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Communications and Networks, Journal of

Popular Articles (December 2014)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. Fast millimeter-wave beam training with receive beamforming

    Page(s): 512 - 522
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes fast millimeter-wave (mm-wave) beam training protocols with receive beamforming. Both IEEE standards and the academic literature have generally considered beam training protocols involving exhaustive search over all possible beam directions for both the beamforming initiator and responded However, this operation requires a long time (and thus overhead) when the beamwidth is quite narrow such as for mm-wave beams (1° in the worst case). To alleviate this problem, we propose two types of adaptive beam training protocols for fixed and adaptive modulation, respectively, which take into account the unique propagation characteristics of millimeter waves. For fixed modulation, the proposed protocol allows for interactive beam training, stopping the search when a local maximum of the power angular spectrum is found that is sufficient to support the chosen modulation/coding scheme. We furthermore suggest approaches to prioritize certain directions determined from the propagation geometry, long-term statistics, etc. For adaptive modulation, the proposed protocol uses iterative multi-level beam training concepts for fast link configuration that provide an exhaustive search with significantly lower complexity. Our simulation results verify that the proposed protocol performs better than traditional exhaustive search in terms of the link configuration speed for mobile wireless service applications. View full abstract»

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  • 2. Compressive sensing: From theory to applications, a survey

    Page(s): 443 - 456
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a novel sampling paradigm that samples signals in a much more efficient way than the established Nyquist sampling theorem. CS has recently gained a lot of attention due to its exploitation of signal sparsity. Sparsity, an inherent characteristic of many natural signals, enables the signal to be stored in few samples and subsequently be recovered accurately, courtesy of CS. This article gives a brief background on the origins of this idea, reviews the basic mathematical foundation of the theory and then goes on to highlight different areas of its application with a major emphasis on communications and network domain. Finally, the survey concludes by identifying new areas of research where CS could be beneficial. View full abstract»

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  • 3. Effects of channel aging in massive MIMO systems

    Page(s): 338 - 351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication may provide high spectral efficiency through the deployment of a very large number of antenna elements at the base stations. The gains from massive MIMO communication come from the use of multiuser MIMO on the uplink and downlink, but with a large excess of antennas at the base station compared to the number of served users. Initial work on massive MIMO did not fully address several practical issues associated with its deployment. This paper considers the impact of channel aging on the performance of massive MIMO systems. The effects of channel variation are characterized as a function of different system parameters assuming a simple model for the channel time variations at the transmitter. Channel prediction is proposed to overcome channel aging effects. The analytical results on aging show how capacity is lost due to time variation in the channel. Numerical results in a multiceli network show that massive MIMO works even with some channel variation and that channel prediction could partially overcome channel aging effects. View full abstract»

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  • 4. Mobile device-to-device (D2D) content delivery networking: A design and optimization framework

    Page(s): 568 - 577
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider a mobile content delivery network (mCDN) in which special mobile devices designated as caching servers (caching-server device: CSD) can provide mobile stations with popular contents on demand via device-to-device (D2D) communication links. On the assumption that mobile CSD's are randomly distributed by a Poisson point process (PPP), an optimization problem is formulated to determine the probability of storing the individual content in each server in a manner that minimizes the average caching failure rate. Further, we present a low-complexity search algorithm, optimum dual-solution searching algorithm (ODSA), for solving this optimization problem. We demonstrate that the proposed ODSA takes fewer iterations, on the order of O (log N) searches, for caching N contents in the system to find the optimal solution, as compared to the number of iterations in the conventional subgradient method, with an acceptable accuracy in practice. Furthermore, we identify the important characteristics of the optimal caching policies in the mobile environment that would serve as a useful aid in designing the mCDN. View full abstract»

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  • 5. A channel state information feedback method for massive MIMO-OFDM

    Page(s): 352 - 361
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1597 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Combining multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) with a massive number of transmit antennas (massive MIMO-OFDM) is an attractive way of increasing the spectrum efficiency or reducing the transmission energy per bit. The effectiveness of Massive MIMO-OFDM is strongly affected by the channel state information (CSI) estimation method used. The overheads of training frame transmission and CSI feedback decrease multiple access channel (MAC) efficiency and increase the CSI estimation cost at a user station (STA). This paper proposes a CSI estimation scheme that reduces the training frame length by using a novel pilot design and a novel unitary matrix feedback method. The proposed pilot design and unitary matrix feedback enable the access point (AP) to estimate the CSI of the signal space of all transmit antennas using a small number of training frames. Simulations in an IEEE 802.11n channel verify the attractive transmission performance of the proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • 6. Efficient and secure routing protocol for wireless sensor networks through SNR based dynamic clustering mechanisms

    Page(s): 422 - 429
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advances in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology have enabled small and low-cost sensors with the capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. In the WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range and their processing and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are limited. A triple umpiring system has already been proved for its better performance in WSNs. The clustering technique is effective in prolonging the lifetime of the WSN. In this study, we have modified the ad-hoc on demand distance vector routing by incorporating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based dynamic clustering. The proposed scheme, which is an efficient and secure routing protocol for wireless sensor networks through SNR-based dynamic clustering (ESRPSDC) mechanisms, can partition the nodes into clusters and select the cluster head (CH) among the nodes based on the energy, and non CH nodes join with a specific CH based on the SNR values. Error recovery has been implemented during the inter-cluster routing in order to avoid end-to-end error recovery. Security has been achieved by isolating the malicious nodes using sink-based routing pattern analysis. Extensive investigation studies using a global mobile simulator have shown that this hybrid ESRP significantly improves the energy efficiency and packet reception rate as compared with the SNR unaware routing algorithms such as the low energy aware adaptive clustering hierarchy and power efficient gathering in sensor information systems. View full abstract»

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  • 7. A robust wearable u-healthcare platform in wireless sensor network

