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Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless

Figure 1

Figure 1
The penetration of the global ICT developments during 2000–2010 (© ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database [8, p. 1]).

Figure 2

Figure 2
Evolution of standardized wireless systems and of the Wireless Broadband (WiBro) services provided by them portrayed in the mobility versus data-rate plane [9].

Figure 3

Figure 3
Classification of four MIMO functions [11].

Figure 4

Figure 4
Pathloss versus carrier frequency, portraying the typical oxygen and water vapor absorption phenomena [2].

Figure 5

Figure 5
Trends in energy costs and consumption rates over the last two decades [27], [28].

Figure 6

Figure 6
The electromagnetic spectrum.

Figure 7

Figure 7
The measurement testbed [35].

Figure 8

Figure 8
Example of measured WiMAX performance metrics (left) and derived throughput losses, absolute (middle) and relative (right) at 5-MHz urban channel. (Reproduced from [44].)

Figure 9

Figure 9
Expected throughput for LTE with 4 × 4 antennas (left) and derived throughput losses, absolute (middle) and relative (right) at 5-MHz bandwidth, pedestrian B channel.

Figure 10

Figure 10
Expected throughput for LTE-A with 8 × 8 antennas (left) and derived throughput losses, absolute (middle) and relative (right) at 5-MHz bandwidth, pedestrian B channel.

Figure 11

Figure 11
Relative SNR losses of different channel estimators and CC schemes with respect to genie-driven channel estimation and LDPC coding; measured WiMAX in the urban scenario at a fixed throughput of 5 Mb/s.

Figure 12

Figure 12
Typical optical wireless environment. (a) LOS. (b) Diffuse. (c) LED array.

Figure 13

Figure 13
(a) Transmitter and (b) receiver components.

Figure 14

Figure 14
The computer-aided design (CAD)-based model of the aircraft cabin. The optical access points are numbered from 1 to 9. The cubes colored in cyan represent the multiple receiver elements for the MCRT tool for an arbitrary snap shot.

Figure 15

Figure 15
Radiation pattern of the transmitter unit. Sixteen LEDs with FOV of Formula$\pm {\hbox {10}}^{\circ}$ are placed around a circle with diameter of 2 cm and form an omnidirectional radiation pattern. The transmitter's adequate coverage range determines the size of the resultant optical cell.

Figure 16

Figure 16
Cell division and wavelength assignment for reuse factors of 1, 2, and 3.

Figure 17

Figure 17
Throughput of DCO-OFDM for wavelength/frequency reuse factors of 1, 2, and 3.

Figure 18

Figure 18
Network architecture. (a) Cellular: scalable and highly dependable architecture used in existing systems; the mobiles communicate with the base stations (BSs), which are under control of the mobile switching center. (b) Ad hoc: flexible, self-organizing architecture. (c) Heterogeneous: a fusion of cellular and ad hoc architectures, showing the licence-free OW/RF hotspots, which hence inherits the advantages of both the cellular and ad hoc topologies [137].

Figure 19

Figure 19
Multiuser DS-CDMA detector.

Figure 20

Figure 20
Superactivation of zero-capacity quantum channels.