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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 5 • Sep. 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):361 - 362
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB)

    The first chapter of this commemorative issue is devoted to the subject of computer systems architecture and development. It contains eight papers dealing with different facets of the evolution of modern computer systems at IBM over approximately the last three decades, beginning with the design of an experimental electronic stored-program machine in 1949 and covering the latest principal extensio... View full abstract»

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  • The Architecture of IBM's Early Computers

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):363 - 376
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1270 KB)

    Most of the early computers made by IBM for commercial production are briefly described with an emphasis on architecture and performance. The description covers a period of fifteen years, starting with the design of an experimental machine in 1949 and extending to, but not including, the announcement in 1964 of System/360. View full abstract»

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  • System/360 and Beyond

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):377 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1173 KB)

    The evolution of modern large-scale computer architecture within IBM is described, starting with the announcement of System/360 in 1964 and covering the latest extensions to System/370. Emphasis is placed on key attributes and on the motivation for providing them, and an assessment is made of the experience gained in the implementation and use of the architecture. The main approaches are discussed... View full abstract»

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  • IBM Data Communications: A Quarter Century of Evolution and Progress

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):391 - 404
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1236 KB)

    This paper describes the evolution of technological development in data communications at IBM. Rather than attempting to present a complete history, it emphasizes the changing environment and describes the more significant innovations that were incorporated in IBM's line of data communications products. Evolutionary developments in this area are traced from point-to-point batch transmission, to on... View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Systems for Federal Applications: A Review of Significant Technological Developments

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):405 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)

    The Federal Systems Division of IBM has been heavily involved in complex, on-line, real-time systems for over twenty-five years. In this paper a representative sample of these programs are reviewed, and an evaluation of the significant lessons learned from this wealth of experience is presented. The key issues which differentiate real-time systems from their more conventional data processing count... View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of Real-Time Computer Systems for Manned Spaceflight

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):417 - 428
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB)

    This paper describes the evolution of ground-based command and control systems used to support NASA's manned spaceflight program; it is an encapsulation of twenty years of development of real-time command and control systems at NASA's Real-Time Computer Complex (RTCC) in Houston, Texas. A brief description of manned spaceflight programs, their accomplishments, and IBM's involvement is provided as ... View full abstract»

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  • Low-End General-Purpose Systems

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):429 - 440
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1062 KB)

    Since the announcement of the IBM System/3 in 1969, IBM has been incorporating leading-edge technology in products referred to as small general-purpose systems. With the many models of the System/3, System/32, System/34, and System/38, IBM has introduced many technological advances addressing the needs of diverse customers, from the novice, first-time user to the experienced user in the distribute... View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of Small Real-Time IBM Computer Systems

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):441 - 452
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1033 KB)

    In parallel with the development of data processing applications for computers, effort was directed to other areas in which computers might provide benefits for the user. One early effort was the application of computers to the monitoring and control of industrial processes such as those used in oil refinery units, steel plants, and paper machines. Over time, these early efforts were generalized t... View full abstract»

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  • Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability of IBM Computer Systems: A Quarter Century of Progress

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):453 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1155 KB)

    Computer systems have achieved significant progress in the areas of technology, performance, capability, and RAS (reliability/availability/serviceability) during the last quarter century. In this paper, we shall review the advances of IBM computer systems in the RAS area. This progress has for the most part been evolutionary; however, in some cases it has been revolutionary. RAS developments have ... View full abstract»

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  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):469 - 470
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)

    This chapter of the twenty-fifth anniversary issue of the IBM Journal of Research and Development deals with computer science and software technology. When publication of the Journal began, the cost of software development was a small fraction of the total cost of developing a computer system. Now, the larger part of the development dollar is spent on software, and user programs add to this cost. ... View full abstract»

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  • The Evolution of the MVS Operating System

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):471 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)

    The mechanization of computer operations and the extension of hardware functions are seen as the basic purposes of an operating system. An operating system must fulfill those purposes while providing stability and continuity to its users. Starting with the data processing environment of twenty-five years ago, this paper describes the forces that led to the development of the OS/360 system design a... View full abstract»

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  • The Origin of the VM/370 Time-Sharing System

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):483 - 490
    Cited by:  Papers (64)  |  Patents (48)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (697 KB)

    VM/370 is an operating system which provides its multiple users with seemingly separate and independent IBM System/370 computing systems. These virtual machines are simulated using IBM System/370 hardware and have its same architecture. In addition, VM/370 provides a single-user interactive system for personal computing and a computer network system for information interchange among interconnected... View full abstract»

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  • The IBM History of Memory Management Technology