    Page(s): 465 - 474
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1723 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is considered to be one of the most important research fields for ubiquitous healthcare (u-healthcare) applications. Healthcare systems combined with WSNs have only been introduced by several pioneering researchers. However, most researchers collect physiological data from medical nodes located at static locations and transmit them within a limited communication range between a base station and the medical nodes. In these healthcare systems, the network link can be easily broken owing to the movement of the object nodes. To overcome this issue, in this study, the fast link exchange minimum cost forwarding (FLE-MCF) routing protocol is proposed. This protocol allows real-time multi-hop communication in a healthcare system based on WSN. The protocol is designed for a multi-hop sensor network to rapidly restore the network link when it is broken. The performance of the proposed FLE-MCF protocol is compared with that of a modified minimum cost forwarding (MMCF) protocol. The FLE-MCF protocol shows a good packet delivery rate from/to a fast moving object in a WSN. The designed wearable platform utilizes an adaptive linear prediction filter to reduce the motion artifacts in the original electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Two filter algorithms used for baseline drift removal are evaluated to check whether real-time execution is possible on our wearable platform. The experiment results shows that the ECG signal filtered by adaptive linear prediction filter recovers from the distorted ECG signal efficiently. View full abstract»

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  • 8. HDRE: Coverage hole detection with residual energy in wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 493 - 501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (930 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Coverage completeness is an important indicator for quality of service in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Due to limited energy and diverse working conditions, the sensor nodes have different lifetimes which often cause network holes. Most of the existing methods expose large limitation and one-sidedness because they generally consider only one aspect, either coverage rate or energy issue. This paper presents a novel method for coverage hole detection with residual energy in randomly deployed wireless sensor networks. By calculating the life expectancy of working nodes through residual energy, we make a trade-off between network repair cost and energy waste. The working nodes with short lifetime are screened out according to a proper ratio. After that, the locations of coverage holes can be determined by calculating the joint coverage probability and the evaluation criteria. Simulation result shows that compared to those traditional algorithms without consideration of energy problem, our method can effectively maintain the coverage quality of repaired WSN while enhancing the life span of WSN at the same time. View full abstract»

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  • 9. Low complexity zero-forcing beamforming for distributed massive MIMO systems in large public venues

    Page(s): 370 - 382
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed massive MIMO systems, which have high bandwidth efficiency and can accommodate a tremendous amount of traffic using algorithms such as zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF), may be deployed in large public venues with the antennas mounted under-floor. In this case the channel gain matrix H can be modeled as a multi-banded matrix, in which off-diagonal entries decay both exponentially due to heavy human penetration loss and polynomially due to free space propagation loss. To enable practical implementation of such systems, we present a multi-banded matrix inversion algorithm that substantially reduces the complexity of ZFBF by keeping the most significant entries in H and the preceding matrix W. We introduce a parameter p to control the sparsity of H and W and thus achieve the tradeoff between the computational complexity and the system throughput. The proposed algorithm includes dense and sparse preceding versions, providing quadratic and linear complexity, respectively, relative to the number of antennas. We present analysis and numerical evaluations to show that the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) increases linearly with p in dense precoding. In sparse preceding, we demonstrate the necessity of using directional antennas by both analysis and simulations. When the directional antenna gain increases, the resulting SIR increment in sparse precoding increases linearly with p, while the SIR of dense precoding is much less sensitive to changes in p. View full abstract»

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  • 10. Widely-linear beamforming and RF impairment suppression in massive antenna arrays

    Page(s): 383 - 397
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7096 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the sensitivity of massive antenna arrays and digital beamforming to radio frequency (RF) chain in-phase quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance is studied and analyzed. The analysis shows that massive antenna arrays are increasingly sensitive to such RF chain imperfections, corrupting heavily the radiation pattern and beamforming capabilities. Motivated by this, novel RF-aware digital beamforming methods are then developed for automatically suppressing the unwanted effects of the RF I/Q imbalance without separate calibration loops in all individual receiver branches. More specifically, the paper covers closed-form analysis for signal processing properties as well as the associated radiation and beamforming properties of massive antenna arrays under both systematic and random RF I/Q imbalances. All analysis and derivations in this paper assume ideal signals to be circular. The well-known minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamformer and a widely-linear (WL) extension of it, called WL-MVDR, are analyzed in detail from the RF imperfection perspective, in terms of interference attenuation and beamsteering. The optimum RF-aware WL-MVDR beamforming solution is formulated and shown to efficiently suppress the RF imperfections. Based on the obtained results, the developed solutions and in particular the RF-aware WL-MVDR method can provide efficient beamsteering and interference suppressing characteristics, despite of the imperfections in the RF circuits. This is seen critical especially in the massive antenna array context where the cost-efficiency of individual RF chains is emphasized. View full abstract»

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  • 11. Advanced sensing techniques of energy detection in cognitive radios

    Page(s): 19 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1229 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, spectrum sensing has been intensively studied as a key technology in realizing the cognitive radio. There have been advances in the performance of spectrum sensing through both multi-antenna and cooperative sensing schemes. In this paper, the performances and complicated scenarios of the latest spectrum sensing schemes are analytically compared and arranged into a technical tree while considering practical concerns. This paper will give a macroscopic view of spectrum sensing and will also provide insight into future spectrum sensing works. View full abstract»

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  • 12. The TOR data communication system

    Page(s): 415 - 420
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since the day the Internet became a common and reliable mechanism for communication and data transfer, security officers and enthusiasts rallied to enforce security standards on data transported over the globe. Whenever a user tries communicating with another recipient on the Internet, vital information is sent over different networks until the information is dropped, intercepted, or normally reaches the recipient. Critical information traversing networks is usually encrypted. In order to conceal the sender's identity, different implementations have proven successful ¿ one of which is the invention of anonymous networks. This paper thoroughly investigates one of the most common and existing techniques used during data communication for avoiding traffic analysis as well as assuring data integrity ¿ the onion router (TOR). The paper also scrupulously presents the benefits and drawbacks of TOR. View full abstract»

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  • 13. Linear-quadratic detectors for spectrum sensing

    Page(s): 485 - 492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spectrum sensing for cognitive-radio applications may use a matched-filter detector (in the presence of full knowledge of the signal that may be transmitted by the primary user) or an energy detector (when that knowledge is missing). An intermediate situation occurs when the primary signal is imperfectly known, in which case we advocate the use of a linear-quadratic detector. We show how this detector can be designed by maximizing its deflection, and, using moment-bound theory, we examine its robustness to the variations of the actual probability distribution of the inaccurately known primary signal. View full abstract»

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  • 14. Frequency domain channel estimation for MIMO SC-FDMA systems with CDM pilots

