal processing is easily applied to digital switching circuits with this model. The common tasks of circuit simulation and justification are specific examples of the application of the linear algebraic model and are described in detail. The advantages offered by the new model as compa ed to traditional methods are emphasized throughout the book. Furthermore, the new approach is easily generalized to other types of information processing circuits such as those based upon multiple-valued or quantum logic; thus providing a unifying mathematical framework common to each of these areas. Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra provides a blend of theoretical concepts and practical issues involved in implementing the method for circuit design tasks. Data structures are described and are shown to not require any more resources for representing the underlying matrices and vectors than those currently used in modern electronic design automation (EDA) tools based on the Boolean model. Algorithms are described that perform simulation, justification, and other common EDA tasks in an efficient manner that are competitive with conventional design tools. The linear algebraic model can be used to implement common EDA tasks directly upon a structural netlist thus avo ding the intermediate step of transforming a circuit description into a representation of a set of switching functions as is commonly the case when conventional Boolean techniques are used. Implementation results are provided that empirically demonstrate the practicality of the linear algebraic model. View full abstract»

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    Terahertz Sensing Technology

    Shur, Michael
    Publication Year: 2006

    IEEE eLearning Library Courses

    Terahertz sensing technology has a promise of many breakthrough and enabling applications including detection of biological and chemical hazardous agents, cancer detection, detection of mines and explosives, enhancement of people, building, and airport security, covert communications (in THz and sub-THz windows), and applications in radioastronomy and space research. This tutorial will review the famous THz gap and the-state-of-the-art of existing THz sources, detectors, and sensing systems. After completing this course you should be able to develop an understanding of: THz sensing of biological material; Broadband THz reflection and transmission detection of concealed objects; THz explosive identification; THz nanocomposite spectroscopy; THz remote sensing. View full abstract»

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    Challenges Near the Limit of CMOS Scaling

    Taur, Yuan
    Publication Year: 2004

    IEEE eLearning Library Courses

    Beginning with a brief review of CMOS scaling trends from 1 µm to 0.1 µm, this tutorial examines the fundamental factors that will ultimately limit CMOS scaling and considers the design issues near the limit of scaling. The fundamental limiting factors are electron thermal energy, tunneling leakage through gate oxide, and 2D electrostatic scale length. Both the standby power and the active power of a processor chip will increase precipitously below the 0.1-µm or 100-nm technology generation. To extend CMOS scaling to the shortest channel length possible while still gaining significant performance benefit, an optimized, vertically and laterally nonuniform doping design (superhalo) is presented. It is projected that room-temperature CMOS will be scaled to 20-nm channel length with the superhalo profile. Low-temperature CMOS allows additional design space to further extend CMOS scaling to near 10 nm. View full abstract»

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    Vision-Based Interaction

    Turk, M. ; Hua, G.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00536ED1V01Y201309COV005
    Copyright Year: 2013

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such as interactive gaming, visualization, art installations, intelligent agent interaction, and various kinds of command and control tasks. Enabling this kind of rich, visual and multimodal interaction requires interactive-time solutions to problems such as detecting and recognizing faces and facial expressions, determining a person's direction of gaze and focus of attention, tracking movement of th body, and recognizing various kinds of gestures. In building technologies for vision-based interaction, there are choices to be made as to the range of possible sensors employed (e.g., single camera, stereo rig, depth camera), the precision and granularity of the desired outputs, the mobility of the solution, usability issues, etc. Practical considerations dictate that there is not a one-size-fits-all solution to the variety of interaction scenarios; however, there are principles and methodological approaches common to a wide range of problems in the domain. While new sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect are having a major influence on the research and practice of vision-based interaction in various settings, they are just a starting point for continued progress in the area. In this book, we discuss the landscape of history, opportunities, and challenges in this area of vision-based interaction; we review the state-of-the-art and seminal works in detecting and recognizing the human b dy and its components; we explore both static and dynamic approaches to "looking at people" vision problems; and we place the computer vision work in the context of other modalities and multimodal applications. Readers should gain a thorough understanding of current and future possibilities of computer vision technologies in the context of human-computer interaction. View full abstract»

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    Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer:Programming and Interfacing

    Barrett, S. ; Pack, D.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00100ED1V01Y200712DCS015
    Copyright Year: 2007

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This textbook provides practicing scientists and engineers a primer on the Atmel AVR microcontroller. Our approach is to provide the fundamental skills to quickly get up and operating with this internationally popular microcontroller. The Atmel ATmega16 is used as a representative sample of the AVR line. The knowledge you gain on the ATmega16 can be easily translated to every other microcontroller in the AVR line. We cover the main subsystems aboard the ATmega16, providing a short theory section followed by a description of the related microcontroller subsystem with accompanying hardware and software to exercise the subsytem. In all examples, we use the C programming language. We conclude with a detailed chapter describing how to interface the microcontroller to a wide variety of input and output devices. Table of Contents: Atmel AVR Architecture Overview / Serial Communication Subsystem / Analog-to-Digital Conversion / Interrupt Subsystem / Timing Subsystem / Atmel AVR Operating Para eters and Interfacing / ATmega16 Register Set / ATmega16 Header File View full abstract»

