# IET Electrical Systems in Transportation

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

• ### Aircraft batteries: current trend towards more electric aircraft

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):93 - 103
| | PDF (5716 KB)

Competition in the aircraft industry market and global warming has driven the industry to think along economic and environmental lines. This has resulted in the emergence of more electric aircraft (MEA). The increase in the power demand of aircraft, especially in the last two decades, coupled with advancement in battery materials and technology has led to the development of many high energy densit... View full abstract»

• ### Modelling of cryogenic cooling system design concepts for superconducting aircraft propulsion

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):170 - 178
| | PDF (1033 KB)

Distributed propulsion concepts are promising in terms of improved fuel burn, better aerodynamic performance, and greater control. Superconducting networks are being considered for their superior power density and efficiency. This study discusses the design of cryogenic cooling systems which are essential for normal operation of superconducting materials. This research project has identified six k... View full abstract»

• ### Loss-of-life investigation of EV batteries used as smart energy storage for commercial building-based solar photovoltaic systems

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):223 - 229
| | PDF (2433 KB)

This study presents a loss-of-life (LoL) analysis for electric vehicle (EV) batteries, when they are being used as smart energy storage (SES) systems in a typical solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed in building environment. EVs can be considered as ideal energy storage for solar PV system installed in commercial/office buildings. This is attributable to the fact that the idle time-period of t... View full abstract»

• ### Optimal probabilistic charging of electric vehicles in distribution systems

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):246 - 251
| | PDF (1977 KB)

In this study, a probabilistic approach for the optimal charging of electric vehicles (EVs) in distribution systems is proposed. The costs of both demand and energy losses in the system are minimised, subjected to a set of constraints that consider EVs smart charging characteristics and operative aspects of the electric network. The stochastic driving patterns for EVs' owners, battery capacity and... View full abstract»

• ### Conceptual propulsion system design for a hydrogen-powered regional train

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):56 - 66
| | PDF (1335 KB)

Many railway vehicles use diesel as their energy source but exhaust emissions and concerns about economical fuel supply demand alternatives. Railway electrification is not cost effective for some routes, particularly low-traffic density regional lines. The journey of a regional diesel-electric train is simulated over the British route Birmingham Moor Street to Stratford-upon-Avon and return to est... View full abstract»

• ### Survey on high-frequency models of PWM electric drives for shaft voltage and bearing current analysis

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):179 - 189
| | PDF (6149 KB)

In this study, a review on high-frequency modelling in electric machines is conducted. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) creates common-mode-voltage (CMV) and common-mode-current (CMC) in electric drives with high-frequency impacts such as shaft voltage and bearing current which in turn cause bearing failures. To predict and reduce these failures in an electric machine, transitional modelling of high-f... View full abstract»

• ### Electric vehicle drivetrain optimisation

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):32 - 40
| | PDF (3895 KB)

This study provides a detailed analysis of an optimal drivetrain configuration, based on multi-cycles, for a plug-in electric vehicle (EV). The investigation aims to identify the best EV configuration according to the required power and the transmissible traction torque. The study focuses on an EV with four different combinations of drive systems among in-wheel motors and differential ones. To fin... View full abstract»

• ### Dual input dual output power converter with one-step-ahead control for hybrid electric vehicle applications

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):190 - 200
| | PDF (6141 KB)

The rapid conversion of automotive accessory loads to the electrical domain demands a power converter to interface between the on-board source and storage units with the accessories. This study proposes a simplified structure of dual input dual output (DIDO) with single-stage power conversion for hybrid electric vehicle accessory applications. The topology is synthesised using pulsating source cel... View full abstract»

• ### Characterisation of the electric drive of EV: on-road versus off-road method

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):215 - 222
| | PDF (5215 KB)

For system design, analysis of global performance and energy management of electric vehicles (EVs), it is common to use the efficiency map of electric traction drive. The characterisation of the efficiency map with high accuracy is then an important issue. In this study, an on-road method and an off-road method are compared experimentally to determine the efficiency map of electric drive of EVs. T... View full abstract»

• ### Fault classification and diagnostic system for unmanned aerial vehicle electrical networks based on hidden Markov models

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):103 - 111
| | PDF (702 KB)

In recent years there has been an increase in the number of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications intended for various missions in a variety of environments. The adoption of the more-electric aircraft has led to a greater emphasis on electrical power systems (EPS) for safe flight through an increased number of critical loads being sourced with electrical power. Despite extensive literature de... View full abstract»

