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IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems

Issue 1 • March 1970

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • [Table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Man-Machine Systems Group

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial: Dynamic Tactile Displays in Man-Machine Systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): 1
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  • The Afferent Discharge Elicited by Vibrotactile Stimulation

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):2 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2654 KB)

    When skin is mechanically stimulated, differentreceptor systems will be activated depending upon the type of skin stimulated and stimulus characteristics such as rate and amplitude of displacement and repetition frequency. The general properties of the primary mechano-receptive units are (for the rapidly adapting intracutaneous receptors) low thresholds, restricted receptive field, relatively good... View full abstract»

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  • Choice of Stimulator Frequency for Tactile Arrays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):5 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1632 KB)

    An experiment is described that tested subjects' ability to recognize letters presented tactually by an array of airjets in a manner simulating a moving belt. Recognition accuracy was measured as a function of reading rate and stimulator frequency. For constant stimulus pulsewidth, performance increased significantly as stimulator-repetition rate was increased from 20 to 160 pps. A second experime... View full abstract»

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  • The Measurement of Fluctuation in Perceptual and Learning Tasks

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):11 - 19
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    In psychophysical experiments subjects always produce responses that are not nearly as constant as the stimuli presented in laboratory conditions. In this study the fluctuation of responses is described as originating in the nervous system. This description requires a definition of three quantities: a measure for the total neural activity elicited by the stimulus, the fluctuation of this activity ... View full abstract»

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  • Subjective Magnitude Functions for Vibrotaction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB)

    An investigation of the subjective magnitude of vibrotaction was undertaken in order to 1) determine the growth of sensation as a function of intensity at a number of different frequencies; 2) establish contours of equal subjective intensity for vibrotaction; and 3) compare the psychophysical methods of direct scaling and intensity matching for a wide range of intensity and frequency. The results ... View full abstract»

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  • Temporal Ordering of Events in Haptic Space

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):25 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1920 KB)

    The most rapid acquisition of skill in the use of complex vibrotactile displays will occur when the capabilities of the organism are most efficiently exploited by the display code. When spatiotemporal patterns are chosen as the coding scheme, the problem of perception of temporal order is of great importance. The present paper describes the effects on the limen for order of two events, of the qual... View full abstract»

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  • Some Comparisons between Touch and Hearing

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):28 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1939 KB)

    The skin can be used for sound localization with accuracy nearly as good as that for hearing. However, auditory sound localization is based on the utilization of both intensive-difference and temporal-difference cues while cutaneous sound localization is based almost entirely on the utilization of only intensive-difference cues. Furthermore, the time interval necessary for resolving two temporally... View full abstract»

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  • Stimulus Feature Detection by Neurons in Somatosensory Areas I and II of Primates

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):36 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB)

    The responses of individual neurons in the cerebral cortex of unanesthetized macaques to moving cutaneous stimuli are described. In somatic sensory area I, 70 percent of the neurons studied exhibit a directional polarization to stimuli moving in opposite direction. In somatic sensory area II, the magnitude of responses is determined by more complex concatenations of stimulus properties, as regards... View full abstract»

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  • Sensory Role of Impulses Traveling in the Dorsal Columns

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):39 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2524 KB)

    In the classical theory of cutaneous sensation, detailed discrimination depends on impulses conducted to cortex over the newly evolved dorsal columns. This idea is no longer tenable because, when this system is destroyed, animals can still discriminate weight, texture, vibration, two points, and position. If all parallel ascending systems are destroyed except for the dorsal columns, the dorsal col... View full abstract»

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  • Visual Word Reading

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):44 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5765 KB)

    In an attempt to gain more knowledge about the human reading process, some experiments were performed using a computer-controlled array of 144 neon lights to simulate a "moving belt" of English text. Subjects were asked to read aloud as the width of the display and horizontal resolution over the display were varied. For the variable-width high-resolution conditions, excellent comprehension was obt... View full abstract»

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  • Perceptual Findings with the Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):54 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3947 KB)

