IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Sixty Years of Software Development Life Cycle Models

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):41 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Sixty years ago, in 1956, the first explicit representation of a software development life cycle model was presented by Herbert Benington. Since then, software development life cycle models have come a long way, and the current article provides an overview of that development. View full abstract»

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  • Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

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  • Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (90)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Risk: Computer Security Metrics, Automation, and Learning

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):32 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Risk management is widely seen as the basis for cybersecurity in contemporary organizations, but practitioners continue to dispute its value. This article analyzes debate over computer security risk management in the 1970s and 1980s United States, using this debate to enhance our understanding of the value of computer security metrics more generally. Regulators placed a high value on risk analysis... View full abstract»

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  • Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

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  • The March of IDES: Early History of Intrusion-Detection Expert Systems

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a broader prehistory and history of early intrusion-detection systems (IDSs), this article focuses on the first such system, Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES), which was developed in the second half of the 1980s at SRI International (and SRI's follow-on Next Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System, or NIDES, in the early-to-mid 1990s). It also briefly recounts other early ID... View full abstract»

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  • Computer Security Discourse at RAND, SDC, and NSA (1958-1970)

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):12 - 25
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The 1967 Spring Joint Computer Conference session organized by Willis Ware and the 1970 Ware Report are widely held by computer security practitioners and historians to have defined the field's origin. This article documents, describes, and assesses new evidence about two early multilevel access, time-sharing systems, SDC's Q-32 and NSA's RYE, and outlines its security-related consequences for bot... View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

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  • The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

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  • The Origin and Early History of the Computer Security Software Products Industry

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):46 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms and new IT start-ups chose alternative paths to offer commercial access control systems to organizational mainframe computer users. These developments in effect launched the computer security software products industry with IBM's Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and SKK's Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2). View full abstract»

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  • The Birth and Death of the Orange Book

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):19 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article traces the origins of US government-sponsored computer security research and the path that led from a focus on government-funded research and system development to a focus on the evaluation of commercial products. That path led to the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), or Orange Book. The TCSEC placed great emphasis on requirements for mandatory secur... View full abstract»

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  • IBM Branch Offices: What They Were, How They Worked, 1920s–1980s

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):9 - 23
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    IBM branch offices were the company's local face around the world in the 20th century. Its sales and customer support came out of these organizations, which are described here, using the example of one branch office as a historical case study. Additionally, personal perspectives on their role of having worked with these during the 1970s and 1980s are provided. View full abstract»

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  • The Internet Design Tension between Surveillance and Security

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):72 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The design tension between security and surveillance has existed for decades. This article specifically examines the protocol design tension between national security interests in surveillance versus network security in the early decades of the Internet and its predecessor networks. Using archival research and protocol-specific case studies, this article describes episodes in which the Internet En... View full abstract»

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  • First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (69)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.<... View full abstract»

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  • Notes on the Evolution of Computer Security Policy in the US Government, 1965-2003

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The United States government and military helped lead the information technology revolution and were among the first to warn of its consequent dangers to privacy and national security. This article discusses White House, congressional, and high-level US Department of Defense (DoD) policy documents that illustrate the direction and pace of Washington's recognition of potential foreign threats to US... View full abstract»

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  • The Oracle Story: 1984-2001

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):10 - 23
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (623 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article tells the story of Oracle from 1984 through 2001, primarily through the author's experiences during those years. Andrew Mendelsohn worked on the software development team that built the Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS). During this time, Oracle went from being a small niche software company to becoming one of the giants in the software industry. Although many obser... View full abstract»

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  • The Dark Side of Computing: SRI International and the Study of Computer Crime

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):3 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (285 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    From the perspective of an information security researcher and consultant who studied crime for 40 years, this brief history of computer crime delves into study methods and presents findings from many years of National Science Foundation and US department of justice grant-supported research and business support at SRI International View full abstract»

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  • Women and gender in the history of computing

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    First Page of the Article
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  • "The Spitting Image of a Woman Programmer": Changing Portrayals of Women in the American Computing Industry, 1958-1985

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):49 - 64
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    This paper examines the cultural climate faced by women in the American computer industry from the 1960s to the early 1980s, a period in which the percentage of the industry workforce that was female almost tripled. Drawing on a comprehensive study of articles and advertisements in the trade journal Datamation, sources from IBM, Control Data, and the Burroughs Corporation, and the records of the u... View full abstract»

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  • Finding a History for Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians and software engineers are both looking for a history for software engineering. For historians, it is a matter of finding a point of perspective from which to view an enterprise that is still in the process of defining itself. For software engineers, it is the question of finding a usable past, as they have sought to ground their vision of the enterprise on historical models taken from ... View full abstract»

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  • The History of the History of Software

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):40 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (149 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Just as the fields of software and hardware development have evolved, the field of software history has likewise matured. At first, the history of software was exclusively focused on technology. Later, there were historical explorations of the software industry and professions. Today the emphasis is on applications and the societal changes resulting from software. View full abstract»

