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Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers

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  • 1. Simple Inductance Formulas for Radio Coils

    Publication Year: 1928, Page(s):1398 - 1400
    Cited by:  Papers (86)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

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  • 2. High Power Outphasing Modulation

    Publication Year: 1935, Page(s):1370 - 1392
    Cited by:  Papers (243)  |  Patents (91)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2704 KB)

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  • 3. A New High Efficiency Power Amplifier for Modulated Waves

    Publication Year: 1936, Page(s):1163 - 1182
    Cited by:  Papers (340)  |  Patents (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2320 KB)

    This paper introduces a new form of linear power amplifier for modulated radio-frequency waves. Plate circuit efficiencies of sixty to sixty-five per cent independent of modulation are obtained by means of the combined action of varying load distribution among the tubes and varying circuit impedance over the modulation cycle. The theory of operation is developed and detailed observations on the be... View full abstract»

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  • 4. Certain Factors Affecting the Gain of Directive Antennas

    Publication Year: 1930, Page(s):1502 - 1536
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5720 KB)

    This paper analyzes the performance of antenna arrays as influenced by certain variables within the control of the designing engineer. It starts with an extremely simple analysis of the interfering effects produced by two sources of waves of the same amplitude. This is followed by a short discussion of a paper by Ronald Foster, which considers two antennas and also 16 antennas when arranged in lin... View full abstract»

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  • 5. Directional Antennas

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):78 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6024 KB)

    The object of this paper is to develop analytical methods which are readily applicable to the general problems that arise in array design and to provide design curves that may be used without reference to the field theory underlying the problem. The cases of both driven and parasitic arrays have been treated. Where possible, the results have been tested by comparison with experimental results. The... View full abstract»

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  • 6. Circuit Relations in Radiating Systems and Applications to Antenna Problems

    Publication Year: 1932, Page(s):1004 - 1041
    Cited by:  Papers (116)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2744 KB)

    Expressions for the self and mutual impedances within a radiating system are developed by the use of the generalized reciprocity theorem. These expressions are given in terms of the distributions of the electric field intensities along the radiators. A method for the determination of the field intensities is outlined. Formulas for the self and mutual impedances in several types of directional ante... View full abstract»

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  • 7. The Propagation of Radio Waves over the Surface of the Earth and in the Upper Atmosphere

    Publication Year: 1936, Page(s):1367 - 1387
    Cited by:  Papers (87)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4296 KB)

    Simple formulas and graphs are given which represent the ground-wave field intensity at the surface of the earth as radiated from a short vertical antenna at the surface of the earth. The theory is compared to some experimental results reported by other investigators to determine its range of application. The diffraction formula given is theoretically valid only at the lower frequencies; however, ... View full abstract»

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  • 8. The Broadcast Antenna

    Publication Year: 1936, Page(s):11 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3496 KB)

    During the past several years, the trend in broadcast transmitting antennas has been towards the vertical radiator. The performance of these newer antennas has been subject to considerable theoretical discussion. This paper, however, emphasizes the actual field results obtained with tower radiators, and presents data on efficiency, base voltage, base loss, practical design considerations, and cost... View full abstract»

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  • 9. Notes on the Theory of Modulation

    Publication Year: 1922, Page(s):57 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (64)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)

    The transmission system of "frequency modulation" (transmission by variation of the frequency of the radiated wave) is mathematically analyzed, and the width of the band of frequencies occupied by this method of transmission at a given speed is compared with the width of the corresponding band for transmission by amplitude variation. It is proved that the frequency modulation system using a spacin... View full abstract»

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  • 10. A New Principle in Directional Antenna Design

    Publication Year: 1938, Page(s):333 - 345
    Cited by:  Papers (66)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB)

    It is shown that in certain types of directional antenna arrays the gain can be increased by arranging so that waves going from the array elements in the direction of maximum transmission are not strictly in phase at large distances. Three examples are given, an end-fire array and two antennas designed to radiate, as far as possible, only in a horizontal plane. In the case of the end-fire array it... View full abstract»

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  • 11. The Nonlinear Theory of Electric Oscillations

    Publication Year: 1934, Page(s):1051 - 1086
    Cited by:  Papers (145)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2811 KB)