    The initial evaluation of a system for converting an optical image into a tactile display is reported. A 400-tactor array has proved capable of providing blind and sighted subjects with useful information about the disposition of objects in three dimensions. External localization of percepts was greatly facilitated by giving observers control of the sensing and imaging device, a television camera.... View full abstract»

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  • Optical-to-Tactile Image Conversion for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (142)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5232 KB)

    This paper describes two optical-to-tactile imageconversion systems being developed for the blind. The first is a reading aid in which an area on the printed page about the size of a letterspace is translated into a corresponding vibratory tactile image. The tactile image is produced by a 24-by-6 array of pins driven by piezoelectric bimorphs. The array of 144 pins fits on the distal and a portion... View full abstract»

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  • Tactile Television - Mechanical and Electrical Image Projection

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2768 KB)

    The feasibility of communicating pictorial information through the skin has been demonstrated. A tactile television system has permitted blind subjects to determine the position, size, shape, and orientation of visible objects and to track moving targets. The system comprises 1) a vidicon camera utilizing a zoom lens, 2) a digital switching matrix to sequentially connect each element of the photoc... View full abstract»

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  • An Electrotactile Display

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB)

    An explorable electrotactile display has been constructed and tested. A thus far neglected sensation was identified and has been shown to be more useful than the more common electrotactile sensations. Exploration of the surface of the electrotactile display elicits a sensation describable as texture. Experiments have indicated that the intensity of this texture sensation is due primarily to the pe... View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB)

    The possibility that the mechanical characteristics of skin and tissues may influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of tactile sensitivity is considered. A survey of selected literature indicating how certain mechanical characteristics of skin and tissue vary as a function of changes in variables known to influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of the tactile system... View full abstract»

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  • Information Transmission by Phantom Sensations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (77)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1628 KB)

    A sensory-aids display system that transmits information to its user through the location of a vibratory sensation on the skin has been developed. The sensation location is controlled by use of the phantom-sensation phenomenon. The development of the display included the determination of sensory and mechanical characteristics of the skin. The system was evaluated as a kinesthetic feedback display ... View full abstract»

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  • A Describing Function Analysis of Tracking Performance Using Two Tactile Displays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):92 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4785 KB)

    A display consisting of two vibrators attached to the body was tested using three different error signal-to-vibration amplitude transformations. In addition, a novel ripple display consisting of seven sequentially activated air-jet stimulators was tested on a compensatory tracking task. For both displays the range of gains and body locations were determined by both describing-function and error-po... View full abstract»

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  • A Provisional Bibliography on Tactile Displays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):101 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2375 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Neurophysiological Basis of a Tactile Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):108 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1239 KB)

    The instrumentation produced and the results obtained with the tactile vision-substitution system (TVSS) developed in our laboratories have been described by Collins [1] and White [2]. With the TVSS, the information from a TV camera is carried to the brain by means of the tactile receptors in the skin of the back and their neural pathways. Such information produces subjective impressions in blind ... View full abstract»

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  • Kinesthetic Sensing for the EMG Controlled "Boston Arm"

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):110 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2882 KB)

    The contribution of a novel cutaneous display of elbow angle to an amputee's ability to position an EMG-controlled externally powered elbow prosthesis was objectively evaluated. Comparisons were made between the amputee's positional control of his conventional mechanical cable-operated elbow and the EMG "Boston Arm"l elbow, with and without angle feedback, in REACHING tasks with vision occluded in... View full abstract»

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  • Neural Activity in the Somatic Primary Receiving Area of the Human Brain and Its Relation to Perceptual Estimates

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):115 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (867 KB)

    Experiments were performed to establish the relation between scales of perceived intensity and primary cortical potentials obtained under identical stimulation conditions. When the maximal positive-negative deflection of the primary component of the averaged evoked potential was plotted against stimulus displacement, all data were well represented by power functions with exponents of nearly the sa... View full abstract»

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  • Excerpts from the Plenary Session

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):117 - 119
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):120 - 122
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