• ### Comparison of traction motors that reduce or eliminate rare-earth materials

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):207 - 214
| | PDF (4801 KB)

Important global efforts are underway toward lowering the cost of electric machines for electric and hybrid vehicles by reducing or eliminating the use of rare earth materials which have been experiencing significant price increases and volatility. This study will present several designs that reduce or eliminate rare-earth materials. All these designs are targeting the same set of specifications o... View full abstract»

• ### Smart EV charging schedules: supporting the grid and protecting battery life

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):84 - 91
| | PDF (4121 KB)

Uncontrolled charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is expected to cause problems for power distribution networks as existing vehicles are continually being replaced by electric. Therefore, smart charging algorithms that prevent such problems will become necessary as uptake of EVs increases and they become more popular. Smart EV charging is not only useful to provide the necessary charge (energy) req... View full abstract»

• ### Artificial neural network-based fault diagnosis in the AC–DC converter of the power supply of series hybrid electric vehicle

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):96 - 106
| | PDF (1394 KB)

AC-DC converter switches of the drive train of series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEVs) are generally exposed to the possibility of outbreak open-phase faults because of troubles with the switching devices. In this framework, the present study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN)-based method for fault diagnosis after extraction of a new pattern. The new pattern under AC-DC converter failure... View full abstract»

• ### Electric vehicles' impact on british distribution networks

Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):91 - 102
Cited by:  Papers (21)
| | PDF (1163 KB)

Battery charging of electric vehicles (EVs) will increase the power demand in distribution networks. It is anticipated that this will cause voltage drops, thermal overloads and an increase in losses. The severity of the impact will depend on the EV owners' behaviour. A generic three-phase low voltage (LV) residential distribution network model was used to evaluate the effects of EV battery chargin... View full abstract»

• ### Small-scale solar plants coupled with smart public transport system and its coordination with the grid

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):135 - 144
| | PDF (3322 KB)

In this study, small-scale solar plants (SPs) coupled with smart public transport system and its coordination with the grid have been presented. Electric buses (EBs) are used for mass transportation and charged from the energy points provided through the ring road of the Guwahati city, Assam, India. Both, the energy storage device and the small-scale SP are connected to each energy point. The maxi... View full abstract»

• ### Hybrid electric excursion ships power supply system based on a multiple energy storage system

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):190 - 201
| | PDF (1315 KB)

This study presents the multiple energy storage elements usability for ships using a passive hybrid topology. The considered hybridisation is based on a passive parallel topology connecting NiMH batteries and SuperCapacitors to a DC power distribution by a bidirectional DC/DC converter. The overall propulsion architecture is a hybrid series system where an engine-generator group is the main energy... View full abstract»

• ### Thermal management of electric machines

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):104 - 116
| | PDF (5483 KB)

Electric machines have broadly been used in many industries including the transportation industry. With the evolving trend of electrification in transportation, electric machines with higher power density and higher efficiency are demanded and, thus, more stringent thermal management requirements are needed for electrified vehicle applications. This study comprehensively presents various important... View full abstract»

• ### Experimental validation of electric bus powertrain model under city driving cycles

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):74 - 83
| | PDF (7633 KB)

Battery electric city bus model has been created and validated with measurement results from a full-scale city bus prototype. The model utilises multi-physics modelling approach with multiple-domains from friction-tyre and transmission model to electrical drive and a simplified battery model. For the electrical drive model, four approaches to model the losses were studied. The modelled and measure... View full abstract»

• ### Mathematical analysis of the equivalent impedance at the harmonic frequency for the proposed aircraft power system

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):87 - 101
| | PDF (2630 KB)

The proposals for the More Electric Aircraft' place a significant, increased demand on the electrical power distribution system. To increase safety and reduce aircraft maintenance times on the ground, there is a greater need to quickly identify and locate electrical faults within the electrical distribution system. The work presented in this study provides the mathematical basis for the use of po... View full abstract»

• ### Braking force control strategy for electric vehicles with load variation and wheel slip considerations

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):41 - 47
| | PDF (4090 KB)

The braking system plays an important role in electric vehicles. In order to achieve high energy regeneration efficiency and also ensure driving safety at the same time, the regenerative braking system should be well coordinated with the mechanical braking system. As the brake-by-wire technology is developed, individual control of braking force on each wheel can be realised, which is suitable for ... View full abstract»

• ### Dynamical modelling and emulation of Li-ion batteries–supercapacitors hybrid power supply for electric vehicle applications

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):161 - 169
| | PDF (5188 KB)

