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Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE

Popular Articles (January 2015)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. The path of the smart grid

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 18 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (296)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Exciting yet challenging times lie ahead. The electrical power industry is undergoing rapid change. The rising cost of energy, the mass electrification of everyday life, and climate change are the major drivers that will determine the speed at which such transformations will occur. Regardless of how quickly various utilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree onthe inevitability of this massive transformation. It is a move that will not only affect their business processes but also their organization and technologies. View full abstract»

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  • 2. Toward a smart grid: power delivery for the 21st century

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 34 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (194)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1666 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we present the security, agility, and robustness/survivability of a large-scale power delivery infrastructure that faces new threats and unanticipated conditions. By way of background, we present a brief overview of the past work on the challenges faced in online parameter estimation and real-time adaptive control of a damaged F-15 aircraft. This work, in part, provided the inspiration and laid the foundation in the 1990s for the flight testing of a fast parameter estimation/modeling and reconfigurable aircraft control system that allowed the F-15 to become self-healing in the face of damaged equipment. View full abstract»

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  • 3. Microgrids

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 78 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (334)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article outlines the ongoing research, development, and demonstrates the microgrid operation currently in progress in Europe, the United States, Japan, and Canada. The penetration of distributed generation (DG) at medium and low voltages is increasing in developed countries worldwide. Microgrids are entities that coordinate DERs (distributed energy resources) in a consistently more decentralized way, thereby reducing the control burden on the grid and permitting them to provide their full benefits. In the context of this article, a microgrid comprises a LV locally-controlled cluster of DERs that behaves, from the grid's perspective, as a single producer or both electrically and in energy markets. A microgrid operates safely and efficiently within its local distribution network, but it is also capable of islanding. View full abstract»

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  • 4. Grid of the future

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 52 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (325)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many believe the electric power system is undergoing a profound change driven by a number of needs. There's the need for environmental compliance and energy conservation. We need better grid reliability while dealing with an aging infrastructure. And we need improved operational effi ciencies and customer service. The changes that are happening are particularly signifi cant for the electricity distribution grid, where "blind" and manual operations, along with the electromechanical components, will need to be transformed into a "smart grid." This transformation will be necessary to meet environmental targets, to accommodate a greater emphasis on demand response (DR), and to support plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as distributed generation and storage capabilities. It is safe to say that these needs and changes present the power industry with the biggest challenge it has ever faced. On one hand, the transition to a smart grid has to be evolutionary to keep the lights on; on the other hand, the issues surrounding the smart grid are signifi cant enough to demand major changes in power systems operating philosophy. View full abstract»

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  • 5. Show Me!: Large-Scale Smart Grid Demonstrations for European Distribution Networks

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 84 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1891 KB)  

    To reach the 2020 targets proposed by the European Commission (EC), several smart grid advances must still be implemented at the distribution grid level. The Grid+ project has described these advances in the latest European Electricity Grid Initiative (EEGI) research and innovation (R&I) road map for smart grids. A good review of these research activities can be found at Grid4EU, which is a large-scale demonstration project that aims to test and validate most of the relevant smart grid technologies in distribution networks.This article introduces, from Grid4EU's perspective, the relevant research and demonstration activities on smart grids, highlighting correspondences with the main objectives of the EEGI road map. The information is organized into six “work streams”-integration of distributed energy resources (DER) into the grid, active demand (or customer involvement), energy storage, innovative power management at the medium-voltage level, innovative power management at the low-voltage level, and microgrids-that cover four of the five clusters of this road map. View full abstract»

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  • 6. Pushing the Limits: Europe's New Grid: Innovative Tools to Combat Transmission Bottlenecks and Reduced Inertia

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 60 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5506 KB)  

    In the future a growing amount of power electronics will lead to a transition of the power system to a structure with very low synchronous generation. Due to large transit power flows and uncertainties, transmission systems are being operated under increasingly stressed conditions and are close to their stability limits. Together with the integration of large amounts of renewable generation with power electronic interfaces and the addition of high-voltage direct current (HVdc) links into the power system, these challenges will necessitate a review of the operation and control of transmission networks. This article will demonstrate the need for R&D performed by network operators and explain a set of challenges, focusing on three main areas: transmission grid operation in a new power system environment, the need to increase overhead line (OHL) utilization, and the impact of reduced inertia on power system frequency. View full abstract»

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  • 7. Microgrids management

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 54 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (210)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The environmental and economical benefits of the microgrid and consequently its acceptability and degree of proliferation in the utility power industry, are primarily determined by the envisioned controller capabilities and the operational features. Depending on the type and depth of penetration of distributed energy resource (DER) units, load characteristics and power quality constraints, and market participation strategies, the required control and operational strategies of a microgrid can be significantly, and even conceptually, different than those of the conventional power systems. View full abstract»