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  • 12. Amplitude, Phase, and Frequency Modulation

    Publication Year: 1931, Page(s):2145 - 2176
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2640 KB)

    This paper presents a comparative theoretical study of amplitude, phase, and frequency modulation. In the first part, the fundamental mathematical expressions for the three types of modulation are derived. They are expressed in three different forms: as amplitude equations, side band equations and modulation vector equations. The amplitude equations indicate the envelope of the radio-frequency dir... View full abstract»

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  • 13. The Propagation of Radio Waves over the Surface of the Earth and in the Upper Atmosphere

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):1203 - 1236
    Cited by:  Papers (116)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3960 KB)

    Completely general formulas are given for computing at any point above a plane earth of finite conductivity the vector electric field for a source which may be a combination of vertical and horizontal electric dipoles or a loop antenna with its axis parallel or perpendicular to the earth. As illustrations of the above general methods, formulas are derived for the ground-wave radiation from (1) a g... View full abstract»

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  • 14. The Interdependence of Frequency Variation and Harmonic Content, and the Problem of Constant-Frequency Oscillators

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):958 - 981
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1568 KB)

    The investigations of the frequency variations in oscillating systems with negative nonlinear resistance were based until now on the fundamental differential equation of the simple oscillatory circuit. This method, although very exact, is not always sufficiently simple and even not always possible, especially if it concerns more complicated schemes. The symbolic calculus, although very simple in u... View full abstract»

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  • 15. The Piezo-Electric Resonator and Its Equivalent Network

    Publication Year: 1928, Page(s):742 - 764
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2472 KB)

    The theory of the piezo-electric and the mechanical behavior of a quartz resonator is stated following Voight and Cady. The functions of the quartz as dielectric and as vibrator are shown to be separable and replaceable by a condenser in parallel with an electrical resonator, i.e., a series chain of inductance, resistance, and capacity. For a Curie-cut quartz rod excited lengthwise through the tra... View full abstract»

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  • 16. Maintaining the Directivity of Antenna Arrays

    Publication Year: 1934, Page(s):847 - 869
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3118 KB)

    When a directive antenna array is used to maintain a certain minimum of signal in a given direction, or when a group of arrays are employed to provide intersecting space patterns, such as in the radio range beacon, it becomes necessary to maintain an accurate and constant relation between the phase and magnitude of the several antenna currents. Slight detuning effects in one antenna of a group wil... View full abstract»

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  • 17. A Multiple Unit Steerable Antenna for Short-Wave Reception

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):841 - 917
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (11712 KB)

    This paper discusses a receiving system employing sharp vertical-plane directivity, capable of being steered to meet the varying angles at which short radio waves arrive at a receiving location. The system is the culmination of some four years effort to determine the degree to which receiving antenna directivity may be carried to increase the reliability of short-wave transatlantic telephone circu... View full abstract»

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  • 18. Negative Resistance and Devices for Obtaining It

    Publication Year: 1935, Page(s):1201 - 1223
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2272 KB)

    By the use of a concept due to Crisson, negative resistance is shown to be a phenomenon controlled by either current or voltage but not by both together. Thus, two main classes are found differing in the shape of the volt-ampere characteristic, in the conditions for stability, in the effect of an added positive resistance, and in the effect of an internal time lag. Reliability, good power conversi... View full abstract»

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  • 19. Beam Transmission of Ultra Short Waves

    Publication Year: 1928, Page(s):715 - 740
    Cited by:  Papers (80)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4496 KB)

    Part I of this paper is devoted to a description of various experiments performed at wavelengths below 200 cm. Curves are given to show the effect of the earth and various types of inductively excited antennas called "wave directors." Part I is concluded with a discussion of beam and horizontally polarized radiation. Part II is devoted chiefly to the magnetron tubes used for the production of very... View full abstract»

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  • 20. The Calculation of the Inductance of Single-Layer Coils and Spirals Wound with Wire of Large Cross Section

    Publication Year: 1929, Page(s):2053 - 2063
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB)

