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# IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

• ### Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):1433 - 1435
Cited by:  Papers (324)
| | PDF (250 KB) | HTML

The crystalline silicon heterojunction structure adopted in photovoltaic modules commercialized as Panasonic's HIT has significantly reduced recombination loss, resulting in greater conversion efficiency. The structure of an interdigitated back contact was adopted with our crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells to reduce optical loss from a front grid electrode, a transparent conducting... View full abstract»

• ### 24.7% Record Efficiency HIT Solar Cell on Thin Silicon Wafer

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):96 - 99
Cited by:  Papers (289)  |  Patents (2)
| | PDF (322 KB) | HTML

A new record conversion efficiency of 24.7% was attained at the research level by using a heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer structure of practical size (101.8 cm2, total area) at a 98-μm thickness. This is a world height record for any crystalline silicon-based solar cell of practical size (100 cm2 and above). Since we announced our former record of 23.7%, we ha... View full abstract»

• ### High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1171 - 1175
| | PDF (432 KB) | HTML

Silicon solar cells featuring the highest conversion efficiencies are made from monocrystalline n-type silicon. The superior crystal quality of high-performance multicrystalline silicon (HP mc) in combination with the inherent benefits of n-type doping (higher tolerance to common impurities) should allow the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells also on mc silicon. In this paper, we address h... View full abstract»

• ### Charge Carrier Separation in Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):461 - 469
Cited by:  Papers (30)
| | PDF (647 KB) | HTML

The selective transport of electrons and holes to the two terminals of a solar cell is often attributed to an electric field, although well-known physics states that they are driven by gradients of quasi-Fermi energies. However, in an illuminated semiconductor, these forces are not selective, and they drive both charge carriers toward both contacts. This paper shows that the necessary selectivity ... View full abstract»

• ### Method of Extracting Solar Cell Parameters From Derivatives of Dark I–V Curves

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1304 - 1312
| | PDF (940 KB) | HTML

A method is presented to extract solar cell parameters from the derivatives of dark current-voltage curves with a three-diode model, using the monotonic properties of the current-voltage characteristic associated with each diode or resistive current. The method yields an improved accuracy of the solar cell parameters when compared with that used on the actual current-voltage curves. Despite the co... View full abstract»

• ### A GaAs Nanowire Array Solar Cell With 15.3% Efficiency at 1 Sun

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):185 - 190
Cited by:  Papers (27)
| | PDF (801 KB) | HTML

A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with an independently verified solar energy conversion efficiency of 15.3% and open-circuit voltage of 0.906 V under AM1.5g solar illumination at 1-sun intensity has been fabricated. This is the highest published efficiency for nanowire array solar cells and is twice the prior record for GaAs nanowire array solar cells. The solar cell has been fabricated by substra... View full abstract»

• ### Local Reactive Power Control Methods for Overvoltage Prevention of Distributed Solar Inverters in Low-Voltage Grids

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):174 - 182
Cited by:  Papers (118)
| | PDF (1109 KB) | HTML

The main objective of this study is to increase the penetration level of photovoltaic (PV) power production in low-voltage (LV) grids by means of solar inverters with reactive power control capability. This paper underlines weak points of standard reactive power strategies which are already imposed by certain grid codes, and then, the study introduces a new reactive power control method that is ba... View full abstract»

• ### Thermal Design of Photovoltaic/Microwave Conversion Hybrid Panel for Space Solar Power System

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):374 - 382
| | PDF (969 KB) | HTML

This paper describes the thermal design of a photovoltaic/microwave conversion hybrid panel for a tethered solar power satellite (SPS). A practical configuration of the hybrid panel with a sandwich structure was designed, and its thermal characteristics were unveiled. The thermal resistance of the panel was experimentally measured and used for a realistic simulation. The daily temperature variatio... View full abstract»

• ### Self-Sourced Daylight Electroluminescence From Photovoltaic Modules

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1184 - 1189
| | PDF (770 KB) | HTML

