By Topic

IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Privatizing the Internet: Competing Visions and Chaotic Events, 1987–1995

    Publication Year: 2010, Page(s):10 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US National Science Foundation played a key role in the history of the Internet by overseeing its transition from government to private operation. In the process, NSF was forced to balance the competing visions of scientists, politicians, and private industry. This article describes the conflicts, trade-offs, and unexpected events that led to a technical and social transformation of the Intern... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Losing Meanings: Computer Games in Dutch Domestic Use, 1975–2000

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):52 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Computer games were originally tools that let programmers demonstrate their craftsmanship, and firms used them to demystify computer operation and lure new individuals and groups. As computers became widespread, use and attitudes of actors toward games changed. With examples from the Netherlands, this article shows how games in domestic use lost their versatile meanings beyond entertainment. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Race and Computing: The Problem of Sources, the Potential of Prosopography, and the Lesson of Ebony Magazine

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):29 - 51
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (585 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians recognize the need to examine race and technology, but published scholarship has not kept pace. This has been attributed to the absence of archival source materials. In response, scholars have approached "race" from a broad definition, rather than having sought to place persons of color who contributed to the development and innovative application of computing into the historical record... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computer Hobbyists and the Gaming Industry in Finland

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):20 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7621 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Since the 1950s, digital games in Finland have bridged gaps between professional users and the public as well as institutional and domestic environments. The early significance of Finland's 1970s and 1980s computer games hobbyist and hacker cultures is still evident: clear connections exist between the country's rich history of such subcultures and its modern international success in multimedia an... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Privatizing the Internet: Competing Visions and Chaotic Events, 1987-1995

    Publication Year: 2010, Page(s): 1
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB)

    The National Science Foundation played a key role in the history of the Internet by overseeing its transition from government to private operation. This article describes the conflicts, trade-offs, and unexpected events that led to a technical and social transformation of the Internet. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Edge Cryptography and the Codevelopment of Computer Networks and Cybersecurity

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):55 - 73
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Developed around 1973 by BBN under contract from DARPA, the private line interface (PLI), a cryptographic cybersecurity device used on the Arpanet, operated with minimal modification of the existing network infrastructure, sitting at the "edge" of the network between the network switches and the connected host computers. As a result of the developmental and infrastructural trajectory set in motion... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The History of the History of Software

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):40 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (149 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Just as the fields of software and hardware development have evolved, the field of software history has likewise matured. At first, the history of software was exclusively focused on technology. Later, there were historical explorations of the software industry and professions. Today the emphasis is on applications and the societal changes resulting from software. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The March of IDES: Early History of Intrusion-Detection Expert Systems

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a broader prehistory and history of early intrusion-detection systems (IDSs), this article focuses on the first such system, Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES), which was developed in the second half of the 1980s at SRI International (and SRI's follow-on Next Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System, or NIDES, in the early-to-mid 1990s). It also briefly recounts other early ID... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measuring Risk: Computer Security Metrics, Automation, and Learning

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):32 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Risk management is widely seen as the basis for cybersecurity in contemporary organizations, but practitioners continue to dispute its value. This article analyzes debate over computer security risk management in the 1970s and 1980s United States, using this debate to enhance our understanding of the value of computer security metrics more generally. Regulators placed a high value on risk analysis... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (58)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (78)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):24 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hear... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Screen History: The Haeff Memory and Graphics Tube

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):9 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Haeff-type tubes formed the high-speed memory of Whirlwind I but had their greatest impact in graphics and display technology, remaining in widespread use until the 1980s. Haeff seems to have been the first to store and display graphics and text on an electronic screen for an unlimited period, in 1947. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Colossus: its origins and originators

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):38 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The British Colossus computer was one of the most important tools in the wartime effort to break German codes. Based on interviews and on recently declassified documents, this article clarifies the roles played by Thomas Flowers, Alan Turing, William Tutte, and Max Newman in the events leading to the installation of the first Colossus at Bletchley Park, Britain's wartime code-breaking establishmen... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computer Security Discourse at RAND, SDC, and NSA (1958-1970)

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):12 - 25
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The 1967 Spring Joint Computer Conference session organized by Willis Ware and the 1970 Ware Report are widely held by computer security practitioners and historians to have defined the field's origin. This article documents, describes, and assesses new evidence about two early multilevel access, time-sharing systems, SDC's Q-32 and NSA's RYE, and outlines its security-related consequences for bot... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • MCM on Personal Software

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):52 - 64
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Micro Computer Machines was among the earliest companies to embark on the personal microcomputer project. The evolution of the company's views on personal software was emblematic of the personal computing paradigm's transformations, which occurred with some regularity and in several regions of the world throughout the history of personal computing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Internet Design Tension between Surveillance and Security