    Formulas are given for both wires of round cross section and wires of rectangular cross section. These are obtained by an extension of the Rosa Method. Tables are given from which the geometric mean distances of rectangles which enter in the formulas may be readily obtained. View full abstract»

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  • 21. Some Recent Developments of Regenerative Circuits

    Publication Year: 1922, Page(s):244 - 260
    Cited by:  Papers (80)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3384 KB)

    A system of circuits is described whereby the effective resistance of a regenerative circuit is periodically made positive and negative, tho predominantly positive. Such a circuit will respond to impressed electromotive forces by setting up free oscillations during the negative resistance period, which oscillations are proportional to the exciting emf. The forced oscillations produced by the excit... View full abstract»

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  • 22. Transmission Theory of Plane Electromagnetic Waves

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):1457 - 1492
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3016 KB)

    This paper deals with transmission theory of plane electromagnetic waves in free space and in cylindrical regions of arbitrary cross section. Transmission properties of such waves can be expressed very simply in the same terms as the properties of electric waves guided by a pair of parallel wires. The earlier parts of the paper are concerned with general theorems and the latter parts with their ap... View full abstract»

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  • 23. Young's Modulus of a Crystal in Any Direction

    Publication Year: 1936, Page(s):532 - 533
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  • 24. Alternating-Current Resistance of Rectangular Conductors

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):434 - 447
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4080 KB)

    New experimental data are presented for conductors having ratios of width to thickness of 1 to 1 to 2400 to 1 for frequencies up to eight kilocycles. These data are co-ordinated with existing data furnishing an experimental proof of the "principle of similitude." "Skin effect" formulas are also checked with the experimental data over the range of frequencies for which these relations apply. View full abstract»

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  • 25. Ellipse Diagram of a Lecher Wire System

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):303 - 311
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)

    According to theoretical investigation, the current through the end of a Lecher wire system has been found to be inversely proportional to the length of a radius vector drawn from a point to the boundary of an ellipse. Such a diagram is called an "ellipse diagram" of the Lecher wire system, and is analogous to the so-called circle diagram for the induction motor. The nature of this diagram is expl... View full abstract»

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  • 26. The Nonuniform Transmission Line

    Publication Year: 1932, Page(s):1052 - 1063
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)

    The problem of transmission of periodic waves along a transmission line, whose series impedance and shunt admittance per unit length very as any powers of the distance from some point, is solved. The solution is given in terms of Bessel functions. A length of such a line is considered as a four-terminal network, and the more important parameters of the network are given. From these parameters one ... View full abstract»

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  • 27. The Application of Superheterodyne Frequency Conversion Systems to Multirange Receivers

    Publication Year: 1935, Page(s):279 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1640 KB)

    In this paper certain problems involved in the application of the superheterodyne circuit to high frequencies are discussed. The effects of coupling between oscillator and radio-frequency circuits are considered, and it is shown that such coupling may occur as the result of space-charge variations in the converter tube. The problem of noise reduction is considered. The means recommended for improv... View full abstract»

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  • 28. Tables for the Calculation of the Mutual Inductance of Any Two Coaxial Single-Layer Coils

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):1039 - 1049
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)

    Absolute formulas for the calculation of the mutual inductance of coaxial solenoids, although they are required for work of the great precision necessary in absolute measurements, are not convenient for routine calculations. Series formulas, although simpler, are limited in the range of their convergence, thus requiring the choice of the proper formula for any given problem. The tables and formula... View full abstract»

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  • 29. Electrical Disturbances Apparently of Extraterrestrial Origin

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):1387 - 1398
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2024 KB)

    Electromagnetic waves of an unknown origin were detected during a series of experiments on atmospherics at high frequencies. Directional records have been taken of these waves for a period of over a year. The data obtained from these records show that the horizontal component of the direction of arrival changes approximately 360 degrees in about 24 hours in a manner that is accounted for by the da... View full abstract»

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  • 30. Some Studies in Radio Broadcast Transmission

    Publication Year: 1926, Page(s):57 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (17944 KB)

    The paper is based on radio transmission tests from station 2XB in New York City to two outlying field stations. It is a detailed study of fading and distortion of radio signals under night-time conditions in a particular region which may or may not be typical. Night-time fading tests using constant single frequencies and bands of frequencies in which the receiving observations were recorded by os... View full abstract»