    Page(s): 447 - 457
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1722 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate the frequency domain channel estimation for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) single-carrier frequency-division multiple-access (SC-FDMA) systems. In MIMO SC-FDMA, code-division multiplexed (CDM) pilots such as cyclic-shifted Zadoff-Chu sequences have been adopted for channel estimation. However, most frequency domain channel estimation schemes were developed based on frequency-division multiplexing of pilots. We first develop a channel estimation error model by using CDM pilots, and then analyze the mean-square error (MSE) of various minimum MSE (MMSE) frequency domain channel estimation techniques. We show that the cascaded one-dimensional robust MMSE (C1D-RMMSE) technique is complexity-efficient, but it suffers from performance degradation due to the channel correlation mismatch when compared to the two-dimensional MMSE (2D-MMSE) technique. To improve the performance of C1D-RMMSE, we design a robust iterative channel estimation (RITCE) with a frequency replacement (FR) algorithm. After deriving the MSE of iterative channel estimation, we optimize the FR algorithm in terms of the MSE. Then, a low-complexity adaptation method is proposed for practical MIMO SC-FDMA systems, wherein FR is performed according to the reliability of the data estimates. Simulation results show that the proposed RITCE technique effectively improves the performance of C1D-RMMSE, thus providing a better performance-complexity tradeoff than 2D-MMSE. View full abstract»

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  • 15. Multi-objective handover in LTE macro/femto-cell networks

    Page(s): 578 - 587
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4631 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the key elements in the emerging, packet-based long term evolution (LTE) cellular systems is the deployment of multiple femtocells for the improvement of coverage and data rate. However, arbitrary overlaps in the coverage of these femto-cells make the handover operation more complex and challenging. As the existing handover strategy of LTE systems considers only carrier to interference plus noise ratio (CINR), it often suffers from resource constraints in the target femtocell, thereby leading to handover failure. In this paper, we propose a new efficient, multi-objective handover solution for LTE cellular systems. The proposed solution considers multiple parameters like signal strength and available bandwidth in the selection of the optimal target cell. This results in a significant increase in the handover success rate, thereby reducing the blocking of handover and new sessions. The overall handover process is modeled and analyzed by a three-dimensional Markov chain. The analytical results for the major performance metrics closely resemble the simulation results. The simulation results show that the proposed multi-objective handover offers considerable improvement in the session blocking rates, session queuing delay, handover latency, and goodput during handover. View full abstract»

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  • 16. Before/after precoding massive MIMO systems for cloud radio access networks

    Page(s): 398 - 406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate two types of in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) data transfer methods for cloud multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) network operation. They are termed “after-precoding” and “before-precoding”. We formulate a cloud massive MIMO operation problem that aims at selecting the best IQ data transfer method and transmission strategy (beamforming technique, the number of concurrently receiving users, the number of used antennas for transmission) to maximize the ergodic sum-rate under a limited capacity of the digital unit-radio unit link. Based on our proposed solution, the optimal numbers of users and antennas are simultaneously chosen. Numerical results confirm that the sum-rate gain is greater when adaptive “after/before-precoding” method is available than when only conventional “after-precoding” IQ-data transfer is available. View full abstract»

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  • 17. Smart grid cooperative communication with smart relay

    Page(s): 640 - 652
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many studies have investigated the smart grid architecture and communication models in the past few years. However, the communication model and architecture for a smart grid still remain unclear. Today's electric power distribution is very complex and maladapted because of the lack of efficient and cost-effective energy generation, distribution, and consumption management systems. A wireless smart grid communication system can playan important role in achieving these goals. In thispaper, we describe a smart grid communication architecture in which we merge customers and distributors into a single domain. In the proposed architecture, all the home area networks, neighborhood area networks, and local electrical equipment form a local wireless mesh network (LWMN). Each device or meter can act as a source, router, or relay. The data generated in any node (device/meter) reaches the data collector via other nodes. The data collector transmits this data via the access point of a wide area network (WAN). Finally, data is transferred to the service provider or to the control center of the smart grid. We propose a wireless cooperative communication model for the LWMN. We deploy a limited number of smart relays to improve the performance of the network. A novel relay selection mechanism is also proposed to reduce the relay selection overhead. Simulation results show that our cooperative smart grid (coopSG) communication model improves the end-to-end packet delivery latency, throughput, and energy efficiency over both the Wang et al. and Niyato et al. models. View full abstract»

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  • 18. Unlimited cooperative sensing with energy detection for cognitive radio

    Page(s): 172 - 182
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2374 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate the fundamental performance limits of the cooperative sensing using energy detection by considering the unlimited number of sensing nodes. Although a lot of cognitive radio research so far proposed various uses of energy detection because of its simplicity, the performance limits of energy detection have not been studied when a large number of sensing nodes exist. First, we show that when the sensing nodes see the independent and identically distributed channel conditions, then as the number of sensing nodes N goes to infinity, the OR rule of hard decision achieves zero of false alarm Pf for any given target probability of detection P̅ irrespective of the non-zero received primary user signal to noise ratio γ. Second, we show that under the same condition, when the AND rule of hard decision is used, there exists a lower bound of Pf. Interestingly, however, for given P̅, Pf goes to 1 as N goes to infinity. Third, we show that when the soft decision is used, there exists a way of achieving 100% utilization of secondary user, i.e., the sensing time overhead ratio goes to zero so does Pf. We verify our analyses by performing extensive simulations of the proposed unlimited cooperative sensing. Finally, we suggest a way of incorporating the unlimited cooperative sensing into a practical cellular system such as long term evolution-advanced by exploiting the existing frame structure of absolute blank subframe to implement the in-band sensing. View full abstract»

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  • 19. Call admission control based on adaptive bandwidth allocation for wireless networks

