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Electric Power and Energy Engineering: The First Century

Figure 1

Figure 1
The annual electric energy generation as related to the corresponding GDP in the United States, 1950–2010 [2], [3].

Figure 2

Figure 2
Net generation capacity changes by source between 1989 and 2009 in the United States [12].

Figure 3

Figure 3
Actual wind installation versus deployment path required for realizing 20% wind by 2030 [15].

Figure 4

Figure 4
Trend of transmission voltages worldwide. Voltages greater than 1000 kV (ac) are termed ultrahigh ac voltages, and greater than ±800-kV dc are ultrahigh dc voltages.

Figure 5

Figure 5
Elements of a modern EMS.

Figure 6

Figure 6
Time scales associated with various EMS functions.

Figure 7

Figure 7
Double-sided auction.

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 9
Block diagram of a UPFC.

Figure 10

Figure 10
DFIG-based wind generator.