Modelling dynamic behaviours of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and supercapacitor in electric vehicle applications is a key aspect for the emulation of the hybrid power supply. In this study, a dynamical model based on two non-linear equivalent circuits is developed to describe the characteristics of the battery and supercapacitor during both steady-state and transient conditions. The necessary ... View full abstract»

• ### Fractional order fuzzy sliding mode controller for the quarter car with driver model and dual actuators

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):145 - 153
| | PDF (6321 KB)

The ride quality and travel comfort of the passenger is based on the type of the suspension system used in the vehicle. The active suspension system is one of the good choices to reduce the vibration and enhance the travel comfort. In this study, a quarter car with integrated seat suspension and driver model (QCSD) is considered for analysis. The controllers are designed for both single actuator (... View full abstract»

• ### Permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive system for electric vehicles using bidirectional z-source inverter

Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):178 - 185
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (680 KB)

Permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are capable of providing high torque-to-current ratios, high power-to-weight ratios, high efficiency and robustness. Owing to these advantages, PMSM are widely used in modern variable speed AC drives, especially in electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV applications. In this study, a novel PMSM drive system with a bidirectional Z-source inverter (ZSI)... View full abstract»

• ### Two-dimensional analytical investigation of the parameters and the effects of magnetisation patterns on the performance of coaxial magnetic gears

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):230 - 245
| | PDF (5808 KB)

In this study, a two-dimensional analytical model has been presented for coaxial magnetic gears. Based on Maxwell's equations the extracted model has been obtained via the solution of the Laplace and Poisson equations by using the separation of variable technique for each sub-region (internal and external magnets, internal and external air gaps and slots). Then the integral coefficients of the gen... View full abstract»

• ### Efficiency improved sensorless control scheme for electric vehicle induction motors

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):122 - 131
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (1201 KB)

This study presents an energy efficient and speed-sensorless control scheme for electric vehicle induction motors (IMs). The IM drive is designed to feature characteristics such as fast dynamic response, high efficiency and low cost. Hybrid field orientation control (FOC) and direct torque control (DTC) is employed as the main control method of IM drive. This method enjoys the advantages of both F... View full abstract»

• ### Single-phase rectifier circuit with output voltage enhancement for automotive generators

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):120 - 128
| | PDF (767 KB)

This study presents a new concept for single-phase diode bridge rectifier circuits applied to automotive applications. The proposed circuit is able to enhance the output voltage to a much higher output level over a wide load range compared to the classical single-phase diode bridge rectifier without using complex control algorithms. This is achieved by embedding two capacitors and two switches to ... View full abstract»

• ### Fault diagnosis approach of traction transformers in high-speed railway combining kernel principal component analysis with random forest

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):202 - 206
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (406 KB)

With the rapid development of high-speed railways, fault detection and diagnosis for traction transformers are more and more important, and the detection method with high accuracy is the key to assure the normal operation of the traction power supply system. A method based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and random forest (RF) is proposed to diagnose the traction transformer faults i... View full abstract»

• ### State-of-charge estimation with aging effect and correction for lithium-ion battery

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):70 - 76
| | PDF (794 KB)

This study proposes Lithium-ion battery aging correction state-of-charge (SOC) estimation techniques. Although the battery is aging, the SOC error estimation system maintains the setting range using a low-cost 8 bit micro-controller. The proposed method can track and correct the open-circuit voltage against capacity in the battery management system by comparing the capacity error with the coulomb ... View full abstract»

• ### Rotor skew pattern design and optimisation for cogging torque reduction

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):126 - 135
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1205 KB)

This study examines the effects of different rotor skew patterns on the cogging torque, the excitation torque ripple, the average torque, and the axial force in an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. A genetic algorithm is used to minimise the cogging torque for different skew patterns based on analytical functions. The optimal design obtained is verified with finite element analysis. The... View full abstract»

• ### State-of-charge and state-of-health estimation with state constraints and current sensor bias correction for electrified powertrain vehicle batteries

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):136 - 144
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (552 KB)

Pragmatic approaches are proposed to enhance battery state estimation using Kalman filter (KF) and extended KF. Notable novelties introduced include: the use of state/parameter constraints, asymmetric equivalent circuit model behaviour, inclusion of nominal models, and current sensor measurement bias estimation and compensation. The so-called delta parameters are estimated to handle cell variation... View full abstract»

• ### Energy management strategy for a fuel cell hybrid vehicle based on maximum efficiency and maximum power identification

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):261 - 268
| | PDF (5573 KB)