Conventional electroluminescence characterization of photovoltaic modules relies on injecting current into the modules from external power sources. Our novel power feedback modulator uses the power generated by the module itself: We enable self-sourced electroluminescence characterization of photovoltaic modules under daylight conditions. The modulator periodically collects the power from the sola... View full abstract»

• ### Hole-Selective Electron-Blocking Copper Oxide Contact for Silicon Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1278 - 1283
| | PDF (649 KB) | HTML Media

Metal-oxide/silicon carrier-selective heterojunctions may be a low-cost high-efficiency alternative to conventional silicon solar cells. Here, a passivated Si/cuprous oxide (Cu2O) hole-selective heterojunction with high open-circuit voltage (VOC) is reported. Cu2O is abundant, nontoxic, and can be deposited at low temperatures and potentially at low cost. The Si/Cu... View full abstract»

• ### Monolithic Two-Terminal III–V//Si Triple-Junction Solar Cells With 30.2% Efficiency Under 1-Sun AM1.5g

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):367 - 373
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (772 KB) | HTML

Stacking III-V p-n junctions on top of wafer-based silicon solar cells is a promising way to go beyond the silicon single-junction efficiency limit. In this study, triple-junction GaInP/AlxGa1-xAs//Si solar cells were fabricated using surface-activated direct wafer bonding. Metal-organic-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown GaInP/AlxGa1-xAs top cells are bonded at ... View full abstract»

• ### Strong Internal and External Luminescence as Solar Cells Approach the Shockley–Queisser Limit

Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):303 - 311
Cited by:  Papers (262)  |  Patents (2)
| | PDF (1857 KB) | HTML

Absorbed sunlight in a solar cell produces electrons and holes. However, at the open-circuit condition, the carriers have no place to go. They build up in density, and ideally, they emit external luminescence that exactly balances the incoming sunlight. Any additional nonradiative recombination impairs the carrier density buildup, limiting the open-circuit voltage. At open circuit, efficient exter... View full abstract»

• ### BCP as Additive for Solution-Processed PCBM Electron Transport Layer in Efficient Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):550 - 557
| | PDF (580 KB) | HTML Media

Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) doped with bathocuproine (BCP) is employed as a novel electron transport layer (ETL) for the first time. We demonstrate that this solution-processed PCBM:BCP blend ETL could significantly improve perovskite solar cell performance in a wide range of BCP doping amounts. The effect of BCP doping has been systematically investigated through a comb... View full abstract»

• ### Quantification of pn-Junction Recombination in Interdigitated Back-Contact Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1176 - 1183
| | PDF (807 KB) | HTML

Interdigitated back-contact (IBC) solar cells based on diffused crystalline silicon comprise a series of pn-junctions which border at the rear surface of the wafer. In this work, it is established that the presence of these pn-junctions can induce significant additional charge-carrier recombination, which affect the conversion efficiency of IBC cells through a reduction in fill factor and open-cir... View full abstract»

• ### Sputtered Tungsten Oxide as Hole Contact for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1209 - 1215
| | PDF (640 KB) | HTML

Reactively sputtered tungsten oxide (WOx) was investigated as hole contact on n-type crystalline silicon. Varying the oxygen gas flow during sputtering enables variation of the WOx conductivity from 0.01 to 1000 Ω/cm, while the band bending at the interface and the implied fill factor (FF) change by 70 meV and 1.5%. Sputtered WOx shows higher resistivity and... View full abstract»

• ### Impact of Nonuniform Illumination and Probe Bar Shading on Solar Cell I–V Measurement

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1203 - 1208
| | PDF (805 KB) | HTML

This paper examines the effect of nonuniform and probe-bar-shaded solar illumination in the I-V characterization of large area Si wafer solar cells. The illumination conditions were experimentally implemented by masking the solar cell during measurement. The results are examined in detail with simulations in Griddler, a finite element analysis software developed at the Solar Energy Research Instit... View full abstract»

• ### Reassessment of the Limiting Efficiency for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):1184 - 1191
Cited by:  Papers (106)
| | PDF (6335 KB) | HTML

Recently, several parameters relevant for modeling crystalline silicon solar cells were improved or revised, e.g., the international standard solar spectrum or properties of silicon such as the intrinsic recombination rate and the intrinsic carrier concentration. In this study, we analyzed the influence of these improved state-of-the-art parameters on the limiting efficiency for crystalline silico... View full abstract»