    Page(s): 15 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Provisioning of quality of service (QoS) is a key issue in any multi-media system. However, in wireless systems, supporting QoS requirements of different traffic types is a more challenging problem due to the need to simultaneously minimize two performance metrics - the probability of dropping a handover call and the probability of blocking a new call. Since QoS requirements are not as stringent for non-real-time traffic, as opposed to real-time traffic, more calls can be accommodated by releasing some bandwidth from the already admitted non-real-time traffic calls. If the released bandwidth that is used to handle handover calls is larger than the released bandwidth that is used for new calls, then the resulting probability of dropping a handover call is smaller than the probability of blocking a new call. In this paper, we propose an efficient call admission control algorithm that relies on adaptive multi-level bandwidth-allocation scheme for non-realtime calls. The scheme allows reduction of the call dropping probability, along with an increase in the bandwidth utilization. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme is capable of attaining negligible handover call dropping probability without sacrificing bandwidth utilization. View full abstract»

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  • 20. Cognitive routing for multi-hop mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Page(s): 155 - 161
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobility can lead to continual loss of data and service interruptions during communications in multi-hop cognitive radio networks. Mobility of primary users (PUs) or cognitive users (CUs) requires adjustment of multi-hop communications among CUs to avoid any interference to PUs. To provide durable and reliable data routing that ensures continuous network service, we propose mobility-aware cognitive routing (MCR) for multi-hop cognitive radio networks. MCR examines the risk level of each node against interference regions and selects the most reliable path for data delivery using a Markov predictor. Through simulation, we verify that the proposed scheme can avoid route destruction preemptively and achieve reliable data delivery. View full abstract»

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  • 21. Protocol-aware radio frequency jamming in Wi-Fi and commercial wireless networks

    Page(s): 397 - 406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (755 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio frequency (RF) jamming is a denial of service attack targeted at wireless networks. In resource-hungry scenarios with constant traffic demand, jamming can create connectivity problems and seriously affect communication. Therefore, the vulnerabilities of wireless networks must be studied. In this study, we investigate a particular type of RF jamming that exploits the semantics of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. This can be extended to any wireless communication network whose protocol characteristics and operating frequencies are known to the attacker. We propose two efficient jamming techniques: A low-data-rate random jamming and a shot-noise based protocol-aware RF jamming. Both techniques use shot-noise pulses to disrupt ongoing transmission ensuring they are energy efficient, and they significantly reduce the detection probability of the jammer. Further, we derived the tight upper bound on the duration and the number of shot-noise pulses for Wi-Fi, GSM, and WiMax networks. The proposed model takes consider the channel access mechanism employed at the MAC layer, data transmission rate, PHY/MAC layer modulation and channel coding schemes. Moreover, we analyze the effect of different packet sizes on the proposed jamming methodologies. The proposed jamming attack models have been experimentally evaluated for 802.11b networks on an actual testbed environment by transmitting data packets of varying sizes. The achieved results clearly demonstrate a considerable increase in the overall jamming efficiency of the proposed protocol-aware jammer in terms of packet delivery ratio, energy expenditure and detection probabilities over contemporary jamming methods provided in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • 22. On performance evaluation of hybrid decode-amplify-forward relaying protocol with partial relay selection in underlay cognitive networks

    Page(s): 502 - 511
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we evaluate performance of a hybrid decode-amplify-forward relaying protocol in underlay cognitive radio. In the proposed protocol, a secondary relay which is chosen by partial relay selection method helps a transmission between a secondary source and a secondary destination. In particular, if the chosen relay decodes the secondary source's signal successfully, it will forward the decoded signal to the secondary destination. Otherwise, it will amplify the signal received from the secondary source and will forward the amplified signal to the secondary destination. We evaluate the performance of our scheme via theory and simulation. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms the amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols in terms of outage probability. View full abstract»

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  • 23. Performance optimization of parallel algorithms

    Page(s): 436 - 446
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The high intensity of research and modeling in fields of mathematics, physics, biology and chemistry requires new computing resources. For the big computational complexity of such tasks computing time is large and costly. The most efficient way to increase efficiency is to adopt parallel principles. Purpose of this paper is to present the issue of parallel computing with emphasis on the analysis of parallel systems, the impact of communication delays on their efficiency and on overall execution time. Paper focuses is on finite algorithms for solving systems of linear equations, namely the matrix manipulation (Gauss elimination method, GEM). Algorithms are designed for architectures with shared memory (open multiprocessing, openMP), distributed-memory (message passing interface, MPI) and for their combination (MPI + openMP). The properties of the algorithms were analytically determined and they were experimentally verified. The conclusions are drawn for theory and practice. View full abstract»

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  • 24. Optimal number of users in zero-forcing based multiuser MIMO systems with large number of antennas

    Page(s): 362 - 369
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The optimal number of users achieving the maximum sum throughput is analyzed in zero-forcing (ZF) based multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with a large number of base station (BS) antennas. By utilizing deterministic ergodic sum rates for the ZF-beamforming (ZF-BF) and ZF-receiver (ZF-R) with a large number of BS antennas [1], [2], we can obtain the ergodic sum throughputs for the ZF-BF and ZF-R for the uplink and downlink frame structures, respectively. Then, we can also formulate and solve the optimization problems maximizing the ergodic sum throughputs with respect to the number of users. This paper shows that the approximate downlink sum throughput for the ZF-BF is a concave function and the approximate uplink sum throughput for the ZF-R is also a concave function in a feasible range with respect to the number of users. The simulation results verify the analyses and show that the derived numbersof users provide the maximum sum throughputs for the ZF-BF as well as ZF-R in multiuser MIMO systems with a large number of BS antennas. View full abstract»

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  • 25. Real-time white spectrum recognition for cognitive radio networks over TV white spaces

    Page(s): 238 - 244
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A key technical challenge in TV white spaces is the efficient spectrum usage without interfering with primary users. This paper considers available spectrum discovery scheme using in-band sensing signal to support super Wi-Fi services effectively. The proposed scheme in this paper adopts non-contiguous orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (NC-OFDM) to utilize the fragmented channel in TV white space due to microphones while this channel cannot be used in IEEE 802.11af. The proposed solution is a novel available spectrum discovery scheme by exploiting the advantages of a sensing signaling. The proposed method achieves considerable improvement in throughput and delay time. The proposed method can use more subcarriers for transmission by applying NC-OFDM in contrast with the conventional IEEE 802.11af standard. Moreover, the increased number of wireless microphones (WMs) hardly affects the throughput of the proposed method because our proposal only excludes some subcarriers used by WMs. Additionally, the proposed method can cut discovery time down to under 10 ms because it can find available channels in real time by exchanging sensing signal without interference to the WM. View full abstract»

