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Improved Rear Surface Passivation of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: A Combination of an Al2O3 Rear Surface Passivation Layer and Nanosized Local Rear Point Contacts

Figure 1

Figure 1
SEM cross-section picture of a Mo/CIGS structure with a cell efficiency potential of 20.0% (taken from [4]).

Figure 2

Figure 2
Schematic drawing of (a) the conventional full Al back surface field p-type Si solar cell and (b) the passivated emitter and rear p-type Si solar cell (taken from [7]).

Figure 3

Figure 3
Comparison of open-circuit voltages as a function of Si substrate thickness for (▪) rear surface passivated industrial PERC (i-PERC) cells and (Graphic 1) standard full Al BSF reference cells (taken from [20]).

Figure 4

Figure 4
Proposed CIGS solar cell design to reduce back contact recombination, by combining a rear surface passivation layer and local rear point contacts.

Figure 5

Figure 5
SEM pictures of (a) a particle-rich CdS layer grown on a SLG/Mo substrate and (b) the same substrate after CdS particle removal (taken from [27]).

Figure 6

Figure 6
Calculated rear internal reflection as a function of wavelength and Al2O3 layer thickness for a Mo/(CdS/)Al2O3/CIGS device [29].

Figure 7

Figure 7
Top-view optical microscopy pictures after particle removal of SLG/Mo/particle-rich-CdS/Al2O3 samples as a function Al2O3 layer thickness.

Figure 8

Figure 8
Representative J–V curves for (a) Al2O3 rear surface passivated CIGS solar cells without nanosized LRPC, (b) Al2O3 rear surface passivated CIGS cells with nanosized LRPC, and (c) Al2O3 rear surface passivated CIGS cells having nanosized LRPC and an additional NaF layer evaporated on top of the Al2O3 layer (after particle removal). In all examples, the Al2O3 and CIGS layer thickness are around 5.0 nm and 1.58 μm, respectively. In each case, 10 random J–V curves are shown, and the average fill factor is given.

Figure 9

Figure 9
Average (a) cell conversion efficiency, (b) open-circuit voltage, and (c) short-circuit current as a function of CIGS absorber layer thickness for Al2O3 rear surface passivated CIGS solar cells having nanosized LRPC compared with unpassivated reference CIGS cells. For each CIGS thickness, the same optimized NaF thickness is used for both the passivated and the unpassivated cells. Standard deviation is shown as error bars.