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    Semantic Breakthrough in Drug Discovery

    Chen, B. ; Wang, H. ; Ding, Y. ; Wild, D.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00600ED1V01Y201409WEB009
    Copyright Year: 2014

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    The current drug development paradigm---sometimes expressed as, ``One disease, one target, one drug''---is under question, as relatively few drugs have reached the market in the last two decades. Meanwhile, the research focus of drug discovery is being placed on the study of drug action on biological systems as a whole, rather than on individual components of such systems. The vast amount of biological information about genes and proteins and their modulation by small molecules is pushing drug discovery to its next critical steps, involving the integration of chemical knowledge with these biological databases. Systematic integration of these heterogeneous datasets and the provision of algorithms to mine the integrated datasets would enable investigation of the complex mechanisms of drug action; however, traditional approaches face challenges in the representation and integration of multi-scale datasets, and in the discovery of underlying knowledge in the integrated datasets. The Sem ntic Web, envisioned to enable machines to understand and respond to complex human requests and to retrieve relevant, yet distributed, data, has the potential to trigger system-level chemical-biological innovations. Chem2Bio2RDF is presented as an example of utilizing Semantic Web technologies to enable intelligent analyses for drug discovery. Table of Contents: Introduction / Data Representation and Integration Using RDF / Data Representation and Integration Using OWL / Finding Complex Biological Relationships in PubMed Articles using Bio-LDA / Integrated Semantic Approach for Systems Chemical Biology Knowledge Discovery / Semantic Link Association Prediction / Conclusions / References / Authors' Biographies View full abstract»

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    The Principles of Delta-Sigma Data Converters

    Temes, Gabor
    Publication Year: 2007

    IEEE eLearning Library Courses

    This course provides a clear understanding of the principles of delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converter operation-analog to digital and digital to analog. It introduces the best computer-aided analysis and design techniques available. The course uses simplified methods to illustrate complicated concepts such as spectral estimation and switched noise. View full abstract»

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    Mechanical Testing for the Biomechanics Engineer:A Practical Guide

    Saunders, M.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00616ED1V01Y201411BME054
    Copyright Year: 2014

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    Mechanical testing is a useful tool in the field of biomechanics. Classic biomechanics employs mechanical testing for a variety of purposes. For instance, testing may be used to determine the mechanical properties of bone under a variety of loading modes and various conditions including age and disease state. In addition, testing may be used to assess fracture fixation procedures to justify clinical approaches. Mechanical testing may also be used to test implants and biomaterials to determine mechanical strength and appropriateness for clinical purposes. While the information from a mechanical test will vary, there are basics that need to be understood to properly conduct mechanical testing. This book will attempt to provide the reader not only with the basic theory of conducting mechanical testing, but will also focus on providing practical insights and examples. Table of Contents: Preface / Fundamentals / Accuracy and Measurement Tools / Design / Testing Machine Design and Fabricati n / Fixture Design and Applications / Additional Considerations in a Biomechanics Test / Laboratory Examples and Additional Equations / Appendices: Practical Orthopedic Biomechanics Problems / Bibliography / Author Biography View full abstract»

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    Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone:Part I

    Barrett, S.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00283ED1V01Y201005DCS029
    Copyright Year: 2010

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This book is about the Arduino microcontroller and the Arduino concept. The visionary Arduino team of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis launched a new innovation in microcontroller hardware in 2005, the concept of open source hardware. Their approach was to openly share details of microcontroller-based hardware design platforms to stimulate the sharing of ideas and promote innovation. This concept has been popular in the software world for many years. This book is intended for a wide variety of audiences including students of the fine arts, middle and senior high school students, engineering design students, and practicing scientists and engineers. To meet this wide audience, the book has been divided into sections to satisfy the need of each reader. The book contains many software and hardware examples to assist the reader in developing a wide variety of systems. For the examples, the Arduino Duemilanove and the Atmel ATmega328 is employed as the target processor. Table of Contents: Getting Started / Programming / Embedded Systems Design / Serial Communication Subsystem / Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) / Interrupt Subsystem / Timing Subsystem / Atmel AVR Operating Parameters and Interfacing View full abstract»

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    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain

    Eccles, W.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00032ED1V01Y200605DCS003
    Copyright Year: 2006

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC and Time Domain and Signals and Filters. These short lecture books will be of use to students at any level of electrical engineering and for practicing engineers, or scientists, in any field looking for a practical and applied introduction to circuits and signals. The author's “pragmatic” and applied style gives a unique and helpful “non-idealistic, practical, opinionated&# 221; introduction to circuits. View full abstract»

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    RFID Security and Privacy

    Li, Y. ; Deng, R. ; Bertino, E.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00550ED1V01Y201311SPT007
    Copyright Year: 2013