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  • 26. Construction of structured q-ary LDPC codes over small fields using sliding-window method

    Page(s): 479 - 484
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the construction of cyclic and quasi-cyclic structured q-ary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a designated small field. The construction is performed with a pre-defined sliding-window, which actually executes the regular mapping from original field to the targeted field under certain parameters. Compared to the original codes, the new constructed codes can provide better flexibility in choice of code rate, code length and size of field. The constructed codes over small fields with code length from tenths to hundreds perform well with q-ary sum-product decoding algorithm (QSPA) over the additive white Gaussian noise channel and are comparable to the improved sphere-packing bound. These codes may found applications in wireless sensor networks (WSN), where the delay and energy are extremely constrained. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Fair power control using game theory with pricing scheme in cognitive radio networks

    Page(s): 183 - 192
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a payment-based power control scheme using non-cooperative game with a novel pricing function in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). The proposed algorithm considers the fairness of power control among second users (SUs) where the value of per SU' signal to noise ratio (SINR) or distance between SU and SU station is used as reference for punishment price setting. Due to the effect of uncertainty fading environment, the system is unable to get the link gain coefficient to control SUs' transmission power accurately, so the quality of service (QoS) requirements of SUs may not be guaranteed, and the existence of Nash equilibrium (NE) is not ensured. Therefore, an alternative iterative scheme with sliding model is presented for the non-cooperative power control game algorithm. Simulation results show that the pricing policy using SUs' SINR as price punishment reference can improve total throughput, ensure fairness and reduce total transmission power in CRNs. View full abstract»

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  • 28. HeNB-aided virtual-handover for range expansion in LTE femtocell networks

    Page(s): 312 - 320
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Home evolved Node-B (HeNB), also called a femtocell or a femto base station, is introduced to provide high data rate to indoor users. However, two main problems arise in femtocell networks: (1) Small coverage area of HeNB, which results in limited cell-splitting gain and ping-pong handover (HO) problems and (2) high inter-femtocell interference because HeNBs may be densely deployed in a small region. In this study, an efficient cooperation mechanism called an HeNB-aided virtual-HO (HaVHO) scheme is proposed to expand the coverage area of femtocells and to reduce inter-femtocell interference. The cooperation among neighbor HeNBs is exploited in HaVHO by enabling an HeNB to relay the data of its neighbor HeNB without an HO. The HaVHO procedure is compatible with the existing long term evolution specification, and the information exchange overhead in HaVHO is relatively low. To estimate the signal to interference plus noise ratio improvement, the area average channel state metric is proposed, and the amount of user throughput enhancement by HaVHO is derived. System-level simulation shows that HaVHO has a better performance than the other four schemes, such as lesser radio link failure, lesser ping-pong handover, lesser short-stay handover, and higher user throughput. View full abstract»

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  • 29. Power allocation framework for OFDMA-based decode-and-forward cellular relay networks

    Page(s): 559 - 567
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a framework for power allocation of downlink transmissions in orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based decode-and-forward cellular relay networks is investigated. We consider a system with a single base station communicating with multiple users assisted by multiple relays. The relays have limited power which must be divided among the users they support in order to maximize the data rate of the whole network. Advanced power allocation schemes are crucial for such networks. The optimal relay power allocation which maximizes the data rate is proposed as an upper bound, by finding the optimal power requirement for each user based on knapsack problem formulation. Then by considering the fairness, a new relay power allocation scheme, called weighted-based scheme, is proposed. Finally, an efficient power reallocation scheme is proposed to efficiently utilize the power and improve the data rate of the network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed power allocation schemes can significantly improve the data rate of the network compared to the traditional scheme. View full abstract»

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  • 30. An adaptive MAC protocol for wireless LANs

    Page(s): 311 - 321
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on contention-based medium access control (MAC) protocols used in wireless local area networks. We propose a novel MAC protocol called adaptive backoff tuning MAC (ABTMAC) based on IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF). In our proposed MAC protocol, we utilize a fixed transmission attempt rate and each node dynamically adjusts its backoff window size considering the current network status. We determined the appropriate transmission attempt rate for both cases where the request-to-send/clear-to-send mechanism was and was not employed. Robustness against performance degradation caused by the difference between desired and actual values of the attempt rate parameter is considered when setting it. The performance of the protocol is evaluated analytically and through simulations. These results indicate that a wireless network utilizing ABTMAC performs better than one using IEEE 802.11 DCF. View full abstract»

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  • 31. CFP scheduling for real-time service and energy efficiency in the industrial applications of IEEE 802.15.4

    Page(s): 87 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (773 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In industrial applications, sensor networks have to satisfy specified time requirements of exchanged messages. IEEE 802.15.4 defines the communication protocol of the physical and medium access control layers for wireless sensor networks, which support real-time transmission through guaranteed time slots (GTSs). In order to improve the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 in industrial applications, this paper proposes a new traffic scheduling algorithm for GTS. This algorithm concentrates on time-critical industrial periodic messages and determines the values of network and node parameters for GTS. It guarantees real-time requirements of periodic messages for industrial automation systems up to the order of tens to hundreds of milliseconds depending on the traffic condition of the network system. A series of simulation results are obtained to examine the validity of the scheduling algorithm proposed in this study. The simulation results show that this scheduling algorithm not only guarantees real-time requirements for periodic message but also improves the scalability, bandwidth utilization, and energy efficiency of the network with a slight modification of the existing IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. View full abstract»

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  • 32. Mobility-aware ad hoc routing protocols for networking mobile robot teams