• ### Fabrication and Modeling of High-Efficiency Front Junction N-Type Silicon Solar Cells With Tunnel Oxide Passivating Back Contact

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1236 - 1243
| | PDF (1643 KB) | HTML

This paper reports on in-depth understanding, modeling, and fabrication of 23.8% efficient 4 cm2 n-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon cells with a selective boron emitter and photolithography contact on front and tunnel oxide passivating contact on the back. Tunnel oxide passivating contact composed of a very thin chemically grown silicon oxide (~15 Å) capped with plasma-enhanced chemi... View full abstract»

• ### Comparison of Terminal and Implied Open-Circuit Voltage Measurements

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1376 - 1383
| | PDF (567 KB) | HTML

Illumination intensity dependent open-circuit voltage measurements, commonly known as Suns-Voc, are often used to measure the current-voltage characteristic of a solar cell without the impact of series resistance. Deviations at high illumination levels between Suns-Voc measurements and contactless measurements, such as injection-dependent photoluminescence, have previously be... View full abstract»

• ### On the Perturb-and-Observe and Incremental Conductance MPPT Methods for PV Systems

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):1070 - 1078
Cited by:  Papers (121)
| | PDF (3360 KB) | HTML

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the two most well-known hill-climbing maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms: the perturb-and-observe (P&O) and incremental conductance (INC). The purpose of the analysis is to clarify some common misconceptions in the literature regarding these two trackers, therefore helping the selection process for a suitable MPPT for both researchers and ... View full abstract»

• ### Simple PV Performance Equations Theoretically Well Founded on the Single-Diode Model

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1400 - 1409
| | PDF (2139 KB) | HTML

There are several photovoltaic (PV) performance models in the literature, but most of them either employ complex and tedious calculations or require additional measurements apart from datasheet information. In this paper, a new set of performance equations to evaluate the short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power point at any operating conditions is introduced. The proposed ex... View full abstract»

• ### Effect of Sodium on the Properties of Ag(In, Ga)Se2 Thin Films and Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1426 - 1432
| | PDF (616 KB) | HTML

Ag(In, Ga)Se2 (AIGS) thin films were deposited by a modified three-stage method, using a molecular beam epitaxy apparatus. The influence of sodium on the properties of AIGS films was investigated, using Mo-coated soda-lime-glass (SLG) and quartz as substrates. A sodium concentration gradient was observed along the thickness direction of the AIGS film. This resulted from sodium diffusion... View full abstract»

• ### >20.5% Diamond Wire Sawn Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells With Maskless Inverted Pyramid Like Texturing

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1264 - 1269
| | PDF (652 KB) | HTML

In this paper, we demonstrate novel texturing technologies developed for diamond wire sawn multicrystalline silicon wafers. SEM analysis shows that inverted pyramid like texture is produced on the wafer surface by a combination of reactive ion etching and metal-assisted chemical etching technologies. The inverted pyramid like textured surface shows remarkable antireflection performance over the ot... View full abstract»

• ### Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Model Predictive Control for Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting Architectures Based on Cascaded Power Optimizers

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):849 - 857
| | PDF (1357 KB) | HTML

Mismatching and partial shading in photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting systems are the main causes for performance degradation and efficiency drop. A power electronic energy harvesting topology based on cascaded power optimizers that use distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is believed to be one of the promising solutions to address these issues. In this scheme, each PV module is interf... View full abstract»

• ### Light Trapping in Ultrathin CIGS Solar Cells with Nanostructured Back Mirrors

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1433 - 1441
| | PDF (1758 KB) | HTML

Novel architectures for light trapping in ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells are proposed and numerically investigated. They are composed of a flat CIGS layer with nanostructured back mirrors made of highly reflective metals. Multi-resonant absorption is obtained for two different patterns of nanostructured mirrors. It leads to a dramatic increase in the short-circuit current pre... View full abstract»