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  • 8. The Corridors of Power: A Pan-European "Electricity Highway" System for 2050

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 38 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4654 KB)  

    With the objective of reducing green house gas (GHG) emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050, the European Union (EU) has analyzed the energy sector implications of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050, which investigates how this goal can be achieved, taking into account different scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • 9. The Mesh-Up: ENTSO-E and European TSO Cooperation in Operations, Planning, and R&D

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 20 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2851 KB)  

    The 41 European electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) from 34 countries across Europe are gathered under the umbrella of the European Network Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) cooperative association to support security of supply, sustainability, and the development of a European internal energy market. Together they provide transmission service to 534 million citizens. Their cooperation is regulated by European Union (EU) Regulation (EC) 714/2009 on cross-border exchanges of electricity. As such, ENTSO-E is the focal point for all technical, market, and policy issues relating to TSOs and the European network; it interfaces with power system users, EU institutions, regulators, and national governments. View full abstract»

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  • 10. Lines of Convergence: R&D for Transmission and Distribution: Coordination and the Regulatory Challenge

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 52 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2264 KB)  

    In response to the move in Europe toward a more sustainable, reliable, and cost-efficient society, European energy policy has set ambitious goals for the European electricity system, targeting the objective of at least an 80% decarbonization of society from current levels by 2050. View full abstract»

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  • 11. The Proof Is in the Putting: Large-Scale Demonstrations of Renewables Integration Showcase Real-World Solutions

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 75 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1952 KB)  

    The safe and reliable integration of the levels of renewable energy source (RES) penetration expected in the European Union (EU) by 2020 requires the implementation of new technologies to demonstrate the effectiveness of new practices for managing the system and the assessment of the economic impact and replicability potential of the proposed solutions. View full abstract»

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  • 12. Organic Growth: Toward a Holistic Approach to European Research and Innovation

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 30 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2213 KB)  

    This article summarizes the efforts of European network operators to adopt a holistic approach to their research and innovation (R&I) activities. Transmission system operators (TSOs) in Europe represented by ENTSO-E and distribution system operators (DSOs) represented by EDSO-SG, as well as organizations such as European Technology Platform Smart Grids (ETP SmartGrids), regularly publish and update road maps, implementation plans, and strategic research agendas. These documents are closely related to each other, aiming at ensuring a coordinated approach to grids and the integration of new technologies. As a package, all of this activity is tailored to addressing the challenges network operators face in meeting many overarching energy policy goals at the pan-European level. View full abstract»

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  • 13. Solar PV Integration Challenges

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 62 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Solar photovoltaic distributed generation (PV-DG) systems are one of the fastest-growing types of renewable energy sources being integrated worldwide onto distribution systems. Many North American utilities, governed by state or provincial incentives and/or mandated by green-generation portfolio requirements, are facing installations of large PV plants with capacities in the order of several megavoltamperes (MVAs) that are owned either by the utility or by private power producers. View full abstract»

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  • 14. First Edison Lights at Sea: The SS Columbia Story, 1880-1907 [History]

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 92 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5187 KB)  

    When Thomas Edison set out to develop a practical and economical incandescent electric light bulb in mid-1878, he quickly realized that, to achieve commercial success, he would have to create a complete electrical system to generate and deliver electric energy to customers. Modeled on (then) long-established and successful gas lighting systems, Edison's plan was to combine a central power station with a system of electrical conductors radiating out from it to distribute electrical energy to multiple end users. View full abstract»

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  • 15. The ABCs of HVDC transmission technologies

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 32 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (81)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An overview of high voltage direct current systems and applications is presented in this paper. The favorable economics of long-distance bulk-power transmission with HVDC together with its controllability make it an interesting alternative or complement to AC transmission. The higher voltage levels, mature technology, and new converter designs have significantly increased the interest in HVDC transmission and expanded the range of applications View full abstract»

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  • 16. Making microgrids work

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 40 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (136)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed energy resources including distributed generation and distributed storage are sources of energy located near local loads and can provide a variety of benefits including improved reliability if they are properly operated in the electrical distribution system. Microgrids are systems that have at least one distributed energy resource and associated loads and can form intentional islands in the electrical distribution systems. This paper gives an overview of the microgrid operation. Microgrid testing experiences from different counties was also provided. View full abstract»

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  • 17. Power system security assessment