    Page(s): 296 - 311
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile multi-robot teams are useful in many critical applications such as search and rescue. Explicit communication among robots in such mobile multi-robot teams is useful for the coordination of such teams as well as exchanging data. Since many applications for mobile robots involve scenarios in which communication infrastructure may be damaged or unavailable, mobile robot teams frequently need to communicate with each other via ad hoc networking. In such scenarios, low-overhead and energy-efficient routing protocols for delivering messages among robots are a key requirement. Two important primitives for communication are essential for enabling a wide variety of mobile robot applications. First, unicast communication (between two robots) needs to be provided to enable coordination and data exchange. Second, in many applications, group communication is required for flexible control, organization, and management of the mobile robots. Multicast provides a bandwidth-efficient communication method between a source and a group of robots. In this paper, we first propose and evaluate two unicast routing protocols tailored for use in ad hoc networks formed by mobile multi-robot teams: Mobile robot distance vector (MRDV) and mobile robot source routing (MRSR). Both protocols exploit the unique mobility characteristics of mobile robot networks to perform efficient routing. Our simulation study show that both MRDV and MRSR incur lower overhead while operating in mobile robot networks when compared to traditional mobile ad hoc network routing protocols such as DSR and AODV. We then propose and evaluate an efficient multicast protocol mobile robot mesh multicast (MRMM) for deployment in mobile robot networks. MRMM exploits the fact that mobile robots know what velocity they are instructed to move at and for what distance in building a long lifetime sparse mesh for group communication that is more efficient. Our results show that MRMM provides an efficient group communication me- hanism that can potentially be used in many mobile robot application scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • 33. An energy efficient localized topology control algorithm for wireless multihop networks

    Page(s): 371 - 377
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (579 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Localized topology control is attractive for obtaining reduced network graphs with desirable features such as sparser connectivity and reduced transmit powers. In this paper, we focus on studying how to prolong network lifetime in the context of localized topology control for wireless multi-hop networks. For this purpose, we propose an energy efficient localized topology control algorithm. In our algorithm, each node is required to maintain its one-hop neighborhood topology. In order to achieve long network lifetime, we introduce a new metric for characterizing the energy criticality status of each link in the network. Each node independently builds a local energy-efficient spanning tree for finding a reduced neighbor set while maximally avoiding using energy-critical links in its neighborhood for the local spanning tree construction. We present the detailed design description of our algorithm. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is deduced to be O(mlog n), where m and n represent the number of links and nodes in a node's one-hop neighborhood, respectively. Simulation results show that our algorithm significantly outperforms existing work in terms of network lifetime. View full abstract»

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  • 34. Clustering and communications scheduling in WSNs using mixed integer linear programming

    Page(s): 421 - 429
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of scheduling communications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to ensure battery preservation through the use of the sleeping mode of sensors. We propose a communication protocol for 1-hop WSNs and extend it to multi-hop WSNs through the use of a 1-hop clustering algorithm. We propose to schedule communications in each cluster in a virtual communication ring so as to avoid collisions. Since clusters are cliques, only one sensor can speak or listen in a cluster at a time, and all sensors need to speak in each of their clusters at least once to realize the communication protocol. We model this situation as a mathematical program. View full abstract»

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  • 35. Enhancing network service survivability in large-scale failure scenarios

    Page(s): 534 - 547
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large-scale failures resulting from natural disasters or intentional attacks are now causing serious concerns for communication network infrastructure, as the impact of large-scale network connection disruptions may cause significant costs for service providers and subscribers. In this paper, we propose a new framework for the analysis and prevention of network service disruptions in large-scale failure scenarios. We build dynamic deterministic and probabilistic models to capture the impact of regional failures as they evolve with time. A probabilistic failure model is proposed based on wave energy behaviour. Then, we develop a novel approach for preventive protection of the network in such probabilistic large-scale failure scenarios. We show that our method significantly improves uninterrupted delivery of data in the network and reduces service disruption times in large-scale regional failure scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Energy efficient cooperative LEACH protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 358 - 365
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (769 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop a low complexity cooperative diversity protocol for low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) based wireless sensor networks. A cross layer approach is used to obtain spatial diversity in the physical layer. In this paper, a simple modification in clustering algorithm of the LEACH protocol is proposed to exploit virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) based user cooperation. In lieu of selecting a single cluster-head at network layer, we proposed M cluster-heads in each cluster to obtain a diversity order of M in long distance communication. Due to the broadcast nature of wireless transmission, cluster-heads are able to receive data from sensor nodes at the same time. This fact ensures the synchronization required to implement a virtual MIMO based space time block code (STBC) in cluster-head to sink node transmission. An analytical method to evaluate the energy consumption based on BER curve is presented. Analysis and simulation results show that proposed cooperative LEACH protocol can save a huge amount of energy over LEACH protocol with same data rate, bit error rate, delay and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, this proposal can achieve higher order diversity with improved spectral efficiency compared to other virtual MIMO based protocols. View full abstract»

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  • 37. Optimal charging and discharging for multiple PHEVs with demand side management in vehicle-to-building

    Page(s): 662 - 671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (679 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be widely used in future transportation systems to reduce oil fuel consumption. Therefore, the electrical energy demand will be increased due to the charging of a large number of vehicles. Without intelligent control strategies, the charging process can easily overload the electricity grid at peak hours. In this paper, we consider a smart charging and discharging process for multiple PHEVs in a building's garage to optimize the energy consumption profile of the building. We formulate a centralized optimization problem in which the building controller or planner aims to minimize the square Euclidean distance between the instantaneous energy demand and the average demand of the building by controlling the charging and discharging schedules of PHEVs (or ‘users’). The PHEVs' batteries will be charged during low-demand periods and discharged during high-demand periods in order to reduce the peak load of the building. In a decentralized system, we design an energy cost-sharing model and apply a non-cooperative approach to formulate an energy charging and discharging scheduling game, in which the players are the users, their strategies are the battery charging and discharging schedules, and the utility function of each user is defined as the negative total energy payment to the building. Based on the game theory setup, we also propose a distributed algorithm in which each PHEV independently selects its best strategy to maximize the utility function. The PHEVs update the building planner with their energy charging and discharging schedules. We also show that the PHEV owners will have an incentive to participate in the energy charging and discharging game. Simulation results verify that the proposed distributed algorithm will minimize the peak load and the total energy cost simultaneously. View full abstract»