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  • Edge Cryptography and the Codevelopment of Computer Networks and Cybersecurity

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):55 - 73
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Developed around 1973 by BBN under contract from DARPA, the private line interface (PLI), a cryptographic cybersecurity device used on the Arpanet, operated with minimal modification of the existing network infrastructure, sitting at the "edge" of the network between the network switches and the connected host computers. As a result of the developmental and infrastructural trajectory set in motion... View full abstract»

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  • Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

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  • Studying History as it Unfolds, Part 1: Creating the History of Information Technologies

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):20 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a two-part series, this article explores the development of the early history of information technologies from the 1940s to the present. Looking at how historians wrestled with the history of computing is a useful modern case that can offer tactical recommendations for those in other fields of technology. View full abstract»

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  • Hasselblad and the Shift to Digital Imaging

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):55 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the high-end Swedish camera manufacturer Hasselblad struggled to integrate its product lines with emerging digital imaging technology. Hasselblad's history illustrates how digital technology emerges in various high-end niche applications and later enters the mainstream markets and displaces incumbents. The Hasselblad case exemplifies how incumbent firms encounter di... View full abstract»

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  • The Intel 4004 microprocessor: what constituted invention?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):4 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB)

    Investigates the context for the development of one of the earliest microprocessors, the Intel 4004. It considers the contributions made by Intel employees, most notably Marcian E. “Ted” Hoff, Jr. and Federico Faggin, and the contributions other people made to this development who are not generally known, most notably Tadashi Sasaki and Masatoshi Shima. This paper represents a case stu... View full abstract»

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  • Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, an analyst and metaphysician

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):4 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)

    There may be controversy about when the computer revolution began, but to me a revolution begins with an idea, and that idea was Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine conceived in 1834. The computer revolution also began with a woman, Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, who wrote an article in 1843 that not only gave us descriptive, analytical, contextual, and metaphysical information about the Analyt... View full abstract»

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  • Colossus: its origins and originators

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):38 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The British Colossus computer was one of the most important tools in the wartime effort to break German codes. Based on interviews and on recently declassified documents, this article clarifies the roles played by Thomas Flowers, Alan Turing, William Tutte, and Max Newman in the events leading to the installation of the first Colossus at Bletchley Park, Britain's wartime code-breaking establishmen... View full abstract»

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  • A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

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  • Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):24 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hear... View full abstract»

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  • Understanding 'How Computing Has Changed the World'

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):52 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    How can we satisfactorily address the history of computing, recognizing that computing artifacts and practices are often shaped by local circumstances and cultures, and yet also capture the longer-term processes by which computing has shaped the world? This article reviews three traditions of scholarly work, proposes a new line of scholarship, and concludes with thoughts on collaborative, internat... View full abstract»

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  • The Production and Interpretation of ARPANET Maps

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):44 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2383 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article explores a 20-year series of ARPANET maps produced by the firm Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). These BBN maps signify the earliest efforts to represent an early and central piece of the modern Internet, and they wind up as illustrations in contemporary discussions of ARPANET history and the early Internet. Once a functional tool for engineers, they now serve as an aesthetic backdrop us... View full abstract»

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  • The Technical Development of Internet Email

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):3 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Development and evolution of the technologies and standards for Internet email took formatting more than 20 years, and arguably is still under way. The protocols to move email between systems and the rules for formatting messages have evolved, and- been largely replaced at least once. This article traces that evolution, with a focus on why things look as they do today. View full abstract»

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  • SQL/DS: IBM's First RDBMS

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):69 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (125 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1970s, IBM software labs were aligned with the IBM hardware families. The decisions to commercialize the relational database prototype called System R, which had been developed during the 1970s at the IBM Research facility in San Jose, California, were made based on a hardware family business case. The Endicott Lab, supporting the small- to mid-sized mainframe environments running VM a... View full abstract»

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  • US Government Computer Penetration Programs and the Implications for Cyberwar

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US Department of Defense was the driving force behind the development of sophisticated computer penetration methodologies. By analyzing the security of the nation's time-sharing computer systems, security analysts developed an expert understanding of computer penetration. Eventually, the US and its intelligence agencies utilized computer penetration techniques to wage offensive cyberattacks. View full abstract»

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  • Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):5 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, held at Datrmouth College in 1956, is regarded as the official "birthplace" of Al. This article draws on unpublished archives to shed new light on the origins of the conference and the complex relationships between cybernetics, automata studies, and Al in the 1950s. View full abstract»

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  • The Commercialization of Database Management Systems, 1969&#x2013;1983

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):26 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Database management systems were the most important commercial software packages of the 1970s. The authors reconstruct their early history by examining the evolution of their capabilities and installed base. They also document early user experiences, including the sources from which potential users learned about these new technologies, new roles such as the database administrator, and new concepts... View full abstract»

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  • Infrastructure, Representation, and Historiography in BBN's Arpanet Maps

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):44 - 57
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2179 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest and most widespread representation of the Arpanet were network graphs or maps that, arguably, remain its most prominent artifact. In an earlier article, the authors analyzed how the maps were created, what they represented, and how histories of the network parallel their emphases and omissions. Here, the authors begin a retooling of the maps to highlight further what is missing from t... View full abstract»

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  • Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):5 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest digital games emerged out of laboratories and research centers in the 1960s and 1970s. The intertwined histories of Nolan Bushnell's Computer Space and Pong illustrate the transition from these "university games" to accessible entertainment and educational games as well as the complicated historical relationship among the arcade, computer, and videogames. View full abstract»

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  • From Ancient to Modern Computing: A History of Information Hiding

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):33 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article proposes a methodological approach to the historiography of computing in terms of information hiding--that is, the introduction of levels of abstraction (LoAs) between the human being and the computing machine. This approach applies the LoAs, in terms of the epistemological levelism proposed within the philosophy of information, to the transition from ancient to modern computing. In p... View full abstract»

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  • Raymond Tomlinson: Email Pioneer, Part 1

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):72 - 79
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Raymond (Ray) Tomlinson was a computer engineer best known for developing the TENEX operating system and implemented the first email program on the Arpanet system in 1971. In its official biography, the Internet Hall of Fame states that "Tomlinson's email program brought about a complete revolution, fundamentally changing the way people communicate." This interview is the first in a ... View full abstract»

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  • The History and Growth of IBM's DB2

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):54 - 66
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1853 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    IBM's Database 2 (DB2) relational database management system (RDBMS) shipped in the early 1980s and drove billions of dollars of revenue to IBM and other firms within its first decade. The product spawned a wealth of add-on tools, shaped the future of mainframe computing, and provided independent software vendors with a strong, reliable, and scalable platform for mission-critical applications. Tod... View full abstract»

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  • Purchasing Power: Rivalry, Dissent, and Computing Strategy in Supercomputer Selection at Los Alamos

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):25 - 40
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (161 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the Mid-1960s, the Laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico, a center of scientific computing since the Manhattan Project, embarked on a search for a new supercomputer intended to fulfill the growing need for computing power in nuclear weapons development. Although depicted at Los Alamos in later years as a smooth transition between vendors, the selection process was a contentious negotiation among... View full abstract»

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  • The Relational Database and the Concept of the Information System

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):9 - 17
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    E.F. Codd developed his relational database concept within a community that was attempting to create a general-purpose machine for retrieving and reasoning with data. Rather than just making progress toward that goal, this article argues that Codd's accomplishment marked the end of that effort and traces the heritage of the relational database system as it relates to the concept of an information ... View full abstract»

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  • The Dawn of Digital Light

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):74 - 91
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Digital pictures and computers are now inseparable, so it's surprising how generally unremarked their association was in the beginning. Records reveal that the first digital pictures--the first still pictures, videogames, and computer animations--were made on the earliest computers. Historians have noted this before, but individually without a unifying context. This article shows that the original... View full abstract»

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  • Hopper and Dijkstra: Crisis, Revolution, and the Future of Programming

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):64 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, tensions were erupting in corporate and academic computing cultures in the United States and abroad with competing views about the state of computer programming and possible future implications. A discourse of "software crisis" was ignited in 1968 when NATO hosted a conference on the topic of software engineering. The author examines the rhetoric of crisis, revolution, and promi... View full abstract»

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  • Facit and the Displacement of Mechanical Calculators

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):20 - 31
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1091 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article explains why Facit, a Swedish manufacturer of mechanical calculators, typewriters, and office furniture, collapsed in the shift from mechanical to electronic calculators in the early 1970s. Facit struggled to develop its own electronic calculators because its competencies were related to mechanics rather than electronics. Because the firm was located in a small company town in Sweden,... View full abstract»

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  • John Womersley: Applied Mathematician and Pioneer of Modern Computing

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):60 - 70
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1485 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    John R. Womersley's career epitomized how numerical and statistical methods came into widespread use from the 1930s, in Britain as in other Western countries. As an applied mathematician and then a manager of mathematicians and statisticians, in war and in peacetime, Womersley and his career reflect the major trends in British applied mathematics, statistics, and automated computation in the middl... View full abstract»

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  • Selected Papers On Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):82 - 83
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • IBM Relational Database Systems: The Early Years

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):38 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The relational data model, proposed by E.F. Codd in 1970, inspired several research projects at IBM and elsewhere. Among these was System R, which demonstrated the commercial viability of relational database systems. This article describes the research challenges faced by the System R team and how the technology they created has influenced the development of the modern database industry. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Nathan Ensmenger
Indiana University, School of Informatics & Computing
nensmeng@indiana.edu