This paper addresses the energy management strategy (EMS) for a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FC-HEV). The fuel cell system (FCS) is a multi-physics system, and consequently, its energetic performances depend on the degradation and on the operating conditions. The maximum power (MP) and the maximum efficiency (ME) points of the FCS are unique but they move with operating condition variations.... View full abstract»

• ### Equalisation strategy for serially connected LiFePO4 battery cells

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):246 - 252
| | PDF (3094 KB)

Owing to different temperature gradients, charge/discharge rates, and coulomb efficiencies, various releasable capacities of each cell have significant impacts on a pack capacity. Therefore, the equalisation system is an essential part in a battery pack, especially for a high-power application such as electric vehicle. In this study, the authors first review several traditional equalisation strate... View full abstract»

• ### Design methodology of an interleaved buck converter for onboard automotive application, multi-objective optimisation under multi-physic constraints

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):53 - 60
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (543 KB)

This study presents a design methodology applied to design and improve the efficiency of interleaved Buck converters. This methodology is based on a multi-physic and multi-objective optimisation to ensure well integration of the converters. Thereto, the number of cells is used as a key parameter to formalise this approach with analytical models established to offer compromise needed between the co... View full abstract»

• ### Relaxation model of the open-circuit voltage for state-of-charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):112 - 117
Cited by:  Papers (4)
| | PDF (558 KB)

Summary form only given. Strong light-matter coupling has been recently successfully explored in the GHz and THz [1] range with on-chip platforms. New and intriguing quantum optical phenomena have been predicted in the ultrastrong coupling regime [2], when the coupling strength Ω becomes comparable to the unperturbed frequency of the system ω. We recently proposed a new experimental ... View full abstract»

• ### Multi-conductor model for AC railway train simulation

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):67 - 75
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (747 KB)

Railway Operators and Infrastructure Owners are required to design the railway to specific national and international, technical and safety performance standards. These standards and codes of practice provide the basis for company Codes of Practice', which detail the design methodology, application and system installation. To validate the design and to comply with these standards and codes of pra... View full abstract»

• ### Single-phase three-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm for grid-side railway traction converter and its relationship of carrier-based pulse width modulation

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):78 - 87
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (919 KB)

A significant problem of three-level neutral point clamped converters is the fluctuation of the neutral point voltage. A space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) strategy with neutral point voltage balancing for single-phase three-level converters adopted widely in railway traction drive system is proposed in this study. The relationship between the adopted SVPWM and carrier-based pulse width m... View full abstract»

• ### Accurate range estimation for an electric vehicle including changing environmental conditions and traction system efficiency

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):117 - 124
| | PDF (3098 KB)

Range anxiety is an obstacle to the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs), caused by drivers' uncertainty regarding their vehicle's state of charge (SoC) and the energy required to reach their destination. Most estimation methods for these variables use simplified models with many assumptions that can result in significant error, particularly if dynamic and environmental conditions are not conside... View full abstract»

• ### Fault mechanism study on Li-ion battery at over-discharge and its diagnosis approach

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):48 - 54
| | PDF (4163 KB)

A detailed research on fault mechanism of lithium (Li)-ion battery at over-discharge condition is reported in this study. Cells were cycled with different depths of discharge and reference performance tests were performed to extract parameters in dynamic and equilibrium conditions. The over-discharge process indicates that the abrupt change of temperature and impedance can be used for fault predic... View full abstract»

• ### Modelling and simulation of regeneration in AC traction propulsion system of electrified railway

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):145 - 155
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (892 KB)

This paper presents a robust model and its simulation to investigate the performance of an AC propulsion system in a rail vehicle for directly returning the regenerative braking power to the feeder substation of an AC traction network. This direct returning method can be an efficient approach for energy recovery if the regenerative braking is reliably applied. However, it is shown that this method... View full abstract»

• ### Influence of catenary tension on static elasticity and dynamic contact force between pantograph and catenary

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):201 - 206
| | PDF (6728 KB)

To improve the current collection quality of pantograph-catenary system at high-operating speed, the effect of contact wire tension and messenger wire tension on catenary elasticity and contact force has been analysed, respectively, by adopting the finite element method, and which is analysed by introducing the moving standard deviation value and the moving average value. The results show that the... View full abstract»

• ### Analytical optimisation of external rotor permanent magnet machines

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):41 - 49
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (573 KB)