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  • 38. Distance aware intelligent clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 122 - 129
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy conservation is one of the most important issues for evaluating the performance of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Generally speaking, hierarchical clustering protocols such as LEACH, LEACH-C, EEEAC, and BCDCP are more efficient in energy conservation than flat routing protocols. However, these typical protocols still have drawbacks of unequal and high energy depletion in cluster heads (CHs) due to the different transmission distance from each CH to the base station (BS). In order to minimize the energy consumption and increase the network lifetime, we propose a new hierarchical routing protocol, distance aware intelligent clustering protocol (DAIC), with the key concept of dividing the network into tiers and selecting the high energy CHs at the nearest distance from the BS. We have observed that a considerable amount of energy can be conserved by selecting CHs at the nearest distance from the BS. Also, the number of CHs is computed dynamically to avoid the selection of unnecessarily large number of CHs in the network. Our simulation results showed that the proposed DAIC outperforms LEACH and LEACH-C by 63.28% and 36.27% in energy conservation respectively. The distance aware CH selection method adopted in the proposed DAIC protocol can also be adapted to other hierarchical clustering protocols for the higher energy efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Combined relay selection and cooperative beamforming for physical layer security

    Page(s): 364 - 373
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (995 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose combined relay selection and cooperative beamforming schemes for physical layer security. Generally, high operational complexity is required for cooperative beamforming with multiple relays because of the required information exchange and synchronization among the relays. On the other hand, while it is desirable to reduce the number of relays participating in cooperative beamforming because of the associated complexity problem, doing so may degrade the coding gain of cooperative beamforming. Hence, we propose combined relay selection and cooperative beamforming schemes, where only two of the available relays are selected for beamforming and data transmission. The proposed schemes introduce a selection gain which partially compensates for the decrease in coding gain due to limiting the number of participating relays to two. Both the cases where full and only partial channel state information are available for relay selection and cooperative beamforming are considered. Analytical and simulation results for the proposed schemes show improved secrecy capacities compared to existing physical layer security schemes employing cooperative relays. View full abstract»

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  • 40. Performance comparison of coherent and non-coherent detection schemes in LR-UWB system

    Page(s): 518 - 523
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents new coherent and non-coherent detection methods for the IEEE 802.15.4a low-rate ultra-wideband physical layer with forward error correction (FEC) coding techniques. The coherent detection method involving channel estimation is based on the correlation characteristics of the preamble signal. A coherent receiver uses novel iterated selective-rake (IT-SRAKE) to detect 2-bit data in a non-line-of-sight channel. The non-coherent detection method that does not involve channel estimation employs a 2-bit data detection scheme using modified transmitted reference pulse cluster (M-TRPC) methods. To compare the two schemes, we have designed an IT-SRAKE receiver and a M-TRPC receiver using an IEEE 802.15.4a physical layer. Simulation results show the performance of IT-SRAKE is better than that of the M-TRPC by 3–9 dB. View full abstract»

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  • 41. Channel prediction-based channel allocation scheme for multichannel cognitive radio networks

    Page(s): 209 - 216
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (753 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio (CR) has been proposed to solve the spectrum utilization problem by dynamically exploiting the unused spectrum. In CR networks, a spectrum selection scheme is an important process to efficiently exploit the spectrum holes, and an efficient channel allocation scheme must be designed to minimize interference to the primary network as well as to achieve better spectrum utilization. In this paper, we propose a multichannel selection algorithm that uses spectrum hole prediction to limit the interference to the primary network and to exploit channel characteristics in order to enhance channel utilization. The proposed scheme considers both the interference length and the channel capacity to limit the interference to primary users and to enhance system performance. By using the proposed scheme, channel utilization is improved whereas the system limits the collision rate of the CR packets. View full abstract»

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  • 42. A general framework for the optimization of energy harvesting communication systems with battery imperfections

    Page(s): 130 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy harvesting has emerged as a powerful technology for complementing current battery-powered communication systems in order to extend their lifetime. In this paper a general framework is introduced for the optimization of communication systems in which the transmitter is able to harvest energy from its environment. Assuming that the energy arrival process is known non-causally at the transmitter, the structure of the optimal transmission scheme, which maximizes the amount of transmitted data by a given deadline, is identified. Our framework includes models with continuous energy arrival as well as battery constraints. A battery that suffers from energy leakage is studied further, and the optimal transmission scheme is characterized for a constant leakage rate. View full abstract»

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  • 43. Flexible, extensible, and efficient VANET authentication

    Page(s): 574 - 588
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1083 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although much research has been conducted in the area of authentication in wireless networks, vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) pose unique challenges, such as real-time constraints, processing limitations, memory constraints, frequently changing senders, requirements for interoperability with existing standards, extensibility and flexibility for future requirements, etc. No currently proposed technique addresses all of the requirements for message and entity authentication in VANETs. After analyzing the requirements for viable VANET message authentication, we propose a modified version of TESLA, TESLA++, which provides the same computationally efficient broadcast authentication as TESLA with reduced memory requirements. To address the range of needs within VANETs we propose a new hybrid authentication mechanism, VANET authentication using signatures and TESLA++ (VAST), that combines the advantages of ECDSA signatures and TESLA++. Elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) signatures provide fast authentication and non-repudiation, but are computationally expensive. TESLA++ prevents memory and computation-based denial of service attacks. We analyze the security of our mechanism and simulate VAST in realistic highway conditions under varying network and vehicular traffic scenarios. Simulation results show that VAST outperforms either signatures or TESLA on its own. Even under heavy loads VAST is able to authenticate 100% of the received messages within 107ms. VANETs use certificates to achieve entity authentication (i.e., validate senders). To reduce certificate bandwidth usage, we use Hu et al.'s strategy of broadcasting certificates at fixed intervals, independent of the arrival of new entities. We propose a new certificate verification strategy that prevents denial of service attacks while requiring zero additional sender overhead. Our analysis shows that these solutions introduce a small d- lay, but still allow drivers in a worst case scenario over 3 seconds to respond to a dangerous situation. View full abstract»

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  • 44. Enhanced OLSR for defense against DOS attack in ad hoc networks

    Page(s): 31 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) refers to a network designed for special applications for which it is difficult to use a backbone network. In MANETs, applications are mostly involved with sensitive and secret information. Since MANET assumes a trusted environment for routing, security is a major issue. In this paper we analyze the vulnerabilities of a pro-active routing protocol called optimized link state routing (OLSR) against a specific type of denial-of-service (DOS) attack called node isolation attack. Analyzing the attack, we propose a mechanism called enhanced OLSR (EOLSR) protocol which is a trust based technique to secure the OLSR nodes against the attack. Our technique is capable of finding whether a node is advertising correct topology information or not by verifying its Hello packets, thus detecting node isolation attacks. The experiment results show that our protocol is able to achieve routing security with 45% increase in packet delivery ratio and 44% reduction in packet loss rate when compared to standard OLSR under node isolation attack. Our technique is light weight because it doesn't involve high computational complexity for securing the network. View full abstract»