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  • 31. A Theoretical Comparison of Coupled Amplifiers with Staggered Circuits

    Publication Year: 1932, Page(s):1203 - 1220
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB)

    Detuned or staggered single tuned circuits are compared theoretically with the so-called band-pass or coupled circuits. The networks in each case are compared with each other by expressing the ratio of the input to output voltage in terms of the amplifications, A0of a single tuned stage. It is shown that approximately the same results are obtained up to optimum coupling by either method... View full abstract»

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  • 32. Reflection of Radio Waves from the Surface of the Earth

    Publication Year: 1930, Page(s):1396 - 1429
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3600 KB)

    The reflection of an elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave from partially conducting and perfectly conducting surfaces is studied in detail. It is shown that in either case the interference of incident and reflected waves gives rise to a pseudo-stationary wave field above the surface of the reflector. This field is bodily propagated along the horizontal projection of the direction of the inc... View full abstract»

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  • 33. Formation of Standing Waves on Lecher Wires

    Publication Year: 1931, Page(s):1983 - 1987
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    With a short review of the work on the Lecher wire method of wavelength measurement, this paper describes in detail the wave form of current distribution along wires under a variety of terminal conditions of length and impedances. View full abstract»

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  • 34. A Dynamic Method for Determining the Characteristics of Three-Electrode Vacuum Tubes

    Publication Year: 1918, Page(s):141 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    After considering the characteristics and "amplification constants" of three-electrode vacuum tubes, the author describes the theory and practice of a new method for determining the amplification constant and internal resistance of such tubes directly and rapidly. Examples of results thus obtained are given. View full abstract»

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  • 35. Phase Synchronization in Directive Antenna Arrays with Particular Application to the Radio Range Beacon

    Publication Year: 1934, Page(s): 116
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (86 KB)

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  • 36. Measurement of the Frequency of Ultra-Radio Waves

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):29 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)

    An analysis of a particular Lecher wire system whose characteristic impedance matches its input impedance and whose output end is short circuited, has led to an equation permitting the measurement of ultra-radio frequencies to three significant figures. The method is independent of end effects and has been applied to a determination of the velocity of propagation along iron wires. View full abstract»

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  • 37. A Theory of the Upper Atmosphere and Meteors

    Publication Year: 1928, Page(s):177 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)

    A calculation of the rate of separation of gases of different density in the earth's atmosphere leads us to expect a uniform mixture of all gases below 100 km and densities of hydrogen and helium roughly a hundred thousandth of those previously calculated, for greater heights. Known absorption and radiation coefficients for gases of the upper atmosphere indicate that we should expect a daily tempe... View full abstract»

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  • 38. The Fine Structure of Television Images

    Publication Year: 1938, Page(s):540 - 575
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3608 KB)

    There are described the necessary or preferred relations in the fine structure of television scanning, so chosen as to yield a system which is both theoretically ideal and practically optimum. The relations involve the width and spacing of the lines and the intensity distribution of circular scanning spots in both transmitter and receiver, which are correlated with the filter characteristics and t... View full abstract»

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  • 39. Modulation in Radio Telephony

    Publication Year: 1921, Page(s):305 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9936 KB)

    After considering the general characteristics of a voice-modulated radio frequency current, there is given a systematic classification of the various methods of producing such modulation in transmitters using three-electrode vacuum tubes. The output, efficiency, stability, completeness of modulation, quality, and other characteristics of each method of modulation are studied. The apparatus and cir... View full abstract»

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  • 40. The Dynatron: A Vacuum Tube Possessing Negative Electric Resistance

    Publication Year: 1918, Page(s):5 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4552 KB)

    A new, hot cathode, three electrode vacuum tube, the dynatron, is described. A constant, positive voltage is applied between the hot cathode and the perforated rugged anode. A supplementary anode is placed beyond the main anode, and is maintained at a lower positive potential than the main anode. Because of secondary electronic emission from the supplementary anode, thru a certain range of applied... View full abstract»

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  • 41. Formulas and Tables for the Calculation and Design of Single-Layer Coils

    Publication Year: 1924, Page(s):193 - 208
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB)