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 30 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5037 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Security refers to the degree of risk in a power system's ability to survive imminent disturbances (contingencies) without interruption to customer service. It relates to robustness of the system to imminent disturbances and, hence, depends on the system operating condition as well as the contingent probability of disturbances. DSA refers to the analysis required to determine whether or not a power system can meet specified reliability and security criteria in both transient and steady-state time frames for all credible contingencies. Ensuring security in the new environment requires the use of advanced power system analysis tools capable of comprehensive security assessment with due consideration to practical operating criteria. These tools must be able to model the system appropriately, compute security limits in a fast and accurate manner, and provide meaningful displays to system operators. Online dynamics security assessment can provide the first line of defense against widespread system disturbances by quickly scanning the system for potential problems and providing operators with actionable results. With the development of emerging technologies, such as wide-area PMs and ISs, online DSA is expected to become a dominant weapon against system blackouts. View full abstract»

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  • 18. Time Management

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 46 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents the deterministic scheduling of a fleet of plug-in hybrid vehicles for distributed generation.This article seeks to quantify the following factors, which are very important for integrating distributed generation (DG) into the power system: typical driving patterns, battery characteristics and sizing for a PHEV with a 40-mi all-electric range, or AER (using the Chevy Volt as a base-case design), consumer preferences and PHEV penetration forecasts, and power system limitations. View full abstract»

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  • 19. A Road Map to Integration: Perspectives on Smart Grid Development

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 52 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4149 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart grid-related blogs, newsletters, and conferences have endured numerous debates and discussions around the issue of whether or not the smart grid integrated correctly. While most debates focus on approach, methodology, and the sequence of what to be done, there is insufficient discussion about actually meant by "smart grid integration." This article attempts to present a holistic view of integration and argues for the importance of developing system integration “maps” based on a utility's strategic smart grid road map. View full abstract»

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  • 20. Only Connect: Microgrids for Distribution System Restoration

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 70 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electricity infrastructure is the cornerstone of every industrialized nation in the world. As the utility grid ages and the demand for electricity grows, the impact of major interruptions of the electricity infrastructure will be more intense. Costly power outages throughout the world caused by natural disasters such as floods and hurricanes have highlighted the importance of reinforcing the electricity infrastructure. A recent study conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy indicated that sustained power interruptions (those lasting more than 5 min) in the United States incur costs of more than US$26 billion dollars annually. Power outages caused by Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina in the United States threw into notice the crucial role of smart grid technology and the need for further investments in more comprehensive data communication and distribution management systems, distributed energy resources, energy storage facilities, additional automation, and further migration toward decentralized operations for the largely centralized power grid. View full abstract»

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  • 21. Time in the Sun: The Challenge of High PV Penetration in the German Electric Grid

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 55 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3042 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy supply systems are facing significant changes in many countries around the globe. A good example of such a transformation is the German power system, where renewable energy sources (RESs) are now contributing 25% of the power needed to meet electricity demand, compared with 5% only 20 years ago. In particular, photovoltaic (PV) systems have been skyrocketing over the last couple of years. As of September 2012, about 1.2 million PV systems were installed, with a total installed peak capacity of more than 31 GWp. During some hours of 2012, PV already contributed about 40% of the peak power demand. It seems that Germany is well on the way to sourcing a major portion of its energy needs from solar installations. PV must therefore provide a full range of services to system operators so as to replace services provided by conventional bulk power plants. View full abstract»

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  • 22. Links to the Future: Communication Requirements and Challenges in the Smart Grid

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 24 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2047 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Making the smart grid a reality will entail communication capabilities that do not exist in current power grids and their legacy control systems. New grid elements such as distributed energy generation and PHEVs will necessitate changes in these existing communication networks. These changes will be dictated by the need for new control operations that will allow efficient management of these new elements and that cannot be supported by the existing communication infra structure. Moreover, the smart grid will let households man age energy usage more efficiently through AMI and HEMSs. The realization of these systems will require pushing communication networks far out from the network core and deep into homes and buildings. We have presented the communication requirements of the smart grid, and we have identified the main technical challenges that need to be tackled. The only viable way to fulfill these requirements is to design a new communication architecture that can support smart grid services and control operations. This future communication architecture will need to take advantage of the recent progress made in communication technologies and protocols. It will require the introduction of communications technologies that were not considered in the past. In addition, this communication architecture will need to be reliable, scalable, and extendable to future smart grid services and applications. View full abstract»

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  • 23. Design for distributed energy resources

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 30 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3467 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The blackout experiences have demonstrated the vulnerability of the interconnected electric power system to grid failure caused by natural disasters and unexpected phenomena. Changes in customer needs, additional stress due to liberalized electricity markets, and a high degree of dependency of today's society on sophisticated technological services also intensify the burden on traditional electric systems and demand for a more reliable and resilient power delivery infrastructure. This paper discusses the design of a restructured electric distribution network that employs a large number of small distributed energy resources (DER) units, which can improve the level of system reliability and provide service differentiations. View full abstract»

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  • 24. The Grid of the Future: Ten Trends That Will Shape the Grid Over the Next Decade

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 26 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For over a century, the mission of the power industry has been to build and operate a reliable, affordable, and efficient grid. In the past few decades, developed regions have focused on increasing operational efficiency, while emerging economies have focused on attracting capital to grow their grids. Changing markets, new technologies, and an emerging societal focus on emissions have moved the industry in a new direction. The emergence of modern power electronics, widespread software development, and low-cost communications technologies creates opportunities. The cost-effective extraction of oil and gas in North America is expected to shift our generation mix away from coal and toward natural gas-fired generation. Wind and solar power have proliferated, creating new challenges and opportunities. Advancements in energy storage technologies have revolutionalized the consumer electronics industry and paved the way for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). In parallel, the resiliency of the aging electric power infrastructure has been questioned in light of the increased frequency and severity of natural disasters, making a stronger case for a major investment to build a stronger, more resilient, and sustainable U.S. grid. View full abstract»

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  • 25. A Grid-Friendly Plant: The Role of Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Plants in Grid Stability and Reliability

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 87 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have described a utility-scale, grid-friendly PV power plant that incorporates advanced capabilities essential to supporting grid stability and reliability. It includes features such as voltage regulation, active power controls, ramp-rate controls, fault ride through, and frequency control. These capabilities provide the intrinsic benefits of reliable plant operation in the grid, which in turn results in additional plant yield and potential additional revenue. Such capabilities are essential for successful the deployment of largescale PV plants. A key component of such a grid-friendly plant is a plant level controller specifically engineered to regulate real and reactive power output of the solar facility such that it behaves as a single large conventional generator, although within the limits dictated by the intermittent nature of the solar resource. In cases where the plant output is constrained but the plant has additional generation capability, this controller can reduce the impact of cloud passage and increase overall yield. Plant-model validation against measured field data demonstrates that the WECC-proposed model for a solar PV plant is adequately capturing actual plant behavior. View full abstract»

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  • 26. Power signature analysis

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 56 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (121)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonintrusive load monitoring (NILM) can determine operating schedule of electrical loads in a target system from measurements made at a centralized location, such as the electric utility service entry. NILM is an ideal platform for extracting useful information about any system that uses electromechanical devices. It has a low installation cost and high reliability because it uses a bare minimum of sensors. It is possible to use modem state and parameter estimation algorithms to verify remotely the "health" of electromechanical loads by using NILM to analyze measured waveforms associated with the operation of individual loads. NILM can also monitor the operation of the electrical distribution system itself, identifying situations where two or more otherwise healthy loads interfere with each other's operation through voltage waveform distortion or power quality problems. Strategies for nonintrusive monitoring have developed over the last 20 years. Advances in computing technology make a new wealth of computational tools useful in practical, field-based NILM systems. This article reviews techniques for high-performance nonintrusive load and diagnostic monitoring and illustrates key points with results from field tests. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Integrated Solutions for Photovoltaic Grid Connection: Increasing the Reliability of Solar Power

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 84 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3738 KB)  

    In recent years, solar power generation using photovoltaics (PVs) has become popular since it is inexpensive and has low installation costs, especially where grid power is inconvenient or unreasonably expensive to connect. Solar power generation is also increasing in grid-connected situations as a way to feed low-carbon energy into the grid. However, since solar power is intermittent and unstable, PV grid connection may have an influence on the stability of grid operation. View full abstract»

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  • 28. Smart Integration

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 71 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric utilities in the United States and globally are heavily investing to upgrade their antiquated delivery, pricing, and service networks including investments in the following areas: -- smart grid, which generally includes improvements upward of the meters all the way to the transmission network and beyond -- smart metering, sometimes called advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), which usually includes control and monitoring of devices and appliances inside customer premises -- smart pricing including real-time pricing (RTP) or, more broadly, time-variable pricing, sometimes including differentiated pricing -- smart devices and in-home energy management systems such as programmable controllable thermostats (PCTs) capable of making intelligent decisions based on smart prices -- peak load curtailment, demand-side management (DSM), and demand response (DR) -- distributed generation, which allows customers to be net buyers or sellers of electricity at different times and with different tariffs, for example, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which can be charged under differentiated prices during off-peak hours. The main drivers of change include: -- insufficient central generation capacity planned to meet the growing demand coupled with the increasing costs of traditional supply-side options -- rising price of primary fuels including oil, natural gas, and coal -- increased concerns about global climate change associated with conventional means of power generation -- demand for higher power quality in the digital age. View full abstract»

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  • 29. Harmonizing AC and DC: A Hybrid AC/DC Future Grid Solution

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 76 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been over 100 years since Thomas Edison built the first direct current (dc) electricity supply system on 4 September 1882, at Pearl Street in New York City. Many prominent events occurred in the electricity supply industry after that. The first one, ?the war of currents,? started in 1888. Thomas Edison and his dc distribution system were on one side, and George Westinghouse and Nikolai Tesla with the alternating current (ac) system were on other side. The war ?ended? in about 1891 when ac won as the dominant power supply medium. The key behind the ac win was the invention of the transformer that could easily step up medium voltage to high and extra-high voltage for long-distance power transfer from a remote ac generation station to load centers hundreds of kilometers away with lower transmission losses. Transformers can also step down high voltage back to low voltage at load stations to supply the low-voltage equipment. Since the end of the war, ac power systems have been developed and expanded at a tremendous speed from the initial small isolated networks, with each supplying only lighting and motor loads with a few hundreds of customers, to its current scale of super interconnected networks each supplying billions of customers over large geographic areas in one or several countries. The voltage levels and capacities of transmission networks have increased from the first commercialized three-phase ac system with only 2.4 kV, 250 kW in the town of Redlands, California, United States, to the first commercial long-distance, ultra-high-voltage, ac transmission line in China with 1,000 kV, 2,000 MW. Transmission distance has been increased from several miles to over thousands of kilometers (miles). With such major achievements, it is little wonder that the ac power system became the top engineering achievement of the 20th century. Does this mean that dc is gone? The answer is an unambiguous no. What has happened in the past 50 years, such as applications of adva- ced control technologies in conventional power system loads, the power electronics based high-voltage dc (HVdc) transmission, and the additional renewable power sources in low-voltage distribution system, calls for a rethink about dc and ac in electricity supply systems. View full abstract»

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  • 30. The United States of storage [electric energy storage]

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 31 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The collaboration between the states and the DOE's Energy Storage Research Program is proving to be an outstanding success. The selected projects show a good portfolio of advanced energy storage media: a ZnBr flow battery, the NaS battery, supercapacitors, and flywheels. The applications are equally varied: mitigation of substation congestion, grid frequency control, load management, and stabilization of a microgrid. The goal of these partnerships with the states is to demonstrate electric energy storage as a technically viable, cost-effective, and broadly applicable option for increasing the reliability of the electricity system and for electric energy management. View full abstract»

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  • 31. The Schoellkopf Disaster: Aftermath in the Niagara River Gorge [History]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 80 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (31130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's (Niagara Mohawk's) hydroelectric Schoellkopf Station was located in the Niagara River Gorge in the City of Niagara Falls, New York, USA. It was the largest privately owned hydroelectric station in the world. Schoellkopf, actually three adjacent stations: 3A, 3B, and 3C (see Figure 1), consisted of 21 generating units totaling 454,500 rated hp (334,800 rated kW). Stations 1 and 2 were the historic Adams stations located on the Niagara River above Niagara Falls. Station 3A, built 19051914, contained units 115 (numbered south to north); 13 horizontal 10,000-hp turbines (nine operating at 60 Hz and four operating at 25 Hz with generators rated 8,000 kW and 7,200 kW, respectively), plus two 1,000-hp station service units (see Figure 2). A wall separated the turbine and generator rooms. Station 3B, built 19181920, contained units 1618 (numbered north to south). These were vertical 37,500-hp, 25-Hz machines with generators rated 26,000 kW each (see Figure 3). Station 3C, built 19211924, contained units 1921 (numbered north to south). These were vertical 70,000-hp, 25-hz units with generators rated 52,000 kW each. The hydraulic head was approximately 210 ft (64 m). Power from the 12-kV Station 3A generators was distributed locally via underground cables. Power from the 12-kV Station 3B generators was transmitted on overhead lines to Harper Station located 2.8 mi (4.5 km) east of Schoellkopf. Power from the 12-kV Station 3C generators was transformed to 69 kV and transmitted overhead to Harper Station. View full abstract»

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  • 32. A larger role for microgrids

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 78 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper the technical constraints imposed by the growing needs of distributed generation, DER, and demanding PQR requirements, the microgrid concept is evolving toward a potentially versatile solution. The growing body of technical publications includes analytical modeling that defines the theoretical basis; computer simulation studies that verify operation and performance: and laboratory-scale, community-scale, and utility-scale demonstrations and pilot projects that add field experience to theory and simulation. Similarly, vigorous efforts are underway to expand microgrid economic and regulatory analysis capability, but challenges remain. At the policy level, significant changes will be needed to facilitate capture of the benefits of microgrids. View full abstract»

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  • 33. Distributed generation: Semantic hype or the dawn of a new era?

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 22 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (83)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the electric utility industry continues to restructure, driven both by rapidly evolving regulatory environments and by market forces, the emergence of a number of new generation technologies also profoundly influences the industry's outlook. While it is certainly true that government public policies and regulations have played a major role in the rapidly growing rate at which distributed generation is penetrating the market, it is also the case that a number of technologies have reached a development stage allowing for large-scale implementation within existing electric utility systems. At the onset of any discussion related to distributed generation, one question begs to be answered: is the fact that electric power producing facilities are distributed actually a new and revolutionary concept? Have power plants not always been located across broad expanses of land? The answer to these questions clearly is that electric power plants have always been sited all across the service territories of the utilities owning them. Hence, the opening question: as with many so-called innovations that have been put forward during the recent past, is the entire concept of distributed generation a simple semantic marketing hype or are we actually at the dawn of a new electric power generation era? We believe that a new electric power production industry is emerging, and that it will rely on a broad array of new technologies. This article sets the stage for distributed generation covering such topics as: the present power production situation; what distributed generation is; capability ratings and system interfaces; market penetration of internal combustion engine generators, fuel cells and microturbines; potential generation mix issues, network considerations including power quality, reactive power coordination, reliability and reserve margin, reliability, network redundancy, safety and accountability; public policy and regulatory impact; and standards. View full abstract»

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  • 34. DC, Come Home: DC Microgrids and the Birth of the "Enernet"

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 60 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2854 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most discussions about ac versus dc electricity include a retelling of the famous technical and commercial battle between Edison and Westinghouse/Tesla. It's a story about everything from electrocuting elephants at state fairs to the ambitious work of electrifying both urban and rural America. It's the tale of one of man's greatest engineering feats. It tells of a centralized power generation system based on the dominant use of incandescent light bulbs and ac constant-speed motors. In the end though, it is a retelling of history and unfortunately, it is a history that doesn't project. View full abstract»

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  • 35. Power to the People!: European Perspectives on the Future of Electric Distribution

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 51 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Implementing smart grids is central to the transition to a low-carbon economy, and DSOs are key players in this transition. A far-reaching change-one could say a revolution-in power systems is indeed ongoing; designing and implementing smart grids is not an option but an absolute necessity. If we do not do it, or if we do it too slowly, we will face major problems. To prepare, European DSOs are massively investing in R&D and demonstration projects in cooperation with the information communications technology (ICT) industry, acquiring the knowledge and skills needed to adapt and lead. Smart grids have the potential to benefit the whole value chain, but the market model must be defined. Whatever the preferred model, DSOs will have a key role to play as market enablers. DSOs will be responsible for setting up the playing field for retailers and aggregators so that it works for the benefit of customers. DSOs will increasingly act as local system operators. Well-organized active distribution system management will make it possible to reduce the investments needed to host renewable energy sources and electric vehicle charging stations and will guarantee security and quality of supply. Enhancing the “smartness” of distribution grids is not free of charge. It will require significant capex on the DSO side, while the benefits from those investments will accrue throughout the entire value chain. The development of business models, with the strong support of policy makers and regulators, is necessary to ensure that all parties share the risks, costs, and benefits of smart grids. Bringing smart grids from vision to reality will only happen if smart regulation is introduced. Last but not least, a key objective of European DSOs is to make sure that the new solutions that will be implemented are designed to benefit all customers. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Improving Reliability Through Better Models: Using Synchrophasor Data to Validate Power Plant Models

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 44 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2717 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and industry and academic collaborators have leveraged resources to develop a new, cost-effective method for validating power plant models using synchrophasor data. View full abstract»

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  • 37. Demand Dispatch

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 20 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (90)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3204 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article we touch on some background requirements for demand dispatch and how the Internet can be used for communication and control. In addition, we review some of the basics of the operation of the electric power grid. We show how loads that meet the communication and control requirements can be aggregated and dispatched-turned on or off-to help manage the grid. Aggregated loads will be able to perform many of the same ancillary services for the grid that are provided by power plants today. We describe some benefits of load-based ancillary services, such as the potential for very fast response, and explain how some characteristics of load-based services differ from power plants. Finally, we give a concrete example of demand dispatch as it can be applied to plug-in electric vehicles: smart charging. View full abstract»

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  • 38. The Wide World of Wide-area Measurement

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 52 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interest in phasor measurement technology has reached a peak in recent years, as the need for the best estimate of the power system's state is recognized to be a crucial element in improving its performance and its resilience in the face of catastrophic failures. In most countries installing the phasor measurement units (PMUs) and getting to know the PMU system behavior through continuous observations of system events has been the first step. All installations are reaching for a hierarchical wide-area measurement system (WAMS ) so that the measurements obtained from various substations on the system can be collected at central locations from which various monitoring, protection, and control applications can be developed. In this article, experts from several countries summarize their WAMS -related activities in some detail. The contributions here provide an account of the most advanced stages in WAMS development in major world economies. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Trusting the Data: ComEd's Journey to Embrace Analytics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 107 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1647 KB)  

    The convergence of information technology (IT) with the 20th-century power grid has resulted in the development of smart electricity grids in the 21st century. The ultimate goal in the introduction of IT is to achieve an adaptable, secure, reliable, resilient, and flexible power grid that is able to address current and future reliability, economic, and environmental challenges. The application of IT has also resulted in myriad sensors and measurement and monitoring devices, among others, for enabling real-time, more intelligent control of the electricity infrastructure. Communication sensors often gather much more data than required for their intended applications in power grids. The storage and utilization of such data allows further applications in power grids, ranging from real-time alarm processing of potential grid violations and directing maintenance crews to trouble spots during major storm events to finding seasonal trends in deteriorating power quality levels. The collected data (labeled “big data” in the literature) require efficient storage, processing, and analytics, which is a major challenge for large utilities worldwide. In addition, if the collected data are not accurately analyzed for management decision making in utility companies, the envisioned benefits of the smart grid will not be fully captured and investments will be wasted. The ultimate goal for utilizing a smart grid is to efficiently integrate big data with diverse sets of applications and enhance the operations and control of electricity grids for addressing the energy needs and challenges in an evolving environment. View full abstract»

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  • 40. Electric vehicles charge forward

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 24 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article reviews the status of electric vehicles/hybrid electric vehicles (EV/HEVs) worldwide and their state of the art, with emphasis on the engineering philosophy and key technologies. The importance of the integration of technologies of automobile, electric motor drive, electronics, energy storage and controls, and the importance of the integration of society strength from government, industry, research institutions, electric power utilities, and transportation authorities are addressed. The challenged of EV commercialization is discussed. EV is a multidisciplinary subject involving broad and complex aspects. However, it has core technologies; chassis and body technology, propulsion technology, and energy source technology. The electric propulsion system is the heart of the EV. It consists of motor drive, transmission and controller, plus the integration with engine power train in the case of the HEV. View full abstract»

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  • 41. Powering Through the Storm: Microgrids Operation for More Efficient Disaster Recovery

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 67 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Disasters, whether natural or man-made, compromise the quality of life for all involved. In such situations, expeditious recovery activities are deemed imperative and irreplaceable for the restoration of normalcy. However, recovery activities rely heavily on the critical infrastructures that supply basic needs like electricity, water, information, and transportation. When disasters strike, it is likely that the critical infrastructures themselves are affected significantly, hampering efficient recovery processes, thus presenting a Catch-22 conundrum. In this article, we present examples from different parts of the world where distributed energy resources, organized in a microgrid, were used to provide reliable electricity supply in the wake of disasters, allowing recovery and rebuilding efforts to occur with relatively greater efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Bright Future: Solar Power as a Major Contributor to the U.S. Grid

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 22 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The decreased costs of solar technologies have led to the prospect of a move for photovoltaic (PV ) and concentrating solar power (CSP ) from niche applications to major contributors to the U.S. electricity grid. This development has motivated a number of technoeconomic analyses of the potential deployment of both PV and CSP under varying economic conditions. Two studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) and completed in 2012 can help us understand the potential opportunities and challenges for solar deployment on a large scale. These studies evaluated both the potential mix of renewable energy technologies that could serve a large fraction of the U.S. electricity demand and the associated evolution of the U.S. grid to 2050. View full abstract»

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  • 43. Getting Smart

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 41 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (74)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We live in a very critical and exciting time in the evolution of the electric power industry. Society in general and the power industry in particular are faced with the challenges and opportunities of transforming the power grid ushered in by Nicola Tesla some 120 years ago into a smart grid. A smart grid will help the world manage demand growth, conserve energy, maximize asset utilization, improve grid security and reliability, and reduce its carbon footprint. Smart grid technology is not a single silver bullet but a collection of existing and emerging standards-based, interoperable technologies working together. Controllable technologies for supply, demand, power flow, and storage provide the means to implement decisions made by smart control algorithms and thus create value. ABB already provides its customers with many of the smart grid technologies described here and continues to research and develop power control technologies as well as smart grid applications. View full abstract»

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  • 44. WAMS applications in Chinese power systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 54 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2060 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since the first GPS-based phasor measurement (PMU) unit was invented, synchrophasor technology has developed for more than a decade. During this period many concepts were proposed, for instance, the wide-area measuring/monitoring system (WAMS). It brings great potential for upgrading the supervision, operation, protection and control of modern power systems. In China, this emerging technology also attracts great concerns because of the rapidly expanding scale of many new challenges to Chinese power industry. In this article, we summarize the most recent development of PMU/WAMS in China, with emphasis on the basic architectures and functions of the developed system and the communication infrastructures. The future trend is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • 45. Model Makers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 55 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planning studies are conducted both to incorporate design modifications to the transmission and distribution system and to ensure continued reliable operation of the system. Validated PV system models are required to account for the effect of existing PV generation, evaluate the potential impact of proposed projects, and assess technical options for integrating even larger PV generation capacity in the future. There is a need to improve PV system models used for all four aspects of distribution and transmission system planning: power flow, dynamic, short-circuit, and transient. Planning models need to be more accessible to meet technical and process requirements of the interconnection and regional planning processes. Some industry efforts are under way, notably by the WECC, to address gaps in PV system modeling. Further progress will require continued support by utilities, manufacturers, and software developers. View full abstract»

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  • 46. Power Cycling: CCGTs: The Critical Link Between the Electricity and Natural Gas Markets

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 40 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2987 KB)  

    This article provides an overview of the European Union (EU) electricity and natural gas sectors by focusing on the specific case of mainland Spain. The integration of renewable production has created a strong link between the operations of the electricity and natural gas systems. This calls for a coordinated gas and electricity operation and for the coordinated long-term planning of both electricity and natural gas facilities. View full abstract»

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  • 47. The evolution of distribution

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 63 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper discussed the advanced distribution management system for smart grid. With smart grids, confidence and expectations are high. To various degrees, utilities are putting smart grid initiatives in place, and many of the technologies paraded under the smart-grid banner are currently implemented in utilities. The smart-grid initiative uses these building blocks to work toward a more integrated and long-term infrastructure. If all goes as expected, smart grids will provide tremendous operational benefits to power utilities around the world because they provide a platform for enterprise-wide solutions that deliver far-reaching benefits to both utilities and their end customers. View full abstract»

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  • 48. The Cold Truth: Managing Gas-Electric Integration: The ISO New England Experience

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 20 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3570 KB)  

    The experience of the 2013-2014 winter exposed some potentially serious challenges related to gas-electric integration. Significant questions concerning adequacy of gas transportation infrastructure, intersector coordination, and regulatory reform remain. ISO-NE's experience also illustrates that critical operational and contractual improvements, along with resource adequacy assessments, are key to addressing gas-electric integration questions. View full abstract»

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  • 49. Geomagnetic Disturbances: Their Impact on the Power Grid

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 71 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMDs), Geomagnetic induced currents (GICs), and their impacts on bulk power systems have been of interest to power engineers since the 1960s. However, interest has been heightened recently, and articles in The Wall Street Journal, National Geographic, and IEEE Spectrum have predicted widespread transformer failures and prolonged global power outages. While these articles provide thought-provoking perspectives, they have not offered a scientific and engineering analysis of the many complex issues that determine power system impacts. The purpose of this article is to: provide a technical review of GMDs/GICs, with emphasis on impacts to the power grid and power transformers review detection and measurement of GMDs/GICs and how information is communicated to grid operators discuss various approaches to mitigate the potential impacts on power systems describe industry efforts for technological advancement to address GIC issues. View full abstract»

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  • 50. Islands in the Storm: Integrating Microgrids into the Larger Grid

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 33 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Evening is falling and the skies darken. A storm has been brewing all day, and now it settles in. Rain begins to fall and the winds increase. This is the type of storm that promises to keep utility field crews up all night. As night progresses, the storm starts to cause damage to the electrical system with downed trees, lightning strikes, and flooding problems. Sections of the city begin to experience power outages, and from a nearby hill, one can see areas of darkness as lights flicker out. Crews are being dispatched to locate problems and start the repair process. This is the way the electrical system responds to major storms today. Steps are taken to restore service as quickly as possible, but some outages are inevitable. If we look at this storm and its effects from the vantage point of a time in the future when microgrids have been established throughout the electrical system, however, things will be very different. This article discusses some of the engineering issues associated with the integration of microgrids into the larger electrical grid. It does not attempt to address all of the issues associated with microgrids, nor does it represent Southern California Edison's position on the deployment or merits of microgrids. Much more work in this area is still needed. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine is a bimonthly magazine dedicated to disseminating information on all matters of interest to electric power engineers and other professionals involved in the electric power industry.

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Editor-in-Chief
Melvin I. Olken
molken@ieee.org