This study presents an analytical model for optimising the maximum torque per volume in external rotor permanent magnet (PM) machines, in which the maximum achievable airgap flux density depends on the split ratio of airgap diameter to outer diameter and the stator slot area is a function of split ratio, airgap flux density, and stator split ratio of stator diameter at slot bottom to airgap diamet... View full abstract»

• ### Simplified method for the assessment of ship electric power systems operation cost reduction from energy storage and renewable energy sources integration

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):61 - 69
Cited by:  Papers (4)
| | PDF (358 KB)

The extensive electrification of ship power systems has become a very appealing option for the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly ships. Renewable energy sources and energy storage systems will have a key role in such systems as they can lead to fuel consumption reduction and increase of ship efficiency. In this study, analytic formulas are obtained for the estimation of sy... View full abstract»

• ### Flux-weakening operation of open-end winding drive integrating a cost-effective high-power charger

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):10 - 21
Cited by:  Papers (18)
| | PDF (1236 KB)

In this study, a three-phase drive with a six-leg voltage source inverter and an open-end winding interior permanent magnet synchronous machine designed for traction of an electric vehicle is studied in a flux-weakening operation. The topology allows the functionality of a high-power charger to be obtained, without adding any other supplementary power devices. On the other hand, since there are th... View full abstract»

• ### Fault location for aircraft distribution systems using harmonic impedance estimation

Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):119 - 129
| | PDF (776 KB)

The demands for more electric aircraft will increase the power distribution requirements of future aircraft electrical distribution systems. To increase safety and reduce aircraft maintenance times on the ground, there is also a need for system condition monitoring to quickly identify and locate any electrical faults which may develop. The work presented in this study forms an initial study into... View full abstract»

• ### Power conversion for a novel AC/DC aircraft electrical distribution system

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):29 - 37
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (935 KB)

This study proposes a novel and compact AC/DC electrical distribution system for new generation aircraft. In these new aircraft power systems, all loads are fed by two DC bus systems: at 28 V and at ±270 V. The electrical distribution system, whose design and implementation are described in this study, has only one primary AC source (360-900 Hz at 230 V) with all the required DC voltage lev... View full abstract»

• ### Optimal design of line level control resonant converters in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery chargers

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):21 - 28
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (717 KB)

The series-parallel resonant converter (also called line level control (LLC) resonant converter) is one of the most suitable topologies for dc-dc power supply. This study introduces the LLC resonant converter into the on-board battery chargers for the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Different from the previous literature which has focused on the wide operation range and hold-u... View full abstract»

• ### Real-time torque-distribution strategy for a pure electric vehicle with multiple traction motors by particle swarm optimisation

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):76 - 87
| | PDF (1327 KB)

This study proposes a real-time torque-distribution strategy for a pure electric vehicle (EV) with multi-electric propulsion system. This electric propulsion system is composed of three motors - an indirectly driven traction motor for front wheels and two in-wheel motors installed inside both rear wheels. Their torque distribution is determined by particle swarm optimisation (PSO) theory for minim... View full abstract»

• ### Design of a new non-rare-earth magnetic variable gear for hybrid vehicular propulsion system

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):153 - 162
| | PDF (904 KB)

This study presents the design of a new non-rare-earth magnetic variable gear (MVG) with 16 electrically controlled gear ratios, which incorporates both the concept of the magnetic gear and the concept of the memory machine. The high-remanence low-coercivity permanent magnet material: namely, the aluminium-nickel-cobalt is adopted to realise the controllable gear ratios. The key is to design the s... View full abstract»

• ### Comparison of flux switching and surface mounted permanent magnet generators for high-speed applications

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):111 - 116
Cited by:  Papers (34)
| | PDF (574 KB)

For embedded power generation within civil gas turbine engines, generators are anticipated to endure high rotor speeds coupled with large rotor diameters. With variable frequency permanent magnet generators finding increased roles because of the perceived higher torque density, the issue of rotor integrity becomes a critical issue. Although banding has been previously used in surface mounted PM (S... View full abstract»

• ### Multi-stack fuel cell efficiency enhancement based on thermal management

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):65 - 73
| | PDF (4613 KB)

Automotive manufacturers face serious difficulties concerning the expected fossil fuel depletion and the emitted pollutants during combustion. The fuel cell (FC) vehicle is considered a promising solution for greener and sustainable transportation. The integration of FC in vehicles is limited by some technological constraints and technical barriers which can be partially met by splitting the power... View full abstract»

## Aims & Scope

IET Electrical Systems in Transportation is aimed at all aspects of electrical power systems in modern transport applications including generation, storage, distribution and utilisation.

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## Meet Our Editors

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