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Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!

Figure 1

Figure 1
Rain attenuation in dB/km across frequency at various rainfall rates [26]. The rain attenuation at 28 GHz has an attenuation of 7 dB/km for a very heavy rainfall of 25 mm/hr (about 1 inch per hour). If cell coverage regions are 200 m in radius, the rain attenuation will reduce to 1.4 dB.

Figure 2

Figure 2
Atmospheric absorption across mm-wave frequencies in dB/km [1]. The attenuation caused by atmospheric absorption is 0.012 dB over 200 m at 28 GHz and 0.016 dB over 200 m at 38 GHz. Frequencies from 70 to 100 GHz and 125 to 160 GHz also have small loss.

Figure 3

Figure 3
Block diagram of the (a) TX and (b) RX for the mm-wave propagation measurements at 28 GHz in New York City.

Figure 4

Figure 4
Map of the penetration measurements through multiple obstructions in an office environment located at the 10th floor of 2 MetroTech Center in Brooklyn, New York. The TX location is represented by a yellow star, the RX locations where signals can be acquired are represented by green circles, and the RX locations where weak signals can be detected are in red triangles. The black cross denotes an outage [28].

Figure 5

Figure 5
Images of the 28 GHz reflection measurement for outdoor tinted glass at ORH (top left), outdoor concrete wall at ORH (top right), penetration loss measurement for indoor clear non-tinted glass at MTC (bottom left) and tinted glass at ORH (bottom right) [28].

Figure 6

Figure 6
Measured path loss values relative to 5 m free space path loss for 28 GHz outdoor cellular channels. These path loss values were measured using a 24.5 dBi narrow beam antenna. The antennas were rotated in the azimuth plane, recording measurements at 10° incremental steps. The values in the legend represent the PLE of each environment (LOS and NLOS) [31].

Figure 7

Figure 7
Map showing all Manhattan coverage cells with radii of 200 m and their different sectors. Measurements were recorded for each of the 25 RX sites from each of the three TX sites (yellow stars). Signal Acquired means that signal was detected and acquired. Signal Detected means that signal was detected, but low SNR prevented data acquisition by the system [31].

Figure 8

Figure 8
Maximum coverage distance at 28 GHz with 119 dB maximum path loss dynamic range without antenna gains and 10 dB SNR, as a function of path loss exponent n.

Figure 9

Figure 9
Polar plot showing the received power at a NLOS location. This plot shows an AOA measurement at the RX on Greene and Broadway from the TX on the five-story Kaufman building (78 m T-R separation). The polar plot shows the received power in dBm, the number of resolvable multipath components, the path loss in dB with respect to the 5 m free space reference, and RMS delay spread with varying RX azimuth angles [31].

Figure 10

Figure 10
Power delay profiles measured over a 10-wavelength linear track at 28 GHz. The RX was 135 meters away from the TX. The TX and RX were pointed for maximum signal power. Track step size was half wavelength using 24.5 dBi horn antennas with beamwidths of 10.9° on the TX and RX.

Figure 11

Figure 11
Path loss scatter plot using 25 dBi Rx antenna at 38 GHz. LOS and NLOS measurements have path loss exponents of 2.30 and 3.86, respectively, while the best NLOS links have a path loss exponent of 3.2 [35].

Figure 12

Figure 12
RMS delay spread as a function of arc length at 38 GHz. The delay spread decreases over longer arc lengths, which indicates that distance surmounts angle in determining delay spread. Nevertheless, a close-up of low arc lengths shows the angle playing a larger role in determining delay spread [35].

Figure 13

Figure 13
RMS delay spread as a function of TX-RX separation for all links using all possible pointing angles at 28 GHz in New York City. The green stars and blue circles denote the RMS delay spread in the NLOS and LOS measurement locations, respectively.

Figure 14

Figure 14
RMS delay spread as a function of TX-RX separation for all links using all possible pointing angles at 38 GHz in Austin, Texas. The green stars and blue circles denote the RMS delay spread in the NLOS and LOS environment, respectively.

Figure 15

Figure 15
Cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the RMS delay spread at 28 GHz measured for all links using all possible pointing angles in the dense urban environment in New York City. The CDFs for LOS and NLOS links over all TX-RX locations are distinguished by the extremely low delay spread in LOS, and extremely mutative spreads in NLOS.

Figure 16

Figure 16
CDF of the RMS delay spread of the 38 GHz cellular channel for all links using all possible pointing angles measured in Austin, Texas [23].

Figure 17

Figure 17
RMS delay spread as a function of path loss over all viable pointing angles at 28 GHz in New York City. The blue triangles represent the measured RMS delay spread and the red line denotes a linear fit for the average RMS delay spread.

Figure 18

Figure 18
RMS delay spread as a function of path loss over all viable pointing angles at 38 GHz in Austin, Texas. The blue triangles represent the measured RMS delay spread, and the red line denotes a linear fit for the average RMS delay spread.

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