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Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE

Popular Articles (November 2014)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. Recent advances in MEMS sensor technology – biomedical applications

    Page(s): 8 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) use microminiature sensors and actuators. MEMS technology provides the benefits of small size, low weight, high performance, easy mass-production and low cost. This article is the first part of a three-part series on MEMS sensors. In the present article, we provide a general introduction to MEMS sensing and the primary sensing techniques. Next, MEMS-based bio-medical sensors are explained. We consider MEMS devices that are: designed to detect triglycerides, c-reactive protein, and glucose, respectively; bio-inspired robotic fingers with tissue softness characterization sensors for pressure measurement during surgical procedures; for counting blood cells; acoustic sensors for 2-D sound source localization; pressure measurement sensors on the wings of an insect-like flying robot; and ultra-miniature sensors for intramuscular pressure measurement. The second part of the series will be dedicated to mechanical sensors. There, some related technologies of MEMS sensors will be discussed including compensation for environmental effects, the Casimir effect, and harvesting of energy for self-powered sensors. Also, the subject of sensor selection will be addressed. The third part will treat MEMS sensing in the thermo-fluid and electro-magnetic domains. View full abstract»

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  • 2. An introduction to I2C and SPI protocols

    Page(s): 8 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, at the low end of the communication protocols we find the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) and the serial peripheral interface (SPI) protocols. Both protocols are well suited for communications between integrated circuits for slow communication with on-board peripherals. The two protocols coexist in modern digital electronics systems, and they probably will continue to compete in the future, as both I2C and SPI are actually quite complementary for this kind of communication. View full abstract»

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  • 3. Recent advances in MEMS sensor technology-mechanical applications

    Page(s): 14 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is the second of a three-part series on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor technology. In the first part, a general introduction to MEMS sensing was given, including its underlying principles [1]. Biomedical MEMS sensors were also described by reviewing the principles of bio-sensing and describing a typical set of biologically inspired sensors. In this part, mechanical sensors for displacement, acceleration, impact, vibration, force and torque, and stress and strain are discussed. Various applications of these sensors include high-g measurement, study of golf swing dynamics, vibration control of space inflatable structures, force and torque measurement in micro-robots, bone stress monitoring, metrology, and characterization of nano-scale structures. Some related technologies of MEMS sensors are discussed including compensation for environmental effects, the Casimir effect, and harvesting of energy for self-powered sensors. Also, the subject of sensor selection is addressed. Part 3 of the series will present MEMS sensing in the thermo-fluid and electromagnetic domains. View full abstract»

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  • 4. A brief overview of weather radar technologies and instrumentation

    Page(s): 10 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB)  

    Weather radar technologies and instrumentation play a vital role in early warning of severe weather. For example, the annual impacts of adverse weather on the U.S. national highway system and roads are staggering: 7,400 weather-related deaths and 1.5 million weather-related crashes [1]. In addition, US$4.2 billion is lost each year as a result of air traffic delays attributed to weather. Research on high-impact weather is broadly motivated by society's need to improve the prediction of these weather events. The research approaches to accomplish this goal vary significantly with the inherent predictability of the weather system. For example, the current forecast approaches for issuing warnings of short-lived events, such as tornadoes and flash floods, are primarily based on observations with a focus on advanced Doppler radar measurements. View full abstract»

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  • 5. Software testing

    Page(s): 48 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (321 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are several types of software testing that are widely used in the current IT world. This paper explain some of these types of tests and describes the author's experiences with them. When a tester knows what type of testing is needed, it greatly improves the test results and ultimately decreases the number of defects. Test methods covered include glass box testing, black box testing, system testing, database testing, and security testing, and test team selection is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • 6. Detecting motor bearing faults

    Page(s): 30 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-phase induction motors are the workhorses of industry because of their widespread use. They are used extensively for heating, cooling, refrigeration, pumping, conveyors, and similar applications. They offer users simple, rugged construction, easy maintenance, and cost-effective pricing. These factors have promoted standardization and development of a manufacturing infrastructure that has led to a vast installed base of motors; more than 90% of all motors used in industry worldwide are ac induction motors. Causes of motor failures are bearing faults, insulation faults, and rotor faults. Early detection of bearing faults allows replacement of the bearings, rather than replacement of the motor. The same type of bearing defects that plague such larger machines as 100 hp are mirrored in lower hp machines which has the same type of bearings. Even though the replacement of defective bearings is the cheapest fix among the three causes of failure, it is the most difficult one to detect. Motors that are in continuous use cannot be stopped for analysis. We have developed a circuit monitor for these motors. Incipient bearing failures are detectable by the presence of characteristic machine vibration frequencies associated with the various modes of bearing failure. We will show that circuit monitors that we developed can detect these frequencies using wavelet packet decomposition and a radial basis neural network. This device monitors an induction motor's current and defines a bearing failure. View full abstract»

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  • 7. Real time vision for intelligent vehicles

    Page(s): 22 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors first discuss the Intelligent StopandGo system, a sophisticated cruise control that autonomously follows a lead vehicle, pays attention to the relevant elements of the traffic infrastructure, and accounts for other traffic participants. The Intelligent StopandGo represents a multiyear effort by DaimlerChrysler to build a sophisticated cruise control that can function on highways, on secondary roads, and in urban environments. It combines the following capabilities: extracting lane boundaries, even when they are not clearly marked and do not contain the typical structure of highways; detecting a vehicle that can be followed, estimating ifs distance, speed, and acceleration; detecