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IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Popular Articles (August 2016)

Browse the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • 1. Selected Papers On Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):82 - 83
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB)

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  • 2. Two Early Interactive Computer Network Experiments

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):12 - 24
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Two early networking experiments joined a time-sharing computer at the System Development Corporation with systems at the Stanford Research Institute briefly in 1963 and at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1966-1967. Both were influenced by J.C.R. Licklider's interest in resource sharing and included experiments with the interactive use of remote programs. View full abstract»

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  • 3. Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (60)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

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  • 4. A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

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  • 5. Raymond Tomlinson: Email Pioneer, Part 1

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):72 - 79
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Raymond (Ray) Tomlinson was a computer engineer best known for developing the TENEX operating system and implemented the first email program on the Arpanet system in 1971. In its official biography, the Internet Hall of Fame states that "Tomlinson's email program brought about a complete revolution, fundamentally changing the way people communicate." This interview is the first in a ... View full abstract»

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  • 6. The Internet Design Tension between Surveillance and Security

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):72 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The design tension between security and surveillance has existed for decades. This article specifically examines the protocol design tension between national security interests in surveillance versus network security in the early decades of the Internet and its predecessor networks. Using archival research and protocol-specific case studies, this article describes episodes in which the Internet En... View full abstract»

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  • 7. Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

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  • 8. The Restructuring of Internet Standards Governance: 1987-1992

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):25 - 43
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1321 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In June 1992, the Internet Activities Board sought to push the Internet Engineering Task Force into a solution for the Internet's address depletion problem. Its actions provoked a management crisis that forced a restructuring of the Internet standards governance process. Although the events have been characterized as a revolt by the Internet Engineering Task Force, this article revisits the preced... View full abstract»

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  • 9. Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

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  • 10. Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (47)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

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  • 11. Infrastructure, Representation, and Historiography in BBN's Arpanet Maps

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):44 - 57
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2179 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest and most widespread representation of the Arpanet were network graphs or maps that, arguably, remain its most prominent artifact. In an earlier article, the authors analyzed how the maps were created, what they represented, and how histories of the network parallel their emphases and omissions. Here, the authors begin a retooling of the maps to highlight further what is missing from t... View full abstract»

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  • 12. The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

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  • 13. Measuring Risk: Computer Security Metrics, Automation, and Learning

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):32 - 45
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Risk management is widely seen as the basis for cybersecurity in contemporary organizations, but practitioners continue to dispute its value. This article analyzes debate over computer security risk management in the 1970s and 1980s United States, using this debate to enhance our understanding of the value of computer security metrics more generally. Regulators placed a high value on risk analysis... View full abstract»

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  • 14. The Clamor Outside as INWG Debated: Economic War Comes to Networking

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):58 - 77
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (913 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In a 2011 Anecdote department article in the Annals, Alex McKenzie provided an excellent account of the events between 1974 and 1976 leading up to INWG 96, a proposed internetwork transport protocol. McKenzie's anecdote focused on the events in INWG (International Network Working Group), which this article shows were a small part of a much larger debate that was going on outside. The author places... View full abstract»

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  • 15. The Relational Database and the Concept of the Information System

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):9 - 17
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    E.F. Codd developed his relational database concept within a community that was attempting to create a general-purpose machine for retrieving and reasoning with data. Rather than just making progress toward that goal, this article argues that Codd's accomplishment marked the end of that effort and traces the heritage of the relational database system as it relates to the concept of an information ... View full abstract»

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  • 16. History of COMTRAC: Development of the Innovative Traffic-Control System for Shinkansen

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):11 - 21
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6411 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    First introduced together with the extension of Tokaido-Shinkansen railway in 1972, the COMTRAC large-scale command-and-control system efficiently controls the train's high-speed, high-frequency, high-diversity operations. This article introduces COMTRAC's technological features and gives an overview of its 50-year history, including the early days of R&D and the subsequent system development ... View full abstract»

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  • 17. Notes on the Evolution of Computer Security Policy in the US Government, 1965-2003

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 18
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The United States government and military helped lead the information technology revolution and were among the first to warn of its consequent dangers to privacy and national security. This article discusses White House, congressional, and high-level US Department of Defense (DoD) policy documents that illustrate the direction and pace of Washington's recognition of potential foreign threats to US... View full abstract»

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  • 18. Finding a History for Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians and software engineers are both looking for a history for software engineering. For historians, it is a matter of finding a point of perspective from which to view an enterprise that is still in the process of defining itself. For software engineers, it is the question of finding a usable past, as they have sought to ground their vision of the enterprise on historical models taken from ... View full abstract»

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  • 19. Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

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  • 20. The Industrial Organization of Hong Kong's Progression Toward a Cashless Economy (1960s-2000s)

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):54 - 65
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2389 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A dramatic change occurred in retail banking technology in Hong Kong between 1960 and 2000. Initially, the relevant technologies were installed and managed within the boundaries of large banks, such as HSBC. Over the course of this period, however, the industrial organization of the relevant technologies transformed to include provisions outsourced to nonbank institutions. This article seeks to ac... View full abstract»

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  • 21. The Relational Model: Beginning of an Era

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):30 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Serving as an informal technical introduction to this Annals special issue on relational database management systems, this article gives an introductory overview of the relational model and discusses the value of Edgar F. (Ted) Codd's model. Then, after providing an account of Chris Date's contributions, the author assesses the relational model's effect on the industry and how it might affect futu... View full abstract»

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  • 22. Raymond Tomlinson: Email Pioneer, Part 2

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):78 - 83
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Raymond (Ray) Tomlinson was a computer engineer best known for developing the TENEX operating system and implemented the first email program on the Arpanet system in 1971. In its official biography, the Internet Hall of Fame states that "Tomlinson's email program brought about a complete revolution, fundamentally changing the way people communicate." This interview is the second in a two-part Anna... View full abstract»

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  • 23. The Birth and Death of the Orange Book

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):19 - 31
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article traces the origins of US government-sponsored computer security research and the path that led from a focus on government-funded research and system development to a focus on the evaluation of commercial products. That path led to the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), or Orange Book. The TCSEC placed great emphasis on requirements for mandatory secur... View full abstract»

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  • 24. US Government Computer Penetration Programs and the Implications for Cyberwar

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):4 - 21
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US Department of Defense was the driving force behind the development of sophisticated computer penetration methodologies. By analyzing the security of the nation's time-sharing computer systems, security analysts developed an expert understanding of computer penetration. Eventually, the US and its intelligence agencies utilized computer penetration techniques to wage offensive cyberattacks. View full abstract»

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  • 25. The Dawn of the Internet in Brazil

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):54 - 63
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Internet development in Brazil was essentially as a sociotechnical construction, the result of a set of regulatory and governmental acts, academic initiatives, strategic investments of the government and its agents, market actions of telecommunication companies, and efforts of the third sector. This article begins with an historical account of computer networks, starting from their roots in the Un... View full abstract»

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  • 26. History and technology of computer fonts

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):30 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)

    Computer fonts have become widely popularized through the use of the Macintosh and Microsoft Windows software systems. This technology has been evolving for more than 30 years and has a number of underlying technologies that support the current high level of utility and quality View full abstract»

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  • 27. The women of ENIAC

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):13 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2792 KB)

    A group of young women college graduates involved with the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) are identified. As a result of their education, intelligence, as well as their being at the right place and at the right time, these young women were able to perform important computer work. Many learned to use effectively “the machine that changed the world” to assist in sol... View full abstract»

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  • 28. The Korean Character Code: A National Controversy, 1987-1995

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):40 - 53
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2652 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Adequately representing the Korean language has been a challenge since the earliest introduction of digital computing and computer-mediated communication. As a local solution to the more general problem of the internationalization of computer languages, the Korean government introduced a new standard character code known as KSC-5601 in 1987. This article traces the history of the Korean character ... View full abstract»

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  • 29. The Technological Roots of Computer Graphics

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):30 - 41
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1502 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Numerous, seemingly unrelated technologies eventually culminated in what we know today as the field of computer graphics (CG). The article focuses on prior art documents cited in CG patent applications to identify the technology at the origin, the problems encountered, and that solutions proposed in the 1940s and 1950s that led to the generation of images with computers in the early 1960s. The ana... View full abstract»

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  • 30. The Origin and Early History of the Computer Security Software Products Industry

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):46 - 58
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms and new IT start-ups chose alternative paths to offer commercial access control systems to organizational mainframe computer users. These developments in effect launched the computer security software products industry with IBM's Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and SKK's Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2). View full abstract»

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  • 31. Design Engineering or Factory Capability? Building Laptop Contract Manufacturing in Taiwan

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):22 - 39
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1863 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article explores how Taiwanese laptop contract manufacturers established the foundation of their businesses between the late 1980s and mid-1990s. It casts doubt on the traditional view of a linear progression from manufacturing to design capability in Asia. By examining the three earliest laptop projects in Taiwan, however, this author shows that manufacturing was not necessarily simpler than... View full abstract»

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  • 32. The Dark Side of Computing: SRI International and the Study of Computer Crime

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):3 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    From the perspective of an information security researcher and consultant who studied crime for 40 years, this brief history of computer crime delves into study methods and presents findings from many years of National Science Foundation and US department of justice grant-supported research and business support at SRI International View full abstract»

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  • 33. The Oracle Story: 1984-2001

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):10 - 23
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (623 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article tells the story of Oracle from 1984 through 2001, primarily through the author's experiences during those years. Andrew Mendelsohn worked on the software development team that built the Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS). During this time, Oracle went from being a small niche software company to becoming one of the giants in the software industry. Although many obser... View full abstract»

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  • 34. Intel 8080 CPU Chip Development

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):70 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Within a year of the introduction of Intel's first 8-bit CPU chip, the 8008, in April 1972, the author was working on the design specification for a faster and more capable CPU chip, the 8080. Here, the author describes the development of the 8080 chip that helped launch the personal computer industry. The author also addresses two common complaints about the 8080's architecture - its lack of regi... View full abstract»

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  • 35. IBM Relational Database Systems: The Early Years

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):38 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The relational data model, proposed by E.F. Codd in 1970, inspired several research projects at IBM and elsewhere. Among these was System R, which demonstrated the commercial viability of relational database systems. This article describes the research challenges faced by the System R team and how the technology they created has influenced the development of the modern database industry. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):24 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hear... View full abstract»

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  • 37. The Commercialization of Database Management Systems, 1969–1983

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):26 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Database management systems were the most important commercial software packages of the 1970s. The authors reconstruct their early history by examining the evolution of their capabilities and installed base. They also document early user experiences, including the sources from which potential users learned about these new technologies, new roles such as the database administrator, and new concepts... View full abstract»

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  • 38. How Data Got its Base: Information Storage Software in the 1950s and 1960s

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):6 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3003 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Generalized report generation and file maintenance programs were widely used in the 1950s, standardized by the Share user group with 9PAC and Surge. By the 1960s the first recognizable DBMS systems, such IMS and IDS, had evolved to address the challenges of disk drives and MIS projects. Finally, in the late 1960s Codasyl's Data Base Task Group formulated the DBMS concept itself. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Studying History as it Unfolds, Part 1: Creating the History of Information Technologies

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):20 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a two-part series, this article explores the development of the early history of information technologies from the 1940s to the present. Looking at how historians wrestled with the history of computing is a useful modern case that can offer tactical recommendations for those in other fields of technology. View full abstract»

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  • 40. When Computers Were Amateur

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):4 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the records of the Amateur Computer Society (1966-1976), a hobbyist organization whose newsletters chronicle an important corner in the history of computing. It argues for amateurism as an important foil to histories firmly ensconced in the firm or lab, often focused on technological artifacts. The author offers two readings of the newsletters: one that looks at the discussio... View full abstract»

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  • 41. Hopper and Dijkstra: Crisis, Revolution, and the Future of Programming

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):64 - 73
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, tensions were erupting in corporate and academic computing cultures in the United States and abroad with competing views about the state of computer programming and possible future implications. A discourse of "software crisis" was ignited in 1968 when NATO hosted a conference on the topic of software engineering. The author examines the rhetoric of crisis, revolution, and promi... View full abstract»

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  • 42. The RDBMS Industry: A Northern California Perspective

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):18 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article describes the origins and development of the relational database management systems (RDBMS) industry, focusing on the firms IBM, Oracle, Ingres, Informix, and Sybase in the 1980s. The author analyzes the industry's evolution in terms of the disruptive technology paradigm and regional economics and then broadly outlines the industry's later development. View full abstract»

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  • 43. The IBM ACS Project

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):60 - 74
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    One of two major IBM supercomputer efforts in the late 1960s, the Advanced Computer Systems (ACS) project had significantly more ambitious performance goals than the earlier IBM System/360 Model 91 project, and it pioneered many features that became common decades later. Although the project was canceled, it brought many talented engineers to California and contributed to several later development... View full abstract»

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  • 44. SQL/DS: IBM's First RDBMS

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):69 - 71
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (125 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1970s, IBM software labs were aligned with the IBM hardware families. The decisions to commercialize the relational database prototype called System R, which had been developed during the 1970s at the IBM Research facility in San Jose, California, were made based on a hardware family business case. The Endicott Lab, supporting the small- to mid-sized mainframe environments running VM a... View full abstract»

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  • 45. Oracle Marketing: Killer Ads

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):24 - 30
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5015 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Rick Bennett was Oracle's one-man ad agency from 1984 to 1990 as it grew from $15 million to $1 billion in sales. Bennett chronicles the company's approach to advertising, some of its more successful and controversial ads, and his experiences working personally with Larry Ellison. View full abstract»

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  • 46. From Ancient to Modern Computing: A History of Information Hiding

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):33 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article proposes a methodological approach to the historiography of computing in terms of information hiding--that is, the introduction of levels of abstraction (LoAs) between the human being and the computing machine. This approach applies the LoAs, in terms of the epistemological levelism proposed within the philosophy of information, to the transition from ancient to modern computing. In p... View full abstract»

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  • 47. First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.<... View full abstract»

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  • 48. Peering through the Curtain: Soviet Computing through the Eyes of Western Experts

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):34 - 47
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A collection of trip reports from Western computer experts who visited the Soviet Union in the 1960s reveals details about interactions between these Westerners and their Soviet counterparts during the height of the Cold War. These previously unexplored first-hand perspectives help to illuminate how such interactions shaped and countered American perceptions of Soviet computing and the threats it ... View full abstract»

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  • 49. Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):5 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, held at Datrmouth College in 1956, is regarded as the official "birthplace" of Al. This article draws on unpublished archives to shed new light on the origins of the conference and the complex relationships between cybernetics, automata studies, and Al in the 1950s. View full abstract»

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  • 50. The Oracle Story, Part 1: 1977-1986

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):51 - 57
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Starting in 1977, the founders of the Oracle Corporation created a product and a company which in less than 20 years would come to dominate the DBMS marketplace, and become one of the world's largest computer software and services companies. With virtually no outside financial investment, the founders bootstrapped the company by developing project software under contract while working overtime to ... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Nathan Ensmenger
Indiana University, School of Informatics & Computing
nensmeng@indiana.edu