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High-Bandgap Solar Cells for Underwater Photovoltaic Applications

Figure 1

Figure 1
Solar spectrum at various depths in representative littoral water.

Figure 2

Figure 2
Total solar intensity as a function of depth from Fig. 1.

Figure 3

Figure 3
EQE of a silicon cell compared with a GaInP cell.

Figure 4

Figure 4
J–V curves for silicon and GaInP cells under a simulated spectrum of Jerlov III water type, 5-m deep.

Figure 5

Figure 5
Photograph of the UW payload.

Figure 6

Figure 6
Schematic of the UW test setup.

Figure 7

Figure 7
Measured solar irradiance transmission in Key West Harbor versus water depth.

Figure 8

Figure 8
Measured solar transmission versus depth of 551-nm light. Measured data are square, the line is a fit to (1).

Figure 9

Figure 9
Calculated solar irradiance attenuation coefficients for Key West.

Figure 10

Figure 10
Output power density of GaInP and silicon cells versus water depth normalized to an input power density at the surface of 100 mW/cm2.

Figure 11

Figure 11
Effect of water surface roughness on the I–V curve at 2.7-meters depth. Data points were taken ∼ 100 ms apart.