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  • 45. Performance analysis of switching strategy in LTE-A heterogeneous networks

    Page(s): 292 - 300
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (991 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays, energy saving has become a hot topic and information and communication technology has become a major power consumer. In long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) networks, heterogeneous deployments of low-power nodes and conventional macrocells provide some new features, such as coverage extension, throughput enhancement, and load balancing. However, a large-scale deployment of low-power nodes brings substantial energy consumption and interference problems. In this paper, we propose a novel switching strategy (NS), which adaptively switches on or off some low-power nodes based on the instantaneous load of the system. It is compatible with the microcells' load balancing feature and can be easily implemented on the basis of existing LTE-A specifications. Moreover, we develop an analytical model for analyzing the performance of system energy consumption, block rate, throughput, and energy efficiency. The performance of NS is evaluated by comparison with existing strategies. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that NS not only has a low block rate, but also achieves a high energy efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • 46. CREEC: Chain routing with even energy consumption

    Page(s): 17 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1476 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A convergecast is a popular routing scheme in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in which every sensor node periodically forwards measured data along configured routing paths to a base station (BS). Prolonging lifetimes in energy-limited WSNs is an important issue because the lifetime of a WSN influences on its quality and price. Low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) was the first attempt at solving this lifetime problem in convergecast WSNs, and it was followed by other solutions including power efficient gathering in sensor information systems (PEGASIS) and power efficient data gathering and aggregation protocol (PEDAP). Our solution-chain routing with even energy consumption (CREEC)-solves this problem by achieving longer average life-times using two strategies: i) Maximizing the fairness of energy distribution at every sensor node and ii) running a feedback mechanism that utilizes a preliminary simulation of energy consumption to save energy for depleted sensor nodes. Simulation results confirm that CREEC outperforms all previous solutions such as LEACH, PEGASIS, PEDAP, and PEDAP-power aware (PA) with respect to the first node death and the aver- age lifetime. CREEC performs very well at all WSN sizes, BS distances and battery capacities with an increased convergecast delay. View full abstract»

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  • 47. Formal modeling and verification of an enhanced variant of the IEEE 802.11 CSMA/CA protocol

    Page(s): 385 - 396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a formal method for modeling and checking an enhanced version of the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance protocol related to the IEEE 802.11 MAC layer, which has been proposed as the standard protocol for wireless local area networks. We deal mainly with the distributed coordination function (DCF) procedure of this protocol throughout a sequence of transformation steps. First, we use the unified modeling language state machines to thoroughly capture the behavior of wireless stations implementing a DCF, and then translate them into the input language of the UPPAAL model checking tool, which is a network of communicating timed automata. Finally, we proceed by checking of some of the safety and liveness properties, such as deadlock-freedom, using this tool. View full abstract»

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  • 48. Intrusion detection scheme using traffic prediction for wireless industrial networks

    Page(s): 310 - 318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1500 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Detecting intrusion attacks accurately and rapidly in wireless networks is one of the most challenging security problems. Intrusion attacks of various types can be detected by the change in traffic flow that they induce. Wireless industrial networks based on the wireless networks for industrial automation-process automation (WIA-PA) standard use a superframe to schedule network communications. We propose an intrusion detection system for WIA-PA networks. After modeling and analyzing traffic flow data by time-sequence techniques, we propose a data traffic prediction model based on autoregressive moving average (ARMA) using the time series data. The model can quickly and precisely predict network traffic. We initialized the model with data traffic measurements taken by a 16-channel analyzer. Test results show that our scheme can effectively detect intrusion attacks, improve the overall network performance, and prolong the network lifetime. View full abstract»

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  • 49. Secure communication in multiple relay networks through decode-and-forward strategies

    Page(s): 352 - 363
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1042 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study the role of cooperative relays to provide and improve secure communication rates through decode-and-forward (DF) strategies in a full-duplex multiple relay network with an eavesdropper. We consider the DF scheme as a basis for cooperation and propose several strategies that implement different versions of this scheme suited for cooperation with multiple relays. Our goal is to give an efficient cooperation paradigm based on the DF scheme to provide and improve secrecy in a multiple relay network. We first study the DF strategy for secrecy in a single relay network. We propose a suboptimal DF with zero forcing (DF/ZF) strategy for which we obtain the optimal power control policy. Next, we consider the multiple relay problem. We propose three different strategies based on DF/ZF and obtain their achievable secrecy rates. The first strategy is a single hop strategy whereas the other two strategies are multiple hop strategies. In the first strategy, we show that it is possible to eliminate all the relays' signals from the eavesdropper's observation (full ZF), however, the achievable secrecy rate is limited by the worst source-relay channel. Our second strategy overcomes the drawback of the first strategy, however, with the disadvantage of enabling partial ZF only. Our third strategy provides a reasonable compromise between the first two strategies. That is, in this strategy, full ZF is possible and the rate achieved does not suffer from the drawback of the first strategy. We conclude our study by a set of numerical results to illustrate the performance of each of the proposed strategies in terms of the achievable rates in different practical scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • 50. An efficient throughput improvement through bandwidth awareness in cognitive radio networks

    Page(s): 146 - 154
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (678 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a bandwidth-aware localized-routing algorithm that is capable of sensing the available spectrum bands within a two-hop neighboring for choosing the highly opportunistic routes. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is utilized to formulate the optimization problem. Then, the proposed algorithm is used to determine the maximum bandwidth possible of link pairs via a bandwidth approximation process of relaxed variables. Thereby, the proposed algorithm can allow selected routes corresponding to maximum bandwidth possible between cognitive radio (CR) users through link pairs in cognitive radio networks. By comparing the solution values to previous works, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can offer a closed-optimal solution for routing performance in cognitive radio networks. The contribution of this paper is achieved through approximately 50% throughput utilized in the network. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Communications and Networks is published six times per year, and is committed to publishing high-quality papers that advance the state-of-the-art and practical applications of communications and information networks.

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Editor-in-Chief
H. Vincent Poor
Princeton University