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):72 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The design tension between security and surveillance has existed for decades. This article specifically examines the protocol design tension between national security interests in surveillance versus network security in the early decades of the Internet and its predecessor networks. Using archival research and protocol-specific case studies, this article describes episodes in which the Internet En... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reconsidering the Stored-Program Concept

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):4 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (331 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The first in a three-part series in IEEE Annals, this article gives a historical explanation of the endemic confusion surrounding the stored-program concept. The authors suggest the adoption of more precisely defined alternatives to capture specific aspects of the new approach to computing associated with the 1945 work of von Neumann and his collaborators. The second article, "Engineering--The Mir... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Birth and Death of the Orange Book

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):19 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article traces the origins of US government-sponsored computer security research and the path that led from a focus on government-funded research and system development to a focus on the evaluation of commercial products. That path led to the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), or Orange Book. The TCSEC placed great emphasis on requirements for mandatory secur... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • US Government Computer Penetration Programs and the Implications for Cyberwar

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US Department of Defense was the driving force behind the development of sophisticated computer penetration methodologies. By analyzing the security of the nation's time-sharing computer systems, security analysts developed an expert understanding of computer penetration. Eventually, the US and its intelligence agencies utilized computer penetration techniques to wage offensive cyberattacks. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Dawn of Digital Light

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):74 - 91
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Digital pictures and computers are now inseparable, so it's surprising how generally unremarked their association was in the beginning. Records reveal that the first digital pictures--the first still pictures, videogames, and computer animations--were made on the earliest computers. Historians have noted this before, but individually without a unifying context. This article shows that the original... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Before It Was a Giant: The Early History of Symantec, 1982-1999

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):26 - 41
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (223 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Before Symantec became a major supplier of security software, it offered a variety of natural language microcomputer software products. Its growth into a security firm was the result of acquisitions of software enterprises and expanding market conditions in the 1980s and 1990s. This story tells not only about nimbleness in the early software industry, but also about the importance of venture capit... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Manchester Computer: A Revised History Part 2: The Baby Computer

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):22 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The logical design of the 1948 Manchester Baby was virtually identical to a 1946 Princeton design. However, thanks to F.C. Williams' and Tom Kilburn's groundbreaking cathode ray tube (CRT) memory and their innovative engineering, the universal electronic digital computer made its world debut in Manchester. This article reassesses the place of Williams and Kilburn in the history of computing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Constructions of gender in the history of artificial intelligence

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    Key developments in the history of artificial intelligence are described in terms of a model of gender (Man of Reason), drawn from the work of philosopher Genevieve Lloyd, and informed by research in gender and technology and feminist epistemology. Significantly, the model demonstrates the elevation of mental knowledge over corporeal knowledge. Recent attempts to address the problem of embodiment ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Women and gender in the history of computing

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The SAP Story: Evolution of SAP within the German Software Industry

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):60 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The success of the German company SAP and its enterprise software contradicts the widespread assumption of American dominance in the computer software industry. In this combined business and technology history of SAP, the author explores the individuals and ideas behind the concept of standardized, integrated business software and how SAP developed from a small company to a global market leader. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Origin and Early History of the Computer Security Software Products Industry

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):46 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms and new IT start-ups chose alternative paths to offer commercial access control systems to organizational mainframe computer users. These developments in effect launched the computer security software products industry with IBM's Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and SKK's Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2). View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Engineering "The Miracle of the ENIAC": Implementing the Modern Code Paradigm

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):41 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In 1947 John von Neumann had the idea of converting ENIAC to the new style of programming first described in his celebrated "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC." By April 1948, Nick Metropolis, building on plans developed by Adele Goldstine and others, had implemented the conversion, making ENIAC the first computer to execute programs written in the new style, which we call the "modern code para... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Technical Development of Internet Email

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):3 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Development and evolution of the technologies and standards for Internet email took formatting more than 20 years, and arguably is still under way. The protocols to move email between systems and the rules for formatting messages have evolved, and- been largely replaced at least once. This article traces that evolution, with a focus on why things look as they do today. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • History of COMTRAC: Development of the Innovative Traffic-Control System for Shinkansen

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):11 - 21
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6411 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    First introduced together with the extension of Tokaido-Shinkansen railway in 1972, the COMTRAC large-scale command-and-control system efficiently controls the train's high-speed, high-frequency, high-diversity operations. This article introduces COMTRAC's technological features and gives an overview of its 50-year history, including the early days of R&D and the subsequent system development and ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Remembering the Office of the Future: The Origins of Word Processing and Office Automation

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):6 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1189 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians have not yet explored word processing's development, and so to provide a rounded treatment, we examine the story from multiple perspectives. We review the conceptual development of word processing and office automation; the development of word processing's constituent hardware and software technologies; the relationship of word processing to changes in the organization of office work; a... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Understanding 'How Computing Has Changed the World'

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):52 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    How can we satisfactorily address the history of computing, recognizing that computing artifacts and practices are often shaped by local circumstances and cultures, and yet also capture the longer-term processes by which computing has shaped the world? This article reviews three traditions of scholarly work, proposes a new line of scholarship, and concludes with thoughts on collaborative, internat... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ferranti Recollections (1950-1955)

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):63 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB)

    I joined Ferranti Ltd. in September 1950 from the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory, where I had been Maurice Wilkes's first research student. I had just spent three years in Cambridge-one helping to design and build EDSAC and two using it-having arrived in the United Kingdom from Australia in September 1947. The Ferranti computing group was part of the sales section associated with ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Relational Database and the Concept of the Information System

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):9 - 17
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    E.F. Codd developed his relational database concept within a community that was attempting to create a general-purpose machine for retrieving and reasoning with data. Rather than just making progress toward that goal, this article argues that Codd's accomplishment marked the end of that effort and traces the heritage of the relational database system as it relates to the concept of an information ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):5 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, held at Datrmouth College in 1956, is regarded as the official "birthplace" of Al. This article draws on unpublished archives to shed new light on the origins of the conference and the complex relationships between cybernetics, automata studies, and Al in the 1950s. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (60)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.<... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):5 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest digital games emerged out of laboratories and research centers in the 1960s and 1970s. The intertwined histories of Nolan Bushnell's Computer Space and Pong illustrate the transition from these "university games" to accessible entertainment and educational games as well as the complicated historical relationship among the arcade, computer, and videogames. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Industrial Organization of Hong Kong's Progression Toward a Cashless Economy (1960s-2000s)

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):54 - 65
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2389 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A dramatic change occurred in retail banking technology in Hong Kong between 1960 and 2000. Initially, the relevant technologies were installed and managed within the boundaries of large banks, such as HSBC. Over the course of this period, however, the industrial organization of the relevant technologies transformed to include provisions outsourced to nonbank institutions. This article seeks to ac... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Origin of the Integrated Data Store (IDS): The First Direct-Access DBMS

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The integrated data store (IDS), the first direct-access database management system, was developed at General Electric in the early 1960s. Revisiting the development challenges that lead to its first production version reveals the origins of DBMSs and their impact on software development and business management. IDS and its derivative systems are still in use today, supporting a thousand mainframe... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Embodied Software: Patents and the History of Software Development, 1946-1970

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1429 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, attorneys and programmers used the term "embodying software"' in reference to a patent-drafting technique for software inventions. This strategy consisted of claiming a computer in which a program served as the control system instead of claiming the program itself. If the application was successful, this machine would receive patent protection in lieu of the program. This articl... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The chromium-plated tabulator: institutionalizing an electronic revolution, 1954-1958

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):75 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (203 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The computer promised business of the 1950s an administrative revolution. What it delivered was data processing-a hybrid of new technology and existing punched card machines, people, and attitudes. The author examines how first-generation computers were sold and purchased, and describes the occupations (analyst, programmer, and operator) and departments that emerged around them. This illuminates c... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Inconsistent Youth of Charles Babbage

    Publication Year: 2010, Page(s):18 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    At Cambridge, Charles Babbage developed the mathematical foundation that helped him design and build his computing machines. Yet, his experience at college tells the story of a young man who was experimenting with his identity, exploring new ideas, and testing himself. Although something of a rebel, Babbage yearned to have a place in British society for himself and his mathematics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Three faces of human-computer interaction

    Publication Year: 2005, Page(s):46 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Human-computer interaction is considered a core element of computer science. Yet it has not coalesced; many researchers who identify their focus as human-computer interaction reside in other fields. The author examines the origins and evolution of three HCI research foci: computer operation, information systems management, and discretionary use. The author describes efforts to find common ground a... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Infrastructure, Representation, and Historiography in BBN's Arpanet Maps

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):44 - 57
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2179 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest and most widespread representation of the Arpanet were network graphs or maps that, arguably, remain its most prominent artifact. In an earlier article, the authors analyzed how the maps were created, what they represented, and how histories of the network parallel their emphases and omissions. Here, the authors begin a retooling of the maps to highlight further what is missing from t... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The RDBMS Industry: A Northern California Perspective

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):18 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article describes the origins and development of the relational database management systems (RDBMS) industry, focusing on the firms IBM, Oracle, Ingres, Informix, and Sybase in the 1980s. The author analyzes the industry's evolution in terms of the disruptive technology paradigm and regional economics and then broadly outlines the industry's later development. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Nathan Ensmenger
Indiana University, School of Informatics & Computing
nensmeng@indiana.edu