• ### Photonic Intermediate Structures for Perovskite/c-Silicon Four Terminal Tandem Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1190 - 1196
| | PDF (522 KB) | HTML Media

Tandem perovskite/silicon devices are promising candidates for highly efficient and low-cost solar cells. Such tandem solar cells, however, require careful photon management for optimum performance, which can be achieved with intermediate photonic structures. Here, we identify the ideal requirements for such intermediate structures in perovskite/silicon tandem cells. Counter-intuitively, we find t... View full abstract»

• ### A Maximum Power Point Tracking Method Based on Perturb-and-Observe Combined With Particle Swarm Optimization

Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):626 - 633
Cited by:  Papers (70)
| | PDF (2449 KB) | HTML

Conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods such as perturb-and-observe (P&O) method can only track the first local maximum point and stop progressing to the next maximum point. MPPT methods based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been proposed to track the global maximum point (GMP). However, the problem with the PSO method is that the time required for convergence may be lon... View full abstract»

• ### Design of Schottky Contacts for Optimum Performance of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):22 - 27
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (2799 KB) | HTML

A full-scale model combining TCAD simulations with circuit modeling of p-type window layers in thin-film silicon solar cells is validated by experiment. The results demonstrate that Schottky contacts with a barrier height greater than 0.5 eV cause a kink in the simulated J-V characteristics that represents a considerable reduction of the open-circuit voltage when thermionic emission is the dominan... View full abstract»

• ### PVMirror: A New Concept for Tandem Solar Cells and Hybrid Solar Converters

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):1791 - 1799
Cited by:  Papers (9)
| | PDF (996 KB) | HTML

As the solar electricity market has matured, energy conversion efficiency and storage have joined installed system cost as significant market drivers. In response, manufacturers of flat-plate silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells have pushed cell efficiencies above 25%-nearing the 29.4% detailed-balance efficiency limit-and both solar thermal and battery storage technologies have been deployed at utilit... View full abstract»

• ### A Method to Detect Photovoltaic Array Faults and Partial Shading in PV Systems

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):1278 - 1285
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (1149 KB) | HTML

Abnormal conditions such as faults and partial shading lead to a reduction in the maximum available power from a photovoltaic (PV) array. Thus, it is necessary to detect partial shading and faults in a PV array for improved system efficiency and reliability. Conventional protection devices fail to detect faults under cloudy and low irradiance conditions, leading to safety issues and fire hazards i... View full abstract»

• ### Real-Time Thermoelectrical Model of PV Panels for Degradation Assessment

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1362 - 1375
| | PDF (1436 KB) | HTML

In this paper, we develop a new real-time thermoelectrical model of a photovoltaic (PV) panel that takes degradations into consideration. The degradation modes under study are the potential-induced degradation, the light-induced degradation, the ultraviolet light degradation, the moisture-induced degradation, and the cell cracks. The effect of each degradation mode on the equivalent circuit of PV ... View full abstract»

• ### Understanding Surface Treatment and ALD AlOx Thickness Induced Surface Passivation Quality of c-Si Cz Wafers

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1224 - 1235
| | PDF (4674 KB) | HTML Media

In this paper, the passivation quality of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers, when passivated by atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (ALD AlOx), is investigated. Specifically, we investigated the effect of surface modification of the c-Si interface prior to the ALD AlOx deposition (via -H and -OH termination of the c-Si wafer) over a large range of AlOx thicknesse... View full abstract»

• ### Status and Potential of CdTe Solar-Cell Efficiency

Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):1217 - 1221
Cited by:  Papers (11)
| | PDF (553 KB) | HTML

The status of the highest efficiency CdTe solar cells is presented in the context of comparative loss analysis among the leading technologies for single- and polycrystalline photovoltaic materials. The Shockley-Queisser limit of a single-junction cell, with acknowledgement of variations from standard conditions, is used for reference. The highest CdTe currents achieved are comparable with the best... View full abstract»

• ### Selective Dry Etching of p-Type Si Films for Photolithography Processing of Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1292 - 1297
| | PDF (648 KB) | HTML