    A set of tables for the simple calculation of the inductance of single layer helical and polygonal coils and their design is given; together with full illustrations of their use. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Piezo-Electric Resonance and Oscillatory Phenomena with Flexural Vibrations in Quartz Plates

    Publication Year: 1927, Page(s):1040 - 1054
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2488 KB)

    A method of obtaining flexural vibrations from piezo-electric quartz plates together with the equations for flexural vibrations in quartz is given. Crystal mountings for obtaining best results with the first, second, and higher modes of flexural vibration are developed. The use of the crystal at flexural frequencies in the oscillator circuits of Cady and Pierce, and the luminous phenomena obtained... View full abstract»

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  • 43. The Determination of the Direction of Arrival of Short Radio Waves

    Publication Year: 1934, Page(s):47 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7244 KB)

    In this paper are described methods and technique of measuring the direction with which short waves arrive at a receiving site. Data on transatlantic stations are presented to illustrate the use of the methods. The methods described include those in which the phase difference between two points constitutes the criterion of direction, and those in which the difference in output of two antennas havi... View full abstract»

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  • 44. Frequency Modulation

    Publication Year: 1930, Page(s):1194 - 1205
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB)

    The differential equation of a frequency modulated transmitter is considered and the expression of the current as a function of time is derived. Frequency analysis of this function is made for two specific cases, (A) sinusoidal frequency modulation (telephony) and (B), right-angle frequency modulation (telegraphy with "marking" and "spacing" wave). The distribution and amplitudes of the frequencie... View full abstract»

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  • 45. Simple Method for Observing Current Amplitude and Phase Relations in Antenna Arrays

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):1310 - 1326
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2824 KB)

    The paper describes a simple apparatus arrangement for observing the relative amplitudes and phases of the currents in the elements of a multi-element radiating system. The process of adjusting the array is greatly facilitated, much less time and skill being required than when each step in the process is checked by field intensity measurements. Using the method described, these measurements need o... View full abstract»

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  • 46. Calculation of electric and magnetic field strengths of any oscillating straight conductors

    Publication Year: 1931, Page(s):461 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB)

    There are two methods for the calculation of the electric and magnetic field strengths in any straight oscillators such as antennas and antenna systems. One method depends on the fact that the fields produced by the individual elements in the arrangement, are superposed according to their amplitudes and phases. The fields of the elements thus are produced by Hertzian dipoles. The other method depe... View full abstract»

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  • 47. The Avalon-Los Angeles Radio Toll Circuit

    Publication Year: 1921, Page(s):469 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10936 KB)

    The communication facilities of Santa Catalina Island are described with special reference to the radio telephone service to the Californian mainland and the mode of connection to the wire telephone networks at the ends of the radio telephone channel. The radio telephone link is full duplex, and is connected thru special two-way repeaters to the telephone system at each end. A simultaneous duplex ... View full abstract»

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  • 48. The Temperature Coefficient of Inductance

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):448 - 464
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB)

    The author tries to explain the discrepancy between theory and experiment with regard to the temperature coefficient of inductance of coils. Experiments show that the temperature coefficient of inductance is not equal to the coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the coil, but exceeds it many timies. Such a considerable discrepancy cannot be explained by means of the factors pointed ou... View full abstract»

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  • 49. Directional Studies of Atmospherics at High Frequencies

    Publication Year: 1932, Page(s):1920 - 1932
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2848 KB)

    A system for recording the direction of arrival and intensity of static on short waves is described. The system consists of a rotating directional antenna array, a double detection receiver and an energy operated automatic recorder. The operation of the system is such that the output of the receiver is kept constant regardless of the intensity of the static. Data obtained with this system show the... View full abstract»

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  • 50. The Piezo-Electric Resonator

    Publication Year: 1922, Page(s):83 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3856 KB)

    The general theory of piezo-electricity is summarized, and the equations applicable to quartz are stated. The "concentrated mass theory" of longitudinal vibrations in rods is then developed, and the properties of the "resonance circle" discussed. On this theoretical basis the equations for the reaction of a piezo-electric resonator upon a circuit are derived, and solved by a graphical method. From... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1938. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

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