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):491 - 492
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1275 KB)

    The history of memory management technology in IBM during the period between the 1950s and the early 70s is discussed in this paper. The paper concentrates on the programming and operating system aspects of the problem, rather than the hardware technology involved. View full abstract»

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  • Data Base Technology

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):505 - 519
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1215 KB)

    The evolution of data base technology over the past twenty-five years is surveyed, and major IBM contributions to this technology are identified and briefly described. View full abstract»

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  • History of IBM's Technical Contributions to High Level Programming Languages

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):520 - 534
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1320 KB)

    This paper discusses IBM's technical contributions to high level programming languages from the viewpoint of specific languages and their contributions to the technology. The philosophy used in this paper is that it is the appropriate collection of features in a language which generally makes the contribution to the technology, rather than an individual feature. Those IBM languages deemed to have ... View full abstract»

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  • The History of Language Processor Technology in IBM

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):535 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1209 KB)

    The history of language processor technology in IBM is described in this paper. Most of the paper is devoted to compiler technology; interpreters, assemblers, and macro systems are discussed briefly. The emphasis is on scientific contributions and technological advances from a historical perspective. The synergistic relationship between theory and practice is a subtheme. View full abstract»

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  • Formal Semantics of Programming Languages: VDL

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):549 - 561
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1014 KB)

    The history of ideas that led to the first formalization of the syntax and semantics of PL/I is sketched. The definition method and notation are known as the Vienna Definition Language (VDL). The paper examines the relationship between VDL and both denotational semantics and the axiomatic approach to programming language definition. View full abstract»

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  • IBM Contributions to Computer Performance Modeling

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):562 - 570
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    Performance modeling can be used throughout the life of a computer system, from initial design, through implementation, configuration (and reconfiguration) and even tuning. Performance models are usually solved by numerical techniques, where possible, and by simulation, otherwise. This paper summarizes IBM's contributions to performance modeling and the solution of performance models. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Modeling in Energy and the Environment

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):571 - 582
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)

    Computer modeling has played a significant role in the evaluation of possible sources of energy as well as the consequences of the use of energy on the environment. In this paper the contributions of IBM scientists to improve models in the fields of air pollution, solar energy, plasma physics, coal gasification, and energy conservation are summarized. These contributions include not only better nu... View full abstract»

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  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):583 - 584
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB)

    The past twenty-five years have been marked by unprecedented progress in electronic component development, progress which has provided increases of many orders of magnitude in measures of component performance. This has led to remarkable improvements in the performance, cost, and reliability of computer systems. Much of this progress had been provided by the advances in semiconductor technology an... View full abstract»

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  • Solid State Memory Development in IBM

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):585 - 602
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1694 KB)

    Memory technology in IBM processors has undergone a 280,000-fold increase in density, a 20,000 times decrease in power per bit, and a 10 to 100 times increase in speed during the last twenty-five years. These improvements have brought many advantages to users of information processing equipment, including a 650-fold reduction in the cost per bit of memory. During this period, processor memory tech... View full abstract»

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  • Semiconductor Logic Technology in IBM

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):603 - 616
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1219 KB)

    In the last twenty-five years the performance of integrated circuits has improved by more than three orders of magnitude and the unit cost has been reduced by approximately the same factor. This paper describes the evolution of semiconductor logic technology in IBM from its early replacement of vacuum tubes in the mid-1950s to the beginnings of VLSI. It highlights the major challenges and accompli... View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Packaging Evolution in IBM

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):617 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1328 KB)

    A quarter century of innovation in the development of packaging for semiconductors has culminated in the announcement of the IBM 4300 Series of computers and the IBM 3081. This technology has been built on a broad and expanding base starting with packaging for the 1400 Series in the late 1950s. In the next series, System/360, IBM chose to follow a unique approach which employed solder joints for t... View full abstract»

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  • Design Automation in IBM

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):631 - 646
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1447 KB)

    Within the context of the changing design requirements of digital systems spanning the semiconductor era, this paper describes the significant steps in the development of Design Automation technology in IBM. We cover the design tools which support the design of the electronic portion of such systems. The paper emphasizes the systems approaches taken and the topics of design verification, test gene... View full abstract»

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  • Semiconductor Manufacturing in IBM, 1957 to the Present: A Perspective

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):647 - 660
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1125 KB)

    Over the past twenty-five years we have witnessed the transition from germanium-based, individual transistors in their hermetically sealed enclosures to VLSI silicon devices interconnected in modular packages containing more than 50,000 logic circuits or as many as 500,000 bits of random-access memory. During this progression, manufacturing facilities producing these modern products have become mo... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center