Highly doped p-type Si thin films are hardly etched by alkaline etchants unlike i- and n-type Si films. In addition, the use of a HNO3/HF/H2O mixture to etch p-type Si films can lead to inhomogeneous etching of p-type Si films and consequently result in excessive surface roughness and inferior surface passivation. For these reasons, we have implemented a dry etching method to... View full abstract»

• ### Control and Circuit Techniques to Mitigate Partial Shading Effects in Photovoltaic Arrays

Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):532 - 546
Cited by:  Papers (148)  |  Patents (1)
| | PDF (1649 KB) | HTML

Partial shading in photovoltaic (PV) arrays renders conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques ineffective. The reduced efficiency of shaded PV arrays is a significant obstacle in the rapid growth of the solar power systems. Thus, addressing the output power mismatch and partial shading effects is of paramount value. Extracting the maximum power of partially shaded PV arrays has b... View full abstract»

• ### Mitigation of Dust Impact on Solar Collectors by Water-Free Cleaning With Transparent Electrodynamic Films: Progress and Challenges

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1342 - 1353
| | PDF (1429 KB) | HTML

Energy-yield loss caused by soiling of photovoltaic modules and concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors in utility-scale power plants installed in semiarid lands and deserts would result in unsustainable demands for fresh water needed for cleaning. This paper reviews the progress of the electrodynamic screen (EDS) film technology for frequent water-free cleaning with low-energy requirements. Result... View full abstract»

• ### High-Speed Broadband Quantum Efficiency Determination of Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1384 - 1389
| | PDF (1025 KB) | HTML

The investigation of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of optical sensors and solar cells plays a major role in device characterization. As a key parameter, the EQE reveals important information about optical and electrical properties. In the field of photovoltaics, the EQE is, moreover, mandatory for the spectral mismatch correction in the process of device calibration. The work presented her... View full abstract»

• ### Modulated Photoluminescence Lifetime Measurement of Bifacial Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1 - 6
| | PDF (438 KB)

The frequency response of photoluminescence (PL) emission in a semiconductor sample is influenced by the effective carrier lifetime. As it is easy to induce and capture PL in solar cells at different stages of processing, modulated PL poses as a versatile technique to track the progression of effective lifetime in silicon wafer solar cells in the production line. This paper demonstrates the applic... View full abstract»

• ### Solar Irradiation Independent Expression for Photovoltaic Generator Maximum Power Line

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1416 - 1420
| | PDF (844 KB) | HTML

In order to enhance maximum power point tracking (MPPT) speed of photovoltaic generators (PVGs) upon fast irradiation changes, maximum power line (MPL)-based control is often used. MPL is a curve, linking all possible MPP coordinates for a given temperature. In the literature so far, PVG MPL was either assumed linear, which is inaccurate for all irradiation levels, or possessed photocurrent depend... View full abstract»

• ### Characterization of Glass Frit in Conductive Paste for N-Type Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1313 - 1318
| | PDF (736 KB) | HTML

Contacting silver paste for an emitter of silicon solar cells has been pointed out to create shunting and to increase carrier recombination due to silver-crystallites at the emitter. However, since these observed electrical losses come of not only the crystallites but also multiple effects of constituents in the paste, whether the crystallites mainly cause these losses has still remained unknown. ... View full abstract»

• ### The Effects of Inclined Angle Modification and Diffuse Radiation on the Sun-Tracking Photovoltaic System

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1410 - 1415
| | PDF (1100 KB) | HTML

The photovoltaic (PV) system with an East-West sun tracker can obtain 10-35% additional radiant energy, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. The relationship between solar interarray spacing and the plus irradiance at different times obtained by sun tracking were studied and discussed. In three locations with different diffuse radiation ratios, the tracking efficiency of the East-We... View full abstract»

• ### Record Infrared Internal Quantum Efficiency in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Dielectric/Metal Rear Reflectors

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):1243 - 1249
Cited by:  Papers (41)
| | PDF (933 KB) | HTML

Inserting a dielectric between the absorber and rear metal electrode of a solar cell increases rear internal reflectance by both limiting the transmission cone and suppressing the plasmonic absorption of light arriving outside of the cone. We fabricate rear reflectors with low-refractive-index magnesium fluoride (MgF2) as the dielectric, and with local electrical contacts through the Mg... View full abstract»