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    As a fast-evolving new area, RFID security and privacy has quickly grown from a hungry infant to an energetic teenager during recent years. Much of the exciting development in this area is summarized in this book with rigorous analyses and insightful comments. In particular, a systematic overview on RFID security and privacy is provided at both the physical and network level. At the physical level, RFID security means that RFID devices should be identified with assurance in the presence of attacks, while RFID privacy requires that RFID devices should be identified without disclosure of any valuable information about the devices. At the network level, RFID security means that RFID information should be shared with authorized parties only, while RFID privacy further requires that RFID information should be shared without disclosure of valuable RFID information to any honest-but-curious server which coordinates information sharing. Not only does this book summarize the past, but it also rovides new research results, especially at the network level. Several future directions are envisioned to be promising for advancing the research in this area. View full abstract»

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    Nanotechnology Process Equipment: Tools that Enable the Nanotechnology Revolution

    Tsakalakos, Loucas
    Publication Year: 2012

    IEEE eLearning Library Courses

    Electronics are becoming integrated into all aspects of society and nanotechnology enables faster, lighter, and cheaper devices. Nanotechnology enables us to engineer these devices at the nanoscale and produce them at high volume with low costs. In this tutorial Dr. Tsakalakos discusses the following processes:

    • Crystal growth and an overview of wafer fabrication
    • Clean rooms, contamination control and silicon wafer fabrication equipment
    • Wafer surface preparation and final inspection methods
    • Chemical mechanical polishing and the principles and processes of ion implantation
    • Deposition and metallization and finally
    • Process and device evaluation and clustering and automation
    View full abstract»

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    PSpice for Circuit Theory and Electronic Devices

    Tobin, P.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00068ED1V01Y200611DCS007
    Copyright Year: 2007

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    PSpice for Circuit Theory and Electronic Devices is one of a series of five PSpice books and introduces the latest Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 by simulating a range of DC and AC exercises. It is aimed primarily at those wishing to get up to speed with this version but will be of use to high school students, undergraduate students, and of course, lecturers. Circuit theorems are applied to a range of circuits and the calculations by hand after analysis are then compared to the simulated results. The Laplace transform and the s-plane are used to analyze CR and LR circuits where transient signals are involved. Here, the Probe output graphs demonstrate what a great learning tool PSpice is by providing the reader with a visual verification of any theoretical calculations. Series and parallel-tuned resonant circuits are investigated where the difficult concepts of dynamic impedance and selectivity are best understood by sweeping different circuit parameters through a range of values. O taining semiconductor device characteristics as a laboratory exercise has fallen out of favour of late, but nevertheless, is still a useful exercise for understanding or modelling semiconductor devices. Inverting and non-inverting operational amplifiers characteristics such as gain-bandwidth are investigated and we will see the dependency of bandwidth on the gain using the performance analysis facility. Power amplifiers are examined where PSpice/Probe demonstrates very nicely the problems of cross-over distortion and other problems associated with power transistors. We examine power supplies and the problems of regulation, ground bounce, and power factor correction. Lastly, we look at MOSFET device characteristics and show how these devices are used to form basic CMOS logic gates such as NAND and NOR gates. View full abstract»

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    Dual Port SRAM - Writing Bit Cell During Word Line Collision

    Sheppard, Douglas
    Publication Year: 2011

    IEEE eLearning Library Courses

    The interaction in the array between the two ports can have some adverse effects that must be evaluated when designing a Dual Port SRAM, especially when one of the ports is doing a write. This tutorial takes a close look at a ?Word Line collision? that occurs when one port is writing while the other port is reading the same row. SPICE simulation waveforms will be evaluated showing the interaction that can occur through the bit cell and affect what happens on the bit lines between the two ports. The situation where both ports access the same bit cell while one port is reading and the other port is writing is also evaluated. View full abstract»

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    Introduction to Power Electronics

    Torrey, David
    Publication Year: 2006

    IEEE eLearning Library Courses

    This tutorial is intended for those who are new to the field of power electronics. It discusses the disciplines that support power electronics, and provides some motivational examples that serve to illustrate how the form of power converters is developed to perform a function. Some elements of how power converters are controlled is also covered. The tutorial ends with a discussion of relevant reference materials. View full abstract»

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    Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer:Programming and Interfacing, Second Edition

    Barrett, S. ; Pack, D.
    DOI: 10.2200/S00427ED1V01Y201206DCS039
    Copyright Year: 2012

    Morgan and Claypool eBooks

    This textbook provides practicing scientists and engineers a primer on the Atmel AVR microcontroller. In this second edition we highlight the popular ATmega164 microcontroller and other pin-for-pin controllers in the family with a complement of flash memory up to 128 kbytes. The second edition also adds a chapter on embedded system design fundamentals and provides extended examples on two different autonomous robots. Our approach is to provide the fundamental skills to quickly get up and operating with this internationally popular microcontroller. We cover the main subsystems aboard the ATmega164, providing a short theory section followed by a description of the related microcontroller subsystem with accompanying hardware and software to exercise the subsystem. In all examples, we use the C programming language. We include a detailed chapter describing how to interface the microcontroller to a wide variety of input and output devices and conclude with several system level examples. Ta le of Contents: Atmel AVR Architecture Overview / Serial Communication Subsystem / Analog-to-Digital Conversion / Interrupt Subsystem / Timing Subsystem / Atmel AVR Operating Parameters and Interfacing / Embedded Systems Design View full abstract»

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