Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window
 

IEEE Quick Preview
  • Abstract

SECTION I

INTRODUCTION

IN THE United States, vehicular collisions kill, on average, 116 and injure 7900 people per day [22]. In 2009, more than 33 800 people were killed in police-reported motor vehicle traffic crashes, and about 2.2 million people were injured [2], with an estimated economic cost of $230 billion. The situation in the European Union is similar, with about 43 000 deaths and 1.8 million people injured per year, for an estimated cost of Formula${{\hskip1pt}{\ssr C} {\hskip-7pt} \raise2.4pt \hbox{$\buildrel{\vrule depth0.5pt width5.5pt}\over{\vrule depth0.5pt width5pt}$}{\hskip2pt}}$160 billion [9]. In 2009, light vehicle crashes accounted for 68% of all motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and, of those light vehicle fatalities, 26% were from side impacts [2], suggesting crashes at intersections or on roadways close to and leading to intersections. These statistics clearly indicate that crashes at intersections have a major impact on the total number of crashes and fatalities in the United States. Furthermore, unlike other high-percentage crashes, such as road departure and rear end, for which radar and camera-based forward collision systems are now available, there is currently no established technology to address side-impact collisions at intersections.

Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications are setting the basis for establishing this missing technology by having vehicles cooperate with each other and with the surrounding infrastructure, sharing information about the environment and improving overall situational awareness. Therefore, intelligent transportation systems for intervehicle cooperative (active) safety have been the subject of intense research worldwide in government and industry consortia, such as the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership and Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium in the United States, the Car2Car Communications Consortium in Europe, and the Advanced Safety Vehicle project 3 in Japan.

Since cooperative active safety systems are life critical, ad hoc algorithms for preventing collisions are not acceptable. Instead, there is a compelling need for employing methodologies that provide formal safety guarantees, such as those found in the control theory and computer science literature [18], [24], [26]. Specifically, the collision avoidance problem can be addressed by computing the set of states, which are called the backward reachable set or the capture set, that lead to an unsafe configuration (a collision) independently of the input choice [26]. Then, a feedback map is computed that restricts the control inputs when necessary to prevent entrance in the capture set. While this approach is theoretically appealing because it ensures safety by construction and applies overrides only when necessary, its practical applicability is often limited by the complexity associated with the computation of the capture set [15], [27]. Researchers have been tackling computational issues by, among other approaches, focusing on restricted classes of systems [3], [11], [13], [14].

In this paper, we employ the techniques in [14], which lead to linear complexity algorithms that are implementable in real-time applications. Furthermore, the results in [14], as opposed to the others, guarantee safety in the presence of imperfect state information, due, for example, to sensor noise or communication delays, and only need a coarse model of the vehicle dynamics. We focus on a two-vehicle collision avoidance scenario at intersections and develop a decentralized control algorithm that uses V2V communication to determine whether automatic control is needed to prevent a collision. We prevent a collision through automatic control by only actuating the brake and throttle, but not steering, and assuming that drivers follow nominal paths as established by the driving lanes. In our intersection collision avoidance (ICA) application, the drivers retain full control of the vehicle until the system configuration hits the capture set. At this point, a control action is necessary to prevent a collision, and automatic throttle or brake is applied to both vehicles in a coordinated fashion so that one vehicle enters the intersection only after the other has exited. After the crash has been prevented, the driver regains control of the brake and throttle. We report on the implementation of our algorithms on two instrumented Lexus IS 250 test vehicles engaged in a collision avoidance scenario at a test intersection at the Toyota Technical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Related Work

The employment of formal methods in intelligent transportation has been previously applied by the California PATH project in the 1990s. The objective of the automated highway systems project was to deploy fully autonomous highway systems incorporating vehicle platoons to increase traffic throughput, safety, and fuel efficiency [4]. More recently, work that employs job-scheduling techniques [8], [17] and optimal control [19] for ICA has appeared. Collision warning algorithms have also been proposed for general traffic scenarios [7], [28] and for intersections [6], [12]. Although different in scope, research on collision mitigation through emergency braking [16] is also related to our work. Directly related to this paper are experimental works on full-scale vehicle test-beds focusing on collision avoidance/warning at intersections, which leverage V2V communication [20], [21]. Specifically, in [20], a fuzzy controller to manage vehicles crossing an intersection is proposed. In [21], onboard vehicle hazard detection that uses V2V is developed to warn the driver about dangerous situations. In these papers, formal safety guarantees are not provided, and cooperation between vehicles is not leveraged to provide least restrictive warnings/overrides. Here, we bridge the gap between formal methods and cooperative collision avoidance systems at intersections by developing/testing an experimental cooperative collision avoidance system based on formal control theoretic techniques.

SECTION II

PROBLEM OVERVIEW

We consider the intersection scenario shown in Fig. 1(a), in which two vehicles approach an intersection and can potentially collide in the indicated red shaded area. A collision may occur for a number of reasons, including a distracted driver not seeing the incoming vehicle, underestimating the vehicle speed, and violating red lights or stop signs. We seek to design controllers on board each vehicle that use V2V communication to negotiate the intersection and apply automatic control only when it is absolutely necessary to prevent a collision.

Figure 1
Fig. 1. (a) ICA scenario with the red area denoting the bad (collision) set. Vehicle displacement is considered along the path. Formula$L^{i}$ determines the lower limit of the bad set along vehicle Formula$i$ path, whereas Formula$U^{i}$ determines the upper limit of the bad set along vehicle Formula$i$ path. (b) Bad set in state-space Formula$X$. It is the interval Formula$]L^{1}, H^{1}[\ \times\ ]L^{2}, H^{2}[$ in the Formula$X_{1}$ (displacement) space for every value of the speeds (vertical axis) of the two vehicles. (c) Modified Lexus IS 250 vehicles used in the experiments. (d) Top-down view of the test track where the experiments were performed.

We assume that, after making high-level route decisions, drivers follow predefined (known) paths as established by driving lanes. Under this assumption, the methodology that we propose can be applied to any path geometry at an intersection. Here, we consider the specific intersection scenario in Fig. 1(a) to be consistent with the geometry of the test intersection employed in the experiments [see Fig. 1(d)]. Collisions between two vehicles are prevented only by controlling the longitudinal velocity and displacement of each vehicle along its path, never controlling vehicle steering. We assume that each vehicle is equipped with sensors for state measurement (absolute position, heading, velocity, acceleration, brake torque, and pedal position), V2V communication, and the ability to automatically actuate the throttle and brake. We assume that our collision avoidance system is active well before the vehicles approach the intersection, preventing initial vehicle configurations generating unavoidable collision. Under the given assumptions, the safety algorithms that we illustrate here guarantee that the vehicles will never collide.

A. Test Vehicles and Test Track

The test vehicles used in this work are modified Lexus IS 250 (2007) test vehicles [see Fig. 1(c)]. The modifications include: computer running a Linux operating system; Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) for position, absolute time, and heading measurement; Denso Wireless Safety Unit (WSU) capable of V2V and V2I dedicated short-range communications (DSRC); connection to the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus to read information from vehicle sensors (velocity, acceleration, brake pedal position, transmission state, etc.); and a CAN bus interface with brake and throttle actuators.

The computer system is well affixed inside the wheel. The purpose of this system is to interface with all onboard vehicle sensors and actuators, in a manner that allows for rapid development, deployment, and testing of software applications. The computer runs an Ubuntu Linux distribution and consists of an Intel Core-Duo 2.0-GHz processor, 1-GB random-access memory, a 150-GB hard drive, and a motherboard with onboard ethernet and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. A USB video card is connected to the vehicle navigation display unit and a wireless keyboard is used to control the computer from the passenger seat. The computer can read and write to the CAN bus via a USB adapter. To communicate between vehicles and interface with a DGPS unit, a Denso WSU is connected via ethernet, which is an after-market industry standard (planned) in communication and control for V2V and V2I safety systems [23].

The onboard DGPS unit is capable of 0.45-m accuracy for absolute position, 1.5o accuracy for absolute heading, and 0.1-s accuracy for absolute time. The measurement update rate is 10 Hz. Other sensors include: 1) an accelerometer, which is based on microelectromechanical systems technology, capable of 0.5-Formula$\hbox{m/s}^{2}$ accuracy; 2) a speedometer, measuring average speed at the wheel, capable of 0.5-m/s accuracy; 3) throttle pedal measurement, which is capable of 0.5% accuracy; and 4) brake torque applied at the wheel, which is capable of 0.5-Nm accuracy. The vehicle brake controller is modified to accept brake commands from the computer via CAN bus messages. The drive-by-wire [sends engine control unit (ECU) electric signals over the CAN bus] throttle pedal is modified to allow computer-issued commands via CAN bus messages to create throttle pedal signals to the ECU. Communication is carried out by the Denso WSU unit. The message standard is the DSRC, which is broadcast at the 5.9-GHz band, dedicated to V2V and V2I communication. The WSU is connected to a top mounted antenna [see Fig. 1(a)]. Communication is carried out with a broadcast network topology, that is, messages transmitted by a sender can be received by any listener in-range.

SECTION III

SOLUTION APPROACH

The general solution approach is based on formally encoding the requirement of no-collision into a bad set of vehicle speed and position configurations to be avoided. Then, based on the vehicle dynamical model, we calculate the capture set, which is the set of all vehicle configurations that enter the bad set independently of any throttle/brake control action. Once the capture set is computed, we determine a throttle/brake control map for both vehicles that keeps the system state outside of the capture set at all times. This control map applies throttle and brake inputs only when the system configuration hits the boundary of the capture set. Otherwise, no control action is applied, and the driver has full control of the vehicle.

The computations of the capture set and of the control map are usually very demanding, require an exact description of the system dynamics, and assume perfect information on the state of the system. Here, we illustrate the approach to compute the capture set and the control map developed in [14], which exploits the specific structure of the application domain to overcome these limitations. Specifically, it provides efficient algorithms, allows a coarser model obtained from suitable experiments, and is robust to imperfect state information due to sensor uncertainty and, particularly, to communication delays.

A. System Model and Safety Specification

We model each vehicle as system Formula$\Sigma^{i}$ for Formula$i\in \{\hbox{1}, \hbox{2}\}$, describing the longitudinal dynamics of vehicle Formula$i$ along its path. Each system Formula$\Sigma^{i}$ is an input–output system, which is defined by the tuple Formula$\Sigma^{i}: = \{X^{i}, {\cal O}^{i}, {\cal U}^{i}, {\cal D}^{i}, f^{i}, h^{i}\}$, where Formula$X^{i} \subset \BBR^{2}$ is the state space describing position and speed; Formula${\cal O}^{i} \subset \BBR^{m}$ is the output measurement space; Formula${\cal U}^{i} := [u^{i}_{L}, u^{i}_{H}] \subset [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}] \times [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}]$ is the control input space representing the percentage the brake and throttle pedal are depressed; Formula${\cal D}^{i} := [d^{i}_{L}, d^{i}_{H}] \subset \BBR^{m}$ is the disturbance input space, which can be employed to account for unmodeled dynamics; Formula$f^{i} : X^{i} \times {\cal U}^{i} \times {\cal D}^{i} \rightarrow X^{i}$ is the vector field modeling the dynamics of the vehicle; and Formula$h^{i}: {\cal O}^{i} \rightrightarrows X^{i}$ is the output set-valued map that provides the set of states compatible with an output measurement. We let Formula$x_{1}^{i}\in X^{i}_{1}$ denote the longitudinal displacement of vehicle Formula$i$ along its fixed path and Formula$x_{2}^{i}$ denote the longitudinal speed of vehicle Formula$i$ along its path. We denote the continuous flow of system Formula$\Sigma^{i}$ as Formula$\phi^{i}(t, x^{i}, {\bf u}^{i}, {\bf d}^{i})$, where Formula$t$ denotes the time, Formula$x^{i}$ denotes the initial state, Formula${\bf u}^{i}$ denotes the control input signal, and Formula${\bf d}^{i}$ denotes the disturbance signal. In this paper, we will denote in bold signals, which are functions of time.

The two-vehicle system is modeled as the parallel composition of the two systems, denoted as Formula$\Sigma = \Sigma^{1} \Vert \Sigma^{2}=\{X, {\cal O}, {\cal U}, {\cal D}, f, h\}$, in which Formula$X = X^{1} \times X^{2}$, Formula${\cal O}= {\cal O}^{1} \times {\cal O}^{2}$, Formula${\cal U} = {\cal U}^{1} \times {\cal U}^{2}$, Formula${\cal D} = {\cal D}^{1} \times {\cal D}^{2}$, Formula$f = (f^{1}, f^{2})$, and Formula$h = (h^{1}, h^{2})$. Accordingly, we will let Formula$x = (x^{1}, x^{2})$, Formula$u = (u^{1}, u^{2})$, and Formula$d = (d^{1}, d^{2})$. Furthermore, we let Formula$x_{1} = (x_{1}^{1}, x_{1}^{2})\in X_{1}$ denote the pair of two-vehicle displacements. The safety specification for Formula$\Sigma$ is described in terms of a subset of the state space that needs to be avoided to prevent a collision. Specifically, we call such a set the bad set Formula${\bf B}\subset X$, and we will say that the system is safe if the flow never enters the bad set Formula${\bf B}$. For some initial state Formula$x_{o}$, the system is safe if there exists some control input signal Formula${\bf u}$, such that for all disturbance input signals Formula${\bf d}$ and time Formula$t$, we have that Formula$\phi(t, x_{o}, {\bf u}, {\bf d}) \not\in {\bf B}$.

From the construction of the state space and the fact that a collision between two vehicles results when they are both in the red shaded area in Fig. 1(a), Formula${\bf B}\subseteq X$ can be defined as Formula TeX Source $${\bf B}: = \left\{x \in X\ \vert \left(x_{1}^{1}, x_{1}^{2}\right) \in \ ] L^{1}, H^{1} [\times] L^{2}, H^{2}[ \right\}\eqno{\hbox{(1)}}$$ where Formula$L^{i} < H^{i}$ for Formula$i \in \{\hbox{1}, \hbox{2}\}$ [see Fig. 1(a) and (b)]. We also denote Formula$L = (L^{1}, L^{2})$ and Formula$H = (H^{1}, H^{2})$.

The safe controller is based on computing a subset of the state space, which is called the capture set, denoted by Formula${\cal C} \subseteq X$. The capture set is the set of all initial conditions, such that no control input can prevent a collision. The mathematical definition is given by Formula TeX Source $${\cal C}: = \left\{x \in X \ \vert \ \forall \ {\bf u}, \ \exists \ t, \ \ \exists \ {\bf d} \ \hbox{s.t.} \ \phi(t, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}) \in {\bf B} \right\}.\eqno{\hbox{(2)}}$$

The approach of our solution to the safety control problem is to compute the capture set and, through the application of feedback control, prevent the flow from ever entering the capture set. By the definition of the capture set, safety is guaranteed if the flow never enters the capture set.

Computing the capture set is, in general, a difficult problem. In the following sections, we show how exploiting the structural features of the specific system under study allows us to compute this set and handle imperfect state information.

B. Computation Approach Exploiting Partial Orders

Here, we illustrate the main result in [14] to compute the capture set. This approach relies on 1) the state and input spaces of system Formula$\Sigma^{i}$ being partially ordered and 2) the flow of system Formula$\Sigma^{i}$ being an order preserving map. Specifically, for state space Formula$X^{i}\subseteq \BBR^{2}$, we consider elements to be partially ordered according to component-wise ordering, that is, for Formula$z^{i}, w^{i}\in X^{i}$, we have that Formula$z^{i}\leq w^{i}$, provided Formula$z_{1}^{i}\leq w_{1}^{i}$ and Formula$z_{2}^{i}\leq w_{2}^{i}$. Further, we consider the partial ordering between input signals defined for signals Formula${\bf u}^{i}, {\bf v}^{i}$ as Formula${\bf u}^{i} \leq {\bf v}^{i} \Leftrightarrow {\bf u}^{i}(t) \leq {\bf v}^{i}(t)\ \hbox{for all}\ t$. The inequality Formula${\bf u}^{i}(t) \leq {\bf v}^{i}(t)$ is defined, such that Formula${\bf u}_{1}^{i}(t)\geq {\bf v}_{1}^{i}(t)$ and Formula${\bf u}_{2}^{i}(t)\leq {\bf v}_{2}^{i}(t)$. We assume that the flow of each system Formula$\Sigma^{i}$ is an order preserving map. Mathematically, this means that for initial conditions Formula$z^{i}, w^{i} \in X^{i}$, inputs Formula${\bf u}^{i}, {\bf v}^{i}$ and disturbances Formula${\bf d}^{i}, {\bf b}^{i}$, the following implication holds: Formula TeX Source $$\displaylines{z^{i} \leq w^{i} \ \wedge\ {\bf u}^{i} \leq {\bf v}^{i} \ \wedge \ {\bf d}^{i} \leq {\bf b}^{i} \Rightarrow\hfill\cr\hfill \phi^{i} \left(t, z^{i}, {\bf u}^{i}, {\bf d}^{i} \right) \leq \phi^{i} \left(t, w^{i}, {\bf v}^{i}, {\bf b}^{i} \right) \ \forall \ t.\quad\hbox{(3)}}$$ In terms of the vehicle dynamics, this assumption implies that greater initial displacement, greater initial velocity, and greater inputs will lead to greater displacements and speeds at any time. The validity of this assumption for the vehicle dynamics is discussed in detail in Section IV, where the vehicle model is introduced. A liveliness condition is introduced by requiring that for at least one Formula$i$ Formula$f^{i}_{1}(x^{i}, u^{i}, d^{i}) > \hbox{0}$ for all Formula$x^{i}$, Formula$u^{i}$ and Formula$d^{i}$. From a practical point of view, this requires that vehicle Formula$i$ does not go in reverse and does not stop.

The order preserving property of the dynamics along with the structure of the bad set can be exploited to compute the capture set for system Formula$\Sigma = \Sigma^{1}\Vert \Sigma^{2}$ with an algorithm that has linear complexity with respect to the state dimension. The algorithm is based on the restricted capture set, which, for a fixed input signal Formula${\bf u}$, is defined as Formula${\cal C}_{{\bf u}} := \{x \in X\ \vert\ \exists\ t \geq \hbox{0}, \ \exists\ {\bf d}\ \ \hbox{s.t.}\ \phi(t, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}) \in {\bf B}\}$. This set represents the set of initial conditions that are taken into the bad set under the fixed input signal Formula${\bf u}$. Define the fixed input signals Formula${\bf u}_{\cal L}, {\bf u}_{\cal H}$, as Formula${\bf u}_{\cal L}(t) := (u^{1}_{H}, u^{2}_{L})$ and Formula${\bf u}_{\cal H}(t) := (u^{1}_{L}, u^{2}_{H})$ for all Formula$t$. Then, we have [14] Formula TeX Source $${\cal C} = {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal L}} \cap {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal H}}.\eqno{\hbox{(4)}}$$ the capture set can be computed by only computing the two restricted capture sets corresponding to maximum and minimum inputs. The restricted capture sets are simpler to compute, since they can be obtained by just integrating the dynamics under fixed control inputs. This is in contrast with capture set Formula${\cal C}$, whose computation requires the solution of a differential game between the control and the disturbance.

Based on the expression of the capture set given in (4), the feedback control map is given by Formula TeX Source $$g(x): = \cases{\left(u_{H}^{1}, u_{L}^{2} \right), & \hbox{if} $x \in {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal L}} \ \hbox{and} \ x \in \partial {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal H}}$ \cr \left(u_{L}^{1}, u_{H}^{2}\right), & \hbox{if} $x \in \partial {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal L}} \ \hbox{and} \ x \in \overline{{\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal H}}}$ \cr \quad{\cal U}, & {\hskip35pt}$\hbox{otherwise}$ }\eqno{\hbox{(5)}}$$ in which Formula$\overline{{\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal H}}}$ denotes the closure of Formula${{\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal H}}}$. The controller allows the driver to choose any input until the flow hits the boundary of the capture set. The driver retains control once the flow no longer touches the boundary of the capture set. A visual interpretation of the feedback map is provided in Fig. 2.

Figure 2
Fig. 2. Feedback map Formula$g(x)$ shown for two separate trajectories. The orange region represents a slice of the capture set in position space corresponding to a pair of vehicles speeds. When the flow touches the upper boundary of the capture set, geometrically as Formula$x \in {\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal L}}\ \hbox{and}\ x \in \partial {\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal H}}$, the feedback controller commands the input Formula$(u^{1}_{L}, u^{2}_{H})$, corresponding to vehicle 1 applying maximum brake while vehicle 2 applies maximum throttle. When the flow touches the lower boundary of the capture set, geometrically as Formula$x \in \overline{{\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal H}}}\ \hbox{and}\ x \in \partial {\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal L}}$, the feedback controller commands the input Formula$(u^{1}_{H}, u^{2}_{L})$, corresponding to vehicle 1 applying maximum throttle while vehicle 2 applies maximum brake.

In the presence of communication delays and/or uncertain sensor readings, the vehicles will not have access to the exact value of the system state but to a set of possible current system states. This can be easily incorporated in the previously described control strategy [14]. Let the set of possible current system states be denoted Formula$\mathhat{x} \subset X$, which can be constructed using output measurement Formula$z\in {\cal O}$, as explained in Section V-A. The safety specification is now posed in terms of preventing state uncertainty Formula$\mathhat{x}$ from intersecting bad set Formula${\bf B}$. That is, the system is safe if Formula$\mathhat{x}(t) \cap {\bf B} = \emptyset$ for all Formula$t \in \BBR_{+}$. It has been shown that this is the case if and only if Formula$\mathhat{x}(t)$ never intersects both Formula${\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal L}}$ and Formula${\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal H}}$ at the same time [14]. The feedback set-valued map Formula$g$, as defined in (5), can still guarantee this as long as it is extended to set Formula$\mathhat{x}$ as follows: Formula TeX Source $${g}(\mathhat{x}): = \cases{\left(u_{H}^{1}, u_{L}^{2}\right), & if $\mathhat{x} \cap {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal H}} \neq \emptyset$ and \cr& $\mathhat{x} \cap \partial {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal L}} \neq \emptyset$ and $\mathhat{x} \cap {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal L}} = \emptyset$ \cr \left(u_{L}^{1}, u_{H}^{2}\right), & if $\mathhat{x} \cap \overline{{\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal L}}} \neq \emptyset$ and\cr& $ \mathhat{x} \cap \partial {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal H}} \neq \emptyset$ and $\mathhat{x} \cap {\cal C}_{\bf u_{\cal H}} = \emptyset$ \cr \quad{\cal U}, & \quad otherwise.}\eqno{\hbox{(6)}}$$ If the set of admissible control inputs evaluated by Formula${g}(\mathhat{x})$ is Formula${\cal U}$, the driver is free to apply any input. The interpretation of this feedback set-valued map is that control is applied when the state uncertainty has a nonempty intersection with either Formula${\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal L}}$ or Formula${\cal C}_{{\bf u}_{\cal H}}$ and, simultaneously, is touching the boundary of the other. We remark that by construction, feedback map Formula$g$ is order reversing with respect to partial order established by set inclusion, that is, Formula$A \subset B\ \rightarrow g(A) \supset g(B).$ This property implies that the larger the state uncertainty, the more conservative the controller will be.

C. Algorithmic Implementation

Here, we provide a summary of the algorithms that compute the restricted capture set for the case in which the first component of vector fields Formula$f^{i}$ do not depend on the Formula$x^{i}_{1}$ coordinate (displacement) [14]. This assumption is satisfied by the vehicle dynamics considered in the following section. The algorithms are implemented onboard the vehicle computer; therefore, they must use a discrete-time model of the dynamics. For Formula$n > \hbox{0}$ and step size Formula$\Delta T > \hbox{0}$, the discrete-time flow of system Formula$\Sigma$ is given by Formula$\Phi(n, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d})$ and is generated by the forward Euler approximation of the continuous-time dynamics, mathematically given by Formula$\Phi(n + \hbox{1}, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}) = \Phi(n, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}) + \Delta T f(\Phi(n, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}), {\bf u}[n - \hbox{1}], {\bf d}[n - \hbox{1}])$, with initial condition Formula$\Phi(\hbox{0}, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}) = x$, and sampled signals Formula${\bf u}[n] := {\bf u}(n\Delta T)$ and Formula${\bf d}[n] := {\bf d}(n \Delta T)$.

Feedback map Formula$g$ is implemented in discrete time, which requires an alternate definition of the capture set boundary. We will say that set Formula$\mathhat{x}[n]\subset X$ intersects the boundary and not the interior of the restricted capture set Formula${\cal C}_{\bf u}$, provided Formula$\mathhat{x}[n] \cap {\cal C}_{\bf u} = \emptyset\ \hbox{and}\ \mathhat{x}[n + \hbox{1}]\cap {\cal C}_{\bf u}\neq \emptyset$. This states that Formula$\mathhat{x}[n]$ intersects the boundary and not the interior of the restricted capture set if it is currently outside of the set, but it will be inside the set at the next time step.

To compute capture set Formula${\cal C}_{\bf u}$, we can compute a slice of it in the displacement space, which is denoted by Formula${\cal C}_{\bf u} \subset X_{1}$, corresponding to the current two-vehicle velocity Formula$(x_{2}^{1}, x_{2}^{2})$. Due to the order preserving properties of the dynamics with respect to state and input and the structure of bad set Formula${\bf B}$, the restricted capture set slice is computed through the back propagation of the upper and lower bounds of the bad set, i.e., Formula$L, H \in X_{1}$. Specifically, define the sequences Formula TeX Source $$\eqalignno{L(n, x, u): = &\, L + x_{1} - \Phi_{1}(n, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}_{H}) \cr H(n, x, u): = &\, H + x_{1} - \Phi_{1}(n, x, {\bf u}, {\bf d}_{L})&\hbox{(7)}}$$ where Formula${\bf d}_{L}(k) := (d^{1}_{L}, d^{2}_{L})$ and Formula${\bf d}_{H}(k) := (d^{1}_{H}, d^{2}_{H})$ for all Formula$k$. Given current state estimate set Formula$\mathhat{x}$, the restricted capture set slice Formula${\cal C}_{{\bf u}}$ can be written as (Algorithm 1) Formula TeX Source $${\cal C}_{\bf u} = \bigcup_{k \in \BBN}]L(n, \sup \mathhat{x}, {\bf u}), H(n, \inf \mathhat{x}, {\bf u})[.$$

Algorithm 1

We can determine the nonempty intersection of the capture set with the state uncertainty by using the equivalence Formula$\mathhat{x}_{1} \cap {\cal C}_{\bf u} = \emptyset \Leftrightarrow \mathhat{x} \cap {\cal C}_{\bf u} = \emptyset$. The closed-loop implementation of the feedback map (6), in discrete time, is provided in Algorithm 2, where Formula${\bf u} =\hbox{FeedbackMap}(\mathhat{x}[n + \hbox{1}], \mathhat{x}[n])$.

Algorithm 2

Note that for evaluating the control map, we only need to calculate sequences Formula$L(n, x, u)$ and Formula$H(n, x, u)$ for two extremal constant inputs Formula$u_{{\cal L}} = (u^{1}_{H}, u^{2}_{L})$ and Formula$u_{{\cal H}} = (u^{1}_{L}, u^{2}_{H})$. Hence, we do not require the detailed model of system Formula$\Sigma$, we just need to know how the system responds to these two extremal constant inputs. As we will see in Section IV, this can be achieved through a series of experiments where these constant inputs are applied for a set of different initial speeds.

SECTION IV

VEHICLE DYNAMICS

The vehicle dynamics, which take throttle and brake as inputs and provide longitudinal displacement as output, is the cascade of the powertrain system and the vehicle model [see Fig. 3(a)]. The powertrain system [see Fig. 3(b)] generates the wheel torque inputs in response to throttle and brake inputs. The vehicle model takes throttle and brake inputs and produces longitudinal displacement as output according to Newton's law. Here, we describe each of the two subsystems and illustrate how the cascade of the two generates a flow that is an order preserving map when throttle inputs do not change with time. Then, we perform a system identification procedure to determine the dynamics of the cascade system only in response to maximal throttle and maximal braking, which is sufficient for the implementation of the control map, as described in Section III.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 (a) Block diagram representing the cascade of the powertrain model and the vehicle model. Here, Formula$p$ denotes longitudinal displacement, and Formula$v$ denotes longitudinal speed. The powertrain model (b) takes inputs Formula$u$ and velocity Formula$v$ to produce engine torque at wheel Formula$f_{e}$. The static map Formula$\pi$ takes the brake pedal percentage input Formula$u_{1}$ to produce brake torque Formula$f_{b}$. The vehicle model takes brake force Formula$f_{b}$ and engine force Formula$f_{e}$ as inputs. (b) Powertrain system. The ECU is a means of controlling the fuel injection rate and gear state Formula$q$ of the transmission. The output signals of the ECU are fuel injection rate Formula$i$ and gear reset Formula$R$. The second block is the ICE, which is where fuel combustion takes place based on fuel injection rate Formula$i$, and produces output torque Formula$\tau$ at the flywheel. The next block is the transmission, which converts torque at the flywheel Formula$\tau$ to torque at the transmission output Formula$\tau_{q}$ as a function of gear state Formula$q$. The drivetrain is the last block, which transfers torque from gearbox Formula$\tau_{q}$ to force at wheel Formula$f_{e}$.

A. Vehicle Model

The longitudinal displacement of the vehicle along its path is denoted by Formula$p$, and the longitudinal velocity is denoted by Formula$v \in [v_{\rm min}, v_{\rm max}]$, where Formula$v_{\rm min} \geq \hbox{0}$. The controlled forces that act on the vehicle are the brake input Formula$f_{b} \in {\cal F}_{b} = [f_{\rm min}, \hbox{0}]$ with Formula$f_{\rm min} < \hbox{0}$ and engine input Formula$f_{e} \in {\cal F}_{e} = [ \hbox{0}, f_{\rm max}]$ with Formula$f_{\rm max} > \hbox{0}$. Brake force Formula$f_{b}$ is controlled by the driver via the surjective-monotone map Formula$\pi: {\cal U}_{1} \rightarrow {\cal F}_{b}$ That takes brake pedal percentage Formula$u_{1}$ as an input, whereas engine force Formula$f_{e}$ is supplied by the powertrain [see Fig. 3(a)]. The longitudinal dynamics are given by Formula TeX Source $$\displaylines{{dv \over dt} = {{\cal R}^{2} \over J_{w} + {\cal M}{\cal R}^{2}} \left(f_{e} + f_{b} - {\rho_{\rm air} \over \hbox{2}} C_{D} A_{f} v^{2} \right.\hfill\cr\hfill - C_{rr}{\cal M}g) =: \mathtilde{f}(v, f_{b}, f_{e}) \quad\hbox{(8)}}$$ where Formula${\cal R}$ is the wheel radius, Formula${\cal M}$ is the vehicle mass, Formula$\rho_{\rm air}$ is the air density, Formula$C_{D}$ is the air drag coefficient, Formula$A_{f}$ is the projected vehicle cross section, and Formula$C_{rr}$ is the coefficient of rolling friction [29].

The longitudinal dynamics (8) generate a flow Formula$(p(t, p_{o}, v_{o},\break {\bf f}_{\bf b}, {\bf f}_{\bf e}), v(t, v_{o}, {\bf f}_{\bf b}, {\bf f}_{\bf e}))$ That is an order preserving map with respect to brake force input signal Formula${\bf f}_{b}$, engine force signal Formula${\bf f}_{e}$, and initial conditions Formula$(p_{o}, v_{o})$. That is, larger forces Formula$f_{b}$ and Formula$f_{e}$ will result in greater displacements and speeds; larger initial conditions Formula$(p_{o}, v_{o})$ will also result in larger displacements and speeds. On the input space, we use the partial order defined by Formula$u \leq v$, provided Formula$u_{1} \geq v_{1}$ and Formula$u_{2} \leq v_{2}$. Consequently, we have Formula$u_{L} = (\hbox{1}, \hbox{0})$ and Formula$u_{H} = (\hbox{0}, \hbox{1})$. Since brake force map Formula$\pi: {\cal U}_{1} \rightarrow {\cal F}_{b}$ is monotone, the flow is an order preserving map also with respect to brake input Formula${\bf u}_{1}$. In the following section, we illustrate the components of the powertrain.

B. Powertrain

The dynamics of the powertrain take as control inputs Formula$u = (u_{1}, u_{2}) \in [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}] \times [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}]$, where the first component Formula$u_{1}$ denotes the brake pedal percent input, and the second component Formula$u_{2}$ denotes the throttle pedal percent input [5]. In our application, these inputs can be administered either by the driver or by the automatic controller. The output of the system is assumed to be the torque applied at the wheel of vehicle Formula$f_{e}$. An overview of the system is provided in Fig. 3(b).

The first component of the powertrain is the ECU. This subsystem determines the fuel injection rate Formula$i\in [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}]$ into the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the current gear Formula$q \in \{\hbox{1}, \hbox{2}, \hbox{3}, \hbox{4}, \hbox{5}, \hbox{6}\}$ of the gearbox. The inputs to this block consist of the current velocity of vehicle Formula$v$, throttle pedal input Formula$u_{2}$, and brake pedal input Formula$u_{1}$.

The second component of the powertrain is the ICE. The output of this system is torque Formula$\tau$ applied by the flywheel and the input is the fuel injection rate administered by the ECU.

The third component of the powertrain is the gearbox. This module consists of the transmission with a fixed gear ratio. All switching logic is determined by the ECU, which sends reset input Formula$R$ to the gearbox when a gear shift has been determined. The gearbox takes torque at the flywheel Formula$\tau$ and converts it to torque Formula$\tau_{q}$ based on the current gear.

The last component of the powertrain is the drivetrain. This component transfers torque at the gearbox Formula$\tau_{q}$ to force applied at the wheel Formula$f_{e}$. This module consists of the flywheel, torque converter, variable gear ratio transformer, propeller shaft, final drive, and drive shaft. (Details can be found, for example, in [29].)

For the powertrain model, the order preserving property of output Formula$f_{e}$ with respect to throttle input Formula$u_{2}$ does not hold in general. This is due to the complexity of the ECU, which controls the fuel injection rate in a manner that optimizes a set of performance metrics, such as emissions, engine thermodynamic efficiency, with transients that can be quite complex and nonmonotone [5]. By design, however, this is performed in a manner that generates monotone input–output behavior at steady state [10].

Therefore, the dynamics of the vehicle system that take brake Formula$u_{1}$ and throttle Formula$u_{2}$ commands as inputs and provide speed and displacement as output are order preserving with respect to constant throttle input at least after an initial transient. Hence, we restrict the control commands to be constant with time, so that the system dynamics generate an order preserving flow with respect to the inputs after an initial transient time Formula$\epsilon$. In the following section, we illustrate how to identify the vehicle dynamics for the maximal braking and throttle inputs, which is the only knowledge on the model required by our algorithm.

C. System Identification

To model how the powertrain responds to constant control inputs (maximal braking and maximal throttle), in principle, one should model the details of all the blocks in Fig. 3(b). Rather than modeling this level of detail, we exploit the fact that the approach illustrated in Section III allows for disturbance inputs, which we use here to account for unmodeled dynamics. For input signal Formula${\bf u}$ and velocity signal Formula${\bf v}$, define the nondeterministic engine force trajectories Formula${\bf F}_{e}({\bf u}, {\bf v})$ as the set of all possible output engine force trajectories applied at the wheel given an input signal and velocity signal.

When the powertrain model is combined with vehicle physics, vehicle velocity Formula$v$ and engine force at the wheel Formula$f_{e}$ are coupled through the longitudinal dynamics introduced in (8). To capture this dependence, we say that a system evolution is realizable if velocity trajectory Formula${\bf v}(t, v_{0}, {\bf u}_{1}, {\bf f}_{e})$ and engine torque trajectory Formula${\bf f}_{e}([\hbox{0}, t])$ satisfy (8) at all times and the inclusion Formula TeX Source $${\bf f}_{e}([\hbox{0}, t]) \in {\bf F}_{e} \left ({\bf u}([\hbox{0}, t]), {\bf v} \left([\hbox{0}, t], v_{0}, \pi({\bf u}_{1}),{\bf f}_{e} \right) \right).\eqno{\hbox{(9)}}$$

Let Formula$\epsilon \in \BBR_{+}$ denote the maximum delay between initial changes in driver input Formula$u$ and steady-state vehicle acceleration Formula$\mathdot{v}$. This is the consequence of delays in 1) software subsystems of the drive-by-wire throttle system, 2) delays in the powertrain due to chemical combustion, 3) gear shift delays, and 4) delays imposed by the ECU for filtering and environmental reasons. For a speed Formula$x_{2}$, input Formula$u^{\ast}$, and time-delay constant Formula$\epsilon \geq \hbox{0}$, the permissible acceleration set, which is denoted by Formula$\Upsilon(x_{2}, u^{\ast}, \epsilon) \subset \BBR$, is the collection of all accelerations given by Formula TeX Source $$\eqalignno{& \Upsilon(x_{2}, u^{\ast}, \epsilon): = \cr& {\hskip25pt}\{\mathtilde{f} \left({\bf v} \left(t, v_{0}, \pi\left({\bf u}_{1}^{\ast}\right), {\bf f}_{e} \right), \pi \left({\bf u}_{1}^{\ast}(t) \right), {\bf f}_{e}(t) \right) \in \BBR \ \vert\cr& {\hskip25pt} \exists {\bf f}_{e}([\hbox{0}, t]) \in {\bf F}_{e} \left({\bf u}^{\ast}, {\bf v} \left([\hbox{0}, t], v_{0}, \pi({\bf u}_{1}^{\ast}), {\bf f}_{e} \right) \right) \cr& {\hskip25pt} \exists t \geq \epsilon, \ \exists v_{0}\ \hbox{s.t.}\ x_{2} = {\bf v} \left(t, v_{0}, \pi({\bf u}_{1}^{\ast}), {\bf f}_{e} \right)\}&\hbox{(10)}}$$ where Formula${\bf u}^{\ast}(t)=u^{\ast}$ for all Formula$t$.

This is the set of all possible accelerations Formula$\alpha = \mathtilde{f}(x_{2}, \pi(u_{1}^{\ast}),\break {\bf f}_{e}(t))$ achievable at velocity Formula$x_{2}$ after Formula$t \geq \epsilon$ s have elapsed under constant input signal Formula${\bf u}^{\ast}$. Letting Formula$x_{1} = p$ and Formula$x_{2} = v$, we construct vector field Formula$f(x, u, d)$ in Section III-B for a fixed input Formula$u = u^{\ast}$ as Formula$f_{1}(x, u^{\ast}, d) := x_{2}, \ f_{2}(x, u^{\ast}, d_{H}) := \sup \Upsilon(x_{2},\break u^{\ast}, \epsilon), \ f_{2}(x, u^{\ast}, d_{L}) := \inf \Upsilon(x_{2}, u^{\ast}, \epsilon)$. For the case of maximum disturbance Formula$d_{H}$ (minimum disturbance Formula$d_{L}$), the interpretation of Formula$f_{2}(x, u^{\ast}, d_{H})$ (Formula$f_{2}(x, u^{\ast}, d_{L})$) is that it represents the greatest acceleration (least acceleration) that can possibly be achieved at velocity Formula$x_{2}$ after constant input Formula$u^{\ast}$ has been applied for at least Formula$\epsilon \geq \hbox{0}$ s. If Formula$\Upsilon(x, u^{\ast}, \epsilon) = \emptyset$, then find the minimizer Formula$x^{\ast}_{2} := \arg\min_{y_{2} \in X_{2}}\ \{\Vert y_{2} - x_{2} \Vert\ \vert\ \Upsilon(y_{2}, u^{\ast}, \epsilon) \neq \emptyset \}$ and set Formula$f(x, u^{\ast}, d) = f((x_{1}, x_{2}^{\ast}), u^{\ast}, d)$.

For implementing the feedback map in Section III-B, it is enough to experimentally identify Formula$f_{2}(x, u_{L}, d_{H})$ and Formula$f_{2}(x, u_{H}, d_{L})$. The identification procedure is as follows. To identify Formula$f_{2}(x, u_{L}, d_{H})$, we conducted a set of experiments called braking trials, in which, starting from an initial constant velocity, maximal braking Formula$u_{L} = (\hbox{1}, \hbox{0})$ is applied, and vehicle acceleration after Formula$\epsilon = \hbox{0.7}\ \hbox{s}$ is recorded to provide data points for Formula$\Upsilon(x_{2}, u_{L}, \epsilon)$ for the values of speed Formula$x_{2}$ reached after Formula$\epsilon$. The value of Formula$\epsilon$ was chosen to be enough for the vehicle to reach a steady-state acceleration. Several trials for the same initial speed were performed, and the infimum of these data points for every speed Formula$x_{2}$ was computed to provide the value of Formula$f_{2}(x, u_{L}, d_{H})$. The set of initial velocities chosen is Formula${\cal V}_{0} := \{(\hbox{1}/\hbox{4})v_{\rm max}, (\hbox{1}/\hbox{2})v_{\rm max}, \{(\hbox{3}/\hbox{4})v_{\rm max}, v_{\rm max}\}$, in which Formula$v_{\rm max} = \hbox{8}\ \hbox{m/s}$ for vehicle 1 (Blue IS 250) and Formula$v_{\rm max} = \hbox{17}\ \hbox{m/s}$ for vehicle 2 (Grey IS 250). A brake trial consists of the following steps: 1) accelerate each vehicle to a nominal constant velocity Formula$v_{0} \in {\cal V}_{0}$ on the vehicle path; 2) maintain velocity Formula$v_{0}$ for at least 2 s, so transmission comes to a steady state; and 3) apply brake input Formula$u_{L} := (\hbox{1}, \hbox{0})$ via a computer-issued command, driver does not override command until the vehicle reaches rest.

Similarly, to identify Formula$f_{2}(x, u_{H}, d_{L})$, we conducted a set of experiments called throttle trials, in which, starting from an initial constant velocity, maximal throttle Formula$u_{H} = (\hbox{0}, \hbox{1})$ for vehicle 1 and Formula$u_{H} = (\hbox{0}, \hbox{0.5})$ for vehicle 2 was applied. The set of initial velocities are given by Formula${\cal V}_{0}:= \{\hbox{0}, (\hbox{1}/\hbox{4})v_{\rm max},\break (\hbox{1}/\hbox{2})v_{\rm max}, (\hbox{3}/ \hbox{4})v_{\rm max}\}$, in which Formula$v_{\rm max} = \hbox{8}\ \hbox{m/s}$ for vehicle 1 and Formula$v_{\rm max} = \hbox{17}\ \hbox{m/s}$ for vehicle 2. A throttle trial consists of the following steps: 1) accelerate each vehicle to a nominal constant velocity Formula$v_{0} \in {\cal V}_{0}$ on vehicle path, if Formula$v_{0} = \hbox{0}$, leave vehicle in idling state; 2) maintain velocity Formula$v_{0}$ for at least 2 s, so transmission comes to steady state; and 3) apply acceleration input via a computer-issued command, driver does not override command until the vehicle reaches maximum velocity Formula$v_{\rm max}$.

For vehicle 1, which has Formula${\cal U}^{1} = [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}] \times [ \hbox{0}, \hbox{0.5}]$ and Formula$x_{2}^{1}\in [\hbox{0}, \hbox{8.8}]$ m/s, along path 1 [as shown in Fig. 1(c)], we obtained Formula$f^{1}_{2}(x_{2}^{1}, u^{1}_{L}, d^{1}_{H}) = -\hbox{3.1}$ and Formula TeX Source $$f_{2}^{1}\left(x_{2}^{1}, u_{H}^{1}, d_{L}^{1}\right) = \cases{\hbox{3.0}, & $x_{2}^{1} \in [\hbox{0}, \hbox{7})$ \cr \hbox{1.75}, & $x_{2}^{1} \in [\hbox{7}, \infty).$} \eqno{\hbox{(11)}}$$

For vehicle 2, which has Formula${\cal U}^{2} = [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}] \times [ \hbox{0}, \hbox{1}]$ and Formula$x_{2}^{2}\in [\hbox{8.8}, \hbox{20}]$ m/s, along path 2 [as shown in Fig. 1(c)], we obtained Formula$f^{2}_{2}(x_{2}^{2}, u^{2}_{L}, d^{2}_{H}) = -\hbox{3.1}$ and Formula TeX Source $$f_{2}^{2}\left(x_{2}^{2}, u_{H}^{2}, d_{L}^{2}\right) = \cases{\hbox{3.9}, & $x_{2}^{2} \in [\hbox{0}, \hbox{13}) $\cr \hbox{2.5}, & $x_{2}^{2} \in [\hbox{13}, \infty).$} \eqno{\hbox{(12)}}$$ Fig. 4 shows the system identification results for vehicle 2. Similar plots were obtained for vehicle 1.

Figure 4
Fig. 4. (a) Summary of all the experimental data for identifying Formula$f^{2}_{2}(x_{2}^{2},\break u^{2}_{L}, d^{2}_{H})$ (black solid line) of vehicle 2. (b) Summary of all the experimental data for identifying Formula$f^{2}_{2}(x_{2}^{2}, u^{2}_{H}, d^{2}_{L})$ (black solid line) of vehicle 2.
SECTION V

SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION

The major software components of the ICA application are estimation, communication, and control (see Fig. 5).

Figure 5
Fig. 5. Software system overview for the local vehicle. In the figure, we let superscript Formula$L$ denote the local vehicle whereas superscript Formula$R$ denote the remote vehicle. The estimator (delimited by a green box) takes as inputs the UTM time and position information (Formula$y^{\rm UTM}$ and Formula$t^{\rm UTM}$), vehicle path information Formula${\cal P}^{L}$, local vehicle time Formula$t^{L}$, local vehicle input Formula$u^{L}$, and time/state information on the remote vehicle Formula$\{x^{R}, t^{R}, {\cal A}_{t}^{R}\}$ and provides a set of possible position/speed configurations for the two-vehicle system Formula$\mathhat{x}\subset X$. The communication system (delimited by the blue box) is a module that continuously sends to and receives information from the remote vehicle. The control system takes as input state estimate set Formula$\mathhat{x}$ computed locally and information from the control evaluation from the remote vehicle and returns the control input applied to the vehicle.

A. Estimation

State estimation consists of several modules, i.e., longitudinal state measurement construction from raw measurements in UTM coordinates, calculation of the universal time, Kalman filter for local state prediction, and a full state estimator to construct the current state estimate set Formula$\mathhat{x}(t) \subset X$ for the whole system. We denote with superscript “Formula$L$” quantities computed on the local vehicle, whereas with superscript “ Formula$R$” we denote quantities of the remote vehicle that the local vehicle receives through wireless communication. The measurement projection block is used to compute longitudinal state measurement Formula$y_{k}$ from GPS and CAN measurements Formula$y^{\rm UTM}$ (heading and position from GPS, velocity from CAN). The global time is computed by using local time measurement Formula$t^{L}$ from the vehicle PC, and drift is removed by using universal time Formula$t^{\rm UTM}$ from the GPS system. The Kalman filter combines longitudinal state measurement Formula$y_{k}$ and pedal inputs Formula$u^{L}$ to compute state estimate Formula$x^{L}$ and acceleration profile Formula${\cal A}_{t}^{L}$. This information is sent both to the communication system and to the full state estimator. The full state estimator takes the current state estimate, time and acceleration profile Formula$\{x^{L}, t^{L}, {\cal A}_{t}^{L}\}$, and combines this with remote state information Formula$\{x^{R}, t^{R}, {\cal A}_{t}^{R}\}$ to construct full state estimate Formula$\mathhat{x}[k]$ for use by the controller.

The time measurements available to each vehicle consist of global time Formula$t^{\rm UTM}$, which is taken from the GPS system, and local time Formula$t^{L}$ taken off the vehicle PC. Global time Formula$t^{\rm UTM}$ is accurate but is only received at a rate of 10 Hz and can sometimes be unavailable due to message loss. Local time Formula$t^{L}$ is available at a higher rate of 1.5 GHz to a precision of 1 ms; however, it is not globally accurate due to inherent drift in the crystal oscillator used to calculate time. To accurately compute a global time with an update rate that is equal to 1.5 GHz, we combine global time Formula$t^{\rm UTM}$ with local time Formula$t^{L}$ to produce time Formula$t$ with using a simple moving average, where the moving average is updated every time a new global time Formula$t^{\rm UTM}$ is made available.

The measurement projection block constructs a longitudinal state measurement from raw sensors onboard the vehicle. This involves projecting raw measurements onto the vehicle's path locally stored in Formula${\cal P}^{L}$. The source of absolute position and heading measurements is the GPS system, which provides updates at a fixed broadcast rate of 10 Hz.

1) Kalman Filter

For the Kalman filter, the longitudinal dynamics are assumed to be linear and hybrid, where transmission state Formula$q \in \{\hbox{1}, \hbox{2}, \hbox{3}, \hbox{4}, \hbox{5}, \hbox{6}\}$ is assumed to be known at all times, as obtained from the CAN bus. To model rolling friction, we add a fictitious frictional input, which takes values based on the sign of velocity, which is given by Formula$u_{3} = \hbox{sgn}(x_{2})$. Since we also seek to estimate acceleration, we add the engine torque at the wheels as a third state. Specifically, the Kalman filter state is Formula$\mathhat{e}\in \BBR^{3}$, where the first component is longitudinal displacement, the second component is longitudinal velocity, and the third component is the engine torque applied at the wheels. The output measurement is Formula$y_{k}\in \BBR^{3}$ and incorporates longitudinal displacement, longitudinal velocity, and acceleration measured from the onboard accelerometer. The output is a discrete-time signal indexed by Formula$k \in \BBN$ with constant time step Formula$\Delta T > \hbox{0}$, where the correspondence to time Formula$t$ is given by Formula$t = k \Delta T$. The process dynamics are given by Formula TeX Source $$\eqalign{\dot{\mathhat{e}}(t) = &\, A \left(q(t) \right) \mathhat{e}(t) + B \left(q(t) \right) u(t) + w(t) \cr y_{k} = &\, C_{k} \mathhat{e}(k \Delta T) + D_{k} u(k \Delta T) + v_{k}}$$ where Formula$w(t)\sim(\hbox{0}, Q)$ is continuous-time white noise with covariance Formula$Q$, and Formula$v_{k}\sim(\hbox{0}, R)$ is discrete-time white noise with covariance Formula$R$.

Let matrix Formula$P(t)$ denote the estimated state error covariance, which is initialized to the identity matrix. Then, the prediction step of the filter is given by the following update equations, which represent a forward Euler approximation of the continuous-time dynamics: Formula TeX Source $$\eqalign{\mathhat{e}(t) = &\, \mathhat{e}(t^{-}) + t_{\Delta} \left(A \left(q(t) \right) \mathhat{e}(t^{-}) + B \left(q(t)\right) u(t) \right)\cr P(t) = &\, P(t^{-}) + t_{\Delta} \left(A \left(q(t) \right) P(t^{-}) \right.\cr&{\hskip70pt}\left. + P(t^{-}) A \left(q(t) \right)^{T} + Q \right)}$$ where Formula$t^{-}$ is the time of the previous update, and Formula$t_{\Delta} := t - t^{-}$. A prediction step is performed every time the software system updates the current state; therefore, in general, time step Formula$t_{\Delta}$ is not constant. The correction step only occurs when a new longitudinal state measurement Formula$y$ is available and consists of the following update equations: Formula TeX Source $$\eqalign{K_{k} = &\, P(t^{-}) C^{T} \left(CP(t^{-}) C^{T} + R \right)^{-1}\cr \mathhat{e}(t) = &\, \mathhat{e}(t^{-}) + K_{k} \left(y_{k} - \left(C \mathhat{e}(t^{-}) + Du(t) \right)\right)\cr P(t) = &\, (I - K_{k}C) P(t^{-})(I - K_{k}C)^{T} + K_{k}RK_{k}^{T}.}$$ By nature of the fixed rate of measurements (discrete-time) and continuous-time inputs, the filter is said to be hybrid [25].

Matrices Formula$A$, Formula$B$, Formula$C$, and Formula$D$ have been identified from data for every gear Formula$q$ employing the system identification toolbox within MATLAB. In particular, we used a gray-box technique, where the system identification determines a vector of parameters, given a matrix structure derived from first principles. In particular, we have a second-order system with rolling friction and inputs. We assume a multiplicative gear ratio from engine input to change in wheel torque. Therefore, the matrices are of the following form: Formula TeX Source $$\eqalign{A(q) = &\, \left[\matrix{\hbox{0} & \hbox{1} & \hbox{0} \cr \hbox{0} & \hbox{0} & \hbox{1}\cr \hbox{0} & \hbox{0} & a(q)}\right]\cr B(q) =&\, \left[ \matrix{\hbox{0} & \hbox{0} & \hbox{0}\cr b_{1} & \hbox{0} & b_{2}\cr \hbox{0} & \alpha(q)b_{3}(q) & \hbox{0}} \right] \cr C(q) = &\, \left[\matrix{\hbox{1} & \hbox{0} & \hbox{0}\cr \hbox{0} & \hbox{1} & \hbox{0}\cr \hbox{0} & \hbox{0} & \hbox{1}} \right]\cr D(q) =&\, \left[ \matrix{\hbox{0} & \hbox{0} & \hbox{0}\cr \hbox{0} & \hbox{0} & \hbox{0}\cr b_{1} & \hbox{0} & \alpha(q)b_{3}(q)} \right].}$$ Data to preform this identification task were taken from four driving trials with varying input signals. The input signals were chosen by the driver to ensure an adequate sweep of the vehicles dynamic range under consideration. Each trial was taken on the path for which the vehicle normally drives on.

From the experimental data collected, we obtained for Formula$q = \hbox{1}$ That Formula$a(q)=-\hbox{2.5}$, Formula$b_{1} = -\hbox{5}$, Formula$b_{2} = -\hbox{0.1}$, Formula$b_{3}(q) = \hbox{5}$, and Formula$b_{1} = \hbox{0.002}$. For Formula$q\in \{\hbox{2}, \hbox{3}, \hbox{4}, \hbox{5}, \hbox{6}\}$, we obtained that Formula$a(q) = -\hbox{1}$, Formula$b_{1} = -\hbox{5}$, Formula$b_{2}=-\hbox{0.1}$, Formula$b_{3}(q) = \hbox{5}$, and Formula$b_{1} = \hbox{0.002}$. The gear ratios are given by Formula$\alpha(\hbox{1}) = \hbox{3.5}, \ \alpha(\hbox{2}) = \hbox{2.0}, \ \alpha(\hbox{3}) = \hbox{1.5}, \ \alpha(\hbox{4}) = \hbox{1.2}, \ \alpha(\hbox{5}) = \hbox{1}$, and Formula$\alpha(\hbox{6}) = \hbox{0.8}$, which were taken from a technical data sheet [1]. This model was validated by comparing simulations obtained with an experimental input signal with the experimental trajectories.

To implement the Kalman filter, we chose the process and output noise covariance matrices to maximize noise rejection while still maintaining satisfactory bandwidth. We assume that all noise processes are independent and identically distributed and have no mode dependence; therefore, the covariance matrices are all diagonal. The matrices are given as Formula$R = {\rm diag}(\hbox{0.5}, \hbox{0.3}, \hbox{1})$ and Formula$R = \ {\rm diag}(\hbox{0.5}, \hbox{1}, \hbox{1})$.

The Kalman filter is used to construct a state prediction. This is accomplished by computing acceleration profile Formula${\cal A}_{\bar{t}}$, which is a set-valued signal containing all possible acceleration trajectories for future times Formula$t \geq \bar{t}$. This allows to predict the set of possible speeds Formula$\mathhat{e}_{2}(t)$ for Formula$t\geq \bar{t}$. Mathematically, this is given as Formula$\mathhat{e}_{2}(t) \in \mathhat{e}_{2}(\bar{t}) + \int_{\bar{t}}^{t} {\cal A}_{\bar{t}}(\tau) d\tau$. As mentioned in Section III-C, Algorithm 2 requires a two-vehicle state prediction, which has a tunable time step Formula$\Delta_{p}$, which can be chosen by the test engineer, assumed to be less than 1.5 s in total. With such a short time scale, it is reasonable to assume that the input stays constant, that is, Formula$u(t) = u(\bar{t})$ for all Formula$t \geq \bar{t}$. To account for the error of this assumption, we add a configurable window parametrized by parameter Formula$\beta \in \BBR_{+}$ to the resulting acceleration. As Formula$\beta$ is taken to 0, the prediction is assumed to be exact. The calculation is carried out, to obtain upper and lower bound sequences Formula$[l_{k}, h_{k}]$, with the hybrid Kalman filter as Formula TeX Source $$\eqalign{\mathhat{e}_{k} = &\, \mathhat{e}_{k - 1} + \Delta T \left(A \left(q(\bar{t}) \right) \mathhat{e}_{k - 1} + B \left(q(\bar{t}) \right) u(\bar{t}) \right) \cr [l_{k}, h_{k}] = &\, [\hbox{0}\ \hbox{0}\ \hbox{1}] \left(C \mathhat{e}_{k} + D u(\bar{t}) \right) + k [ - \beta, \beta]}$$ where set addition is understood in the sense of the Minkowski sum. Acceleration profile Formula${\cal A}_{\bar{t}}(t)$ is found by taking the zero-order hold approximation of sequence Formula$[l_{k}, u_{k}]$.

2) Full State Estimator

The Kalman filter output is the estimate of position and speed, which are the first two components of Formula$\mathhat{e}$, denoted by Formula$x^{L}$ for the local vehicle and by Formula$x^{R}$ for the remote vehicle, the estimate of global time Formula$t$, and acceleration profile Formula${\cal A}_{\bar{t}}(t)$. The full state estimate is constructed by combining local state estimation from the Kalman filter with received remote vehicle state information. In accordance with feedback map Formula$g(\mathhat{x})$, as defined in Algorithm 2, evaluating control involves discretizing the flow and constructing current state estimate Formula$\mathhat{x}[n]$ and prediction Formula$\mathhat{x}[n + \hbox{1}]$. We now define the algorithm for computing the full state estimate and prediction, with arguments local state information Formula$(x^{L}, t, {\cal A}_{\bar{t}^{L}}^{L})$, remote state information Formula$(x^{R}, t^{R}, {\cal A}_{\bar{t}^{R}}^{R})$, and prediction time step Formula$\Delta_{P}$. The state estimate is found with Formula$FullStateEstimate$, defined in Algorithm 3, which returns current state estimate Formula$\mathhat{x}[n]$ and state prediction estimate Formula$\mathhat{x}[n + \hbox{1}]$.

Algorithm 3

B. Communication

The state prediction performed by the estimator is necessary to account for communication delays and avoid control to be evaluated on old information. Communication delay comprises all delay experienced from the instant measurement data are populated onboard the local vehicle until the remote vehicle uses this state information to construct a capture set for control evaluation. This can be broken down into the following major components: 1) ICA application acquisition of state information from the local state estimator; 2) construction of a remote data message as commanded by the ICA application; 3) interface with communication layer Denso WSU radio; 4) physical delay in the wireless transmission of the information; 5) reception of the message from the remote vehicle communication layer; and 6) population of this state information into the ICA application for use in capture set construction and subsequent control evaluation. From experimental results, we have found that the worst case delay is 0.4 s. Hence, the multiple predictions performed to determine Formula$\mathhat{x}[n + \hbox{1}]$ are such that the time Formula$\Delta_{p}\approx \hbox{0.4}$ s.

C. Control

The set-valued feedback map Formula$g$ is locally computed on each vehicle. To accommodate delay in the system arising from communication, software, and actuators. (As previously discussed, we evaluate the feedback controller for a set of state estimate predictions.) Let state estimate Formula$\mathhat{x}[n]_{i} \subset X$ represent the estimate onboard vehicle Formula$i$ at time Formula$t$. Algorithm 3 can be recursively used to construct more state estimate predictions. Define the prediction horizon count Formula$N_{p} \in \BBN$, which is a configurable design parameter. We construct the state estimate predictions onboard vehicle Formula$i$, given by Formula$\mathhat{x}[n + j]_{i}$ for Formula$\hbox{1} \leq j \leq N_{p}$, as follows: FormulaFormula$(\mathhat{x}[n + j]_{i}, \mathhat{x}[n + j - \hbox{1}]_{i}) = \hbox{FullStateEstimate}(\mathhat{x}[n + j - \hbox{1}]_{i}, t + j \Delta_{p}, t^{R} + j \Delta_{p}, \Delta_{p}, {\cal A}_{\bar{t}^{L}}^{L}, {\cal A}_{\bar{t}^{R}}^{R})$, where the local vehicle refers to vehicle Formula$i \in \{\hbox{1}, \hbox{2}\}$. We then use the set of predictions to evaluate feedback map Formula$g$ onboard vehicle Formula$i\in \{\hbox{1}, \hbox{2}\}$, which is implemented as Formula$g(\mathhat{x}[n]_{i}): = \bigcap_{1 \leq j \leq N_{p}}\break \hbox{FeedbackMap}(\mathhat{x}[n + j]_{i}, \mathhat{x}[n]_{i})$.

Before applying control, the two vehicles should reach an agreement for the control commands to apply. In general, we have that Formula$\mathhat{x}[n]_{1} \neq \mathhat{x}[n]_{2}$. However, both sets contain the true system state Formula$x$ by construction. As a consequence, we have that Formula$g(\mathhat{x}[n]_{i})\subseteq g(x)$ given the order reversing property of map Formula$g$. As a consequence, we can take Formula$g(\mathhat{x}[n]_{1})\cup g(\mathhat{x}[n]_{2})$ as the set of all possible safe control choices. In practice, we implement this with a handshake mechanism to guarantee that both vehicles choose the same actions. Specifically, the handshake module remains in the trivial initial state until a collision is predicted onboard the local vehicle. From Algorithm 2, a collision is predicted onboard vehicle Formula$i$ when Formula$g(\mathhat{x}[n]_{i}) \neq {\cal U}$, at which point a message is sent to the remote vehicle indicating a collision has been predicted. Vehicle Formula$i$ Then waits for a message indicating a collision has been predicted onboard the second vehicle Formula$j$. If no such message is received, the application sleeps for 10 ms and then resends the message denoting a collision has been predicted (in case the message was not received). This process continues until a message has been received from vehicle Formula$j$ or it times out. If a message is received, then a consensus control is chosen and applied to the local actuator of both vehicles.

SECTION VI

INTERSECTION COLLISION AVOIDANCE EXPERIMENTS

A. Experiment Setup

Experiments were conducted at the test track of the Toyota Technical Center, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, USA, employing two modified Lexus IS 250 vehicles [see Fig. 1(c)]. Both vehicles run ICA as they approach the intersection. The velocity of approach is not fixed; however, it must be within safe limits. Each path is stored as a list of UTM coordinates on the respective vehicle. The speed limits for path 1 are Formula$v_{\rm min} = \hbox{0}\ \hbox{m/s}$ and Formula$v_{\rm max} = \hbox{8.8}\ \hbox{m/s}$, whereas the speed limits for path 2 are Formula$v_{\rm min} = \hbox{8.8}\ \hbox{m/s}$ and Formula$v_{\rm max} = \hbox{18}\ \hbox{m/s}$. The bad set parameters chosen are Formula$L^{1} = \hbox{55} \ \hbox{m}$, Formula$L^{2} = \hbox{75}\ \hbox{m}$, Formula$H^{1} = \hbox{65}\ \hbox{m}$, and Formula$H^{2} = \hbox{85}\ \hbox{m}$. These values can be changed as they are only input parameters to the algorithm. For the specific implementation, we chose them in such a way that sufficient separation would be maintained by the vehicles when crossing the intersection. The input sets are chosen to be Formula${\cal U}^{1} := [u^{1}_{L}, u^{1}_{H}] = [\hbox{0}, \hbox{0.3}] \times [ \hbox{0}, \hbox{0.5}]$ and Formula${\cal U}^{2} := [u^{2}_{L}, u^{2}_{H}] = [\hbox{0}, \hbox{0.3}] \times [\hbox{0}, \hbox{1}]$, which represent extremal inputs that maintain comfortable driving conditions. In general, these are design parameters that engineers have the freedom to change based on road surfaces, vehicle capabilities, and general intersection-dependent considerations. However, these need to remain fixed during the course of an experiment or implementation.

We consider two real-world scenarios, which we refer to as “use cases.” For use case A, we assume that a merging vehicle enters the intersection without properly surveying for oncoming traffic. Since the vehicle has already entered the intersection (or the speed is too high such that this is unavoidable), the only solution is for the merging vehicle to apply throttle and for the straight vehicle to brake. A visualization of this is provided in Fig. 6(a). For use case B, we assume that a merging vehicle is approaching an intersection at high speed and likely misjudging the speed of oncoming traffic. The solution in this case is for the merging vehicle to apply brake while the straight vehicle applies the throttle. A visualization of this is provided in Fig. 6(b). We performed a total of 28 trials, i.e., 15 for use case A and 13 for use case B.

Figure 6
Fig. 6. (a) Use case A involves a merging vehicle entering the intersection without first checking oncoming traffic. The figure shows a top-down cartoon of this scenario along with the system configuration related to the capture set in position plane Formula$X_{1}$ for a fixed pair of vehicle speeds. (b) Use case B involves a merging vehicle approaching the intersection while misjudging the speed of oncoming traffic. The figure shows a top-down cartoon of this scenario along with the configuration of the system related to the capture set in the Formula$X_{1}$ plane.
Figure 7
Fig. 7. All trajectories from all trials. The safety specification is maintained given that the flow of the system never entered bad set Formula${\bf B}$ during any trial.

B. Experimental Results

All trajectories generated by the experiments are provided in Fig. 7 in the displacement plane. As is apparent from the plots, no trajectory ever entered the bad set; hence, all collisions were averted. In addition, the trajectories pass fairly close to the bad set, indicating that the control algorithm is nonconservative as expected from theory. To better quantify the performance, we calculated the distance of the trajectory of the system from the capture set, which is denoted by Formula$\gamma$, and the distance of the trajectory from the bad set, which is denoted by Formula$\zeta$. Table I provides the summary of the results. This table shows that the trajectory never entered the capture set nor the bad set in any trial, which follows from the nonzero values of Formula$\wedge\zeta$ and Formula$\wedge\gamma$. This is expected from theory as the controller guarantees that trajectories starting outside of the capture set remain outside of the capture set. Furthermore, the distances of the trajectories from the capture set are very small and can be decreased by decreasing prediction horizon Formula$\Delta_{p}$ and removing state uncertainty Formula$\beta$. Larger prediction horizons lead the system to override sooner, and as a consequence, the distances from the capture set and from the bad set are larger. With no state uncertainty (Formula$\beta = \hbox{0}$), the trajectories pass closer to the capture set and to the bad set, indicating an aggressive and nonconservative controller. When uncertainty is introduced, the distances of the trajectory from the capture set and from the bad set increase because the algorithm applies control to keep an empty intersection between the predicted state uncertainty and the capture set. Hence, our algorithms also provide a number of design parameters to compromise how aggressive the controller is (measured by how close to the bad set the trajectories go) with control conservatism (the controller acts sooner than it could have). This tradeoff is relevant in practice because overriding the driver can be justified only if it is needed to keep the system safe.

Table 1
TABLE I FIRST COLUMN INDICATES THE NUMBER OF TRIALS; THE SECOND COLUMN INDICATES THE NUMBER OF PREDICTION STEPS Formula$N_p$ (See Section V-C); Formula$\Delta_{p}$ IS THE PREDICTION TIME (Algorithm 3); “P” DENOTES PERFECT STATE INFORMATION (Formula$\beta = \hbox{0}$ IN THE PREDICTION STEP IN Section V-A); “I” DENOTES IMPERFECT STATE INFORMATION (Formula$\beta = \hbox{0.2}$); and Formula$\zeta$ and Formula$\gamma$ ARE THE DISTANCES OF THE TRAJECTORY FROM BAD SET Formula${\bf B}$ AND FROM CAPTURE SET Formula${\cal C}$, RESPECTIVELY, WITH Formula$\wedge$ DENOTING THE MINIMUM VALUE AND Formula$\mu$ DENOTING THE AVERAGE VALUE ACROSS THE TRIALS IN UNITS Formula$m$

Fig. 8 shows an experimental trial with perfect state information Formula$(\beta = \hbox{0})$ and with use case a, whereas Fig. 9 shows a trial for use case b and imperfect state information (Formula$\beta\neq \hbox{0}$). In use case A (see Fig. 8), the merging vehicle (vehicle 1) approached the intersection at a cruising speed of 6 m/s, whereas vehicle 2 approached the intersection at an accelerating speed of around 14 m/s. To avoid the collision, the drivers were overridden at 19.7 s when the state prediction hit the boundary of the capture set. At this time, automatic throttle was applied to vehicle 1, and automatic brake was applied to vehicle 2. This control results in vehicle 2 entering the intersection only (and immediately) after vehicle 1 has cleared the intersection. Vehicle 1 reached the speed limit Formula$v^{1}_{\rm max}$ while applying throttle, after which time the controller held the speed constant. The test ended after the merging vehicle exited the intersection, after which time automatic control was deactivated and the driver retained control. While conducting this experiment, system trajectory Formula$\mathhat{x}(t)$ was at least within 0.7 m of the capture set, while never actually entering it, which implies that safety was maintained and that the control actions were not conservative.

Figure 8
Fig. 8. Experimental trial for use case A. Here, perfect state information is assumed. (a) Snapshots showing the configuration of the vehicles at different times. The upper row shows the configuration of the vehicles (indicated by the cross) in the displacement space along with capture set slice Formula${\cal C}$ (delimited by the black line) corresponding to the current vehicle speeds. The bad set is the red box. The solid blue line indicates the trajectory in the displacement space. The portion of this line ahead of the cross indicates the state prediction. The lower row shows the vehicle positions as they appear from a top-down view of the experiment. The red area corresponds to the bad set (red box in the upper row plots). (b) Signals for vehicle 1 are shown in the upper row, whereas the bottom row shows signals for vehicle 2. At 19.7 s, the state prediction hits the boundary of the capture set, and hence, vehicle 1 applies throttle, and vehicle 2 applies brake.
Figure 9
Fig. 9. Experimental trial for use case B. Imperfect state information is considered here Formula$(\beta\neq \hbox{0})$. The upper row shows the configuration of the vehicles (indicated by the cross) in the displacement space along with capture set slice Formula${\cal C}$ (delimited by the black line) corresponding to the current vehicle speeds. The bad set is the red box. The solid blue line indicates the trajectory in the displacement space. The portion of this line ahead of the cross indicates the state prediction set. In this experiment, Formula$N_{p} = \hbox{3}$ and Formula$\Delta_{p} = \hbox{0.4}$ and the resulting uncertainty in position is very small (about 0.1 m); hence, it is hardly visible in the plot. However, the uncertainty on the speed is significant, and it is about 0.5 m/s. The velocity signal displays estimate velocity Formula$x_{2}^{L}$ resulting from the Kalman filter. The lower row shows the vehicle positions as they appear from a top-down view of the experiment. The red area corresponds to the bad set (red box in the upper row plots). (b) Signals for vehicle 1 are shown in the upper row, whereas the bottom row shows signals for vehicle 2. At 47.2 s, the state prediction hits the boundary of the capture set, and hence, vehicle 2 applies throttle, and vehicle 1 applies brake.

In use case B (see Fig. 9), imperfect state information was considered using Formula$\beta = \hbox{0.2}\ \hbox{m/s}^{2}$. In this trial, the merging vehicle (vehicle 1) started at rest, whereas vehicle 2 approached the intersection at an accelerating speed of around 8 m/s. Vehicle 1 attempted to violently accelerate and enter the intersection. To avoid the collision, the drivers were overridden at 47.2 s when the set prediction hit the boundary of the capture set. In this case, automatic brake was applied to vehicle 1, and automatic throttle was applied to vehicle 2. This control results in vehicle 1 entering the intersection only (and immediately) after vehicle 2 has cleared the intersection. The merging vehicle reached the speed limit Formula$v^{1}_{\rm min}$ while applying brake, after which time the controller held the vehicle at rest. The straight vehicle reached the speed limit Formula$v^{2}_{\rm max}$ while applying throttle, after which time the controller held the vehicle at a constant speed. The test ended after the straight vehicle exited the intersection, after which time automatic control was deactivated and the driver retained longitudinal control. While conducting this experiment, system trajectory Formula$\mathhat{x}(t)$ was within 0.6 m of the capture set, while never actually entering it, which implies that safety was maintained and that the control actions were not conservative.

SECTION VII

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we have presented algorithms and experimental validation on prototype vehicles for cooperative collision avoidance at intersections based on a formal control theoretic approach. Since the application considered is life critical, algorithms for collision avoidance should have safety certificates. The proposed approach provides these certificates, guaranteeing that the system stays collision free and that automatic control is not applied until absolutely necessary. This is achieved by keeping the system state always outside the capture set, which is the set of all states from which a collision is unavoidable given the vehicle dynamics and the limitations on the control efforts. A number of parameters can be chosen by the designer, including the maximal and minimal brake and throttle efforts for automatic control, maximal and minimal speeds, the size of the collision set (bad set), the bounds on the modeling uncertainty, the communication delay, and the bounds on the uncertainty on the driver control actions. For example, if acceleration is not considered suitable for preventing a collision, one can set the upper and lower bounds of the throttle input to zero in the calculation of the capture set and the control map, so that evasive maneuvers will only consider braking. Of course, the control action will be more conservative in this case as the capture set will be larger. Similarly, the size of the bad set is an input parameter to the algorithm, and it can be changed by the user depending on the specific intersection geometry. Experimentally, we have shown how to tune the prediction horizon and the number of prediction steps to adjust conservatism, that is, how soon the controller decides that automatic control is needed to prevent an imminent collision. The later the automatic control acts, the less conservative the algorithm is, but the closer the system trajectories come to a collision (while still averting it). This tradeoff can be decided depending on the system specifications. The experiments finally illustrate that the (linear complexity) algorithms for evaluating the capture set and control actions are fast enough for real-time implementation, which is a feature that is necessary for the practical applicability of our approach. A number of future research avenues are left to be explored. These include incorporating a warning phase that gives the opportunity to the driver to react before automatic control becomes necessary. Scalability to more than two vehicles needs to be studied, and initial results are promising [8]. Our approach can be applied where vehicles are on known crossing or merging paths, such as at intersections or when a vehicle merges onto a road from a parking lot or on the highway. Investigation should be carried out to extend the approach to road topologies other than intersections and merges and to situations where intended vehicle paths and collision zones cannot be identified a priori.

Footnotes

The Associate Editor for this paper was F.-Y. Wang.

M. R. Hafner is with the Systems Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.

D. Cunningham and L. Caminiti are with the Integrated Vehicle Systems Department, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc., Erlanger, KY 41018 USA (e-mail: drew.cunningham@tema.toyota.com; lorenzo.caminiti@tema.toyota.com).

D. Del Vecchio is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 USA.

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

References

No Data Available

Authors

Michael R. Hafner

Michael R. Hafner

Michael R. Hafner received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

His current research interests include safety control for nonlinear and hybrid systems in multiagent settings.

Drew Cunningham

Drew Cunningham

Drew Cunningham received the B.S. degree in computer science from Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

He is a Research Engineer with the Integrated Vehicle Systems Department, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc., Erlanger, KY, USA. His current research interests include the development and testing of advanced vehicle safety systems.

Lorenzo Caminiti

Lorenzo Caminiti

Lorenzo Caminiti received the M.S. degree in engineering from the University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

He is a Manager with the Integrated Vehicle Systems Department, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc., Erlanger, KY, USA. His current research interests include the creation and validation of advanced vehicular safety applications.

Domitilla Del Vecchio

Domitilla Del Vecchio

Domitilla Del Vecchio (M'12) received the Laurea degree in electrical engineering from the University of Rome at Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, in 1999 and the Ph.D. degree in control and dynamical systems from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, in 2005.

From 2006 to 2010, she was an Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. In 2010, she joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, where she is currently the W. M. Keck Career Development Associate Professor. Her research interests include analysis and control of nonlinear and hybrid dynamical systems, with applications to transportation and biomolecular networks.

Dr. Del Vecchio received the Donald P. Eckman Award from the American Automatic Control Council in 2010, the National Science Foundation Career Award in 2007, the Crosby Award from the University of Michigan in 2007, the American Control Conference Best Student Paper Award in 2004, and the Bank of Italy Fellowship in 2000.

Cited By

No Data Available

Keywords

Corrections

None

Multimedia

No Data Available
This paper appears in:
No Data Available
Issue Date:
No Data Available
On page(s):
No Data Available
ISSN:
None
INSPEC Accession Number:
None
Digital Object Identifier:
None
Date of Current Version:
No Data Available
Date of Original Publication:
No Data Available

Text Size


Need Help?


IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.