• ### Nondestructive Probing of Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells Using Multiwavelength Photoluminescence Mapping

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1081 - 1086
| | PDF (484 KB) | HTML Media

In this paper, spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy with various excitation wavelengths is presented as a nondestructive and versatile technique providing access to the individual subcells of multijunction solar cells. This method is demonstrated on a state-of-the-art monolithic tandem solar cell composed of a planar perovskite solar cell and a silicon heterojunction solar cell. ... View full abstract»

• ### A New Technique for Tracking the Global Maximum Power Point of PV Arrays Operating Under Partial-Shading Conditions

Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):184 - 190
Cited by:  Papers (146)  |  Patents (1)
| | PDF (787 KB) | HTML

The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic (PV) arrays operating under partial-shading conditions exhibits multiple local maximum power points (MPPs). In this paper, a new method to track the global MPP is presented, which is based on controlling a dc/dc converter connected at the PV array output, such that it behaves as a constant input-power load. The proposed method has the advantage that... View full abstract»

• ### Evolution of LeTID Defects in p-Type Multicrystalline Silicon During Degradation and Regeneration

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):980 - 987
| | PDF (944 KB) | HTML

While progress has been made in developing engineering solutions and understanding light- and elevated temperature-induced degradation (LeTID) in p-type multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si), open questions remain regarding the root cause of LeTID. Previously, lifetime spectroscopy of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) passivated emitter and rear cell semifabricates in the unaffected and the degraded sta... View full abstract»

• ### Laser-Patterning Engineering for Perovskite Solar Modules With 95% Aperture Ratio

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1 - 7
| | PDF (382 KB)

Small area hybrid organometal halide perovskite based solar cells reached performances comparable to the multicrystalline silicon wafer cells. However, industrial applications require the scaling-up of devices to module-size. Here, we report the first fully laser-processed large area (14.5 cm2) perovskite solar module with an aperture ratio of 95% and a power conversion efficiency of 9.3&#x... View full abstract»

• ### P–N Junction Passivation in Kesterite Solar Cells by Use of Solution-Processed TiO2 Layer

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1130 - 1135
| | PDF (717 KB) | HTML

In this work, we used a solution-processed TiO2 layer between Cu2ZnSnSe4 and CdS buffer layer to reduce the recombination at the p-n junction. Introducing the TiO2 layer showed a positive impact on VOC but fill factor and efficiency decreased. Using a KCN treatment, we could create openings in the TiO2 layer, as confirmed by transmission elect... View full abstract»

• ### The Influence of Absorber Thickness on Cu(In,Ga)Se$_{bf 2}$ Solar Cells With Different Buffer Layers

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):1376 - 1382
Cited by:  Papers (17)
| | PDF (535 KB) | HTML

This study investigates the interplay between the absorber layer of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells and the other layers of these devices. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices with absorbers of different thicknesses and different buffer layers are fabricated. Absorber layers and finished devices are characterized. Good efficiencies are obtained, also for devices of substandard thickness down to 0.3... View full abstract»

• ### Quantification of Shading Tolerability for Photovoltaic Modules

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):1390 - 1399
| | PDF (1254 KB) | HTML

Despite several decades of research in the field of photovoltaic (PV) systems, shading tolerance has still not been properly addressed. PV modules are influenced by shading concerning many factors, such as number and configuration of cells in the module, electrical and thermal characteristics of the cells, number and type of bypass circuits, electrical characteristics of bypass elements, and shadi... View full abstract»

• ### Robust Feedback Linearizing Control With Sliding Mode Compensation for a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter System Under Unbalanced Grid Voltages

Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):828 - 838
| | PDF (1473 KB) | HTML

A robust feedback linearizing control strategy, based on sliding mode compensation, is proposed for the operation of a grid-connected photovoltaic inverter system under grid faults, characterized by unbalanced voltages, to meet low-voltage ride through requirements. Under normal grid condition, the control system is developed for maximum power transfer from the photovoltaic source to the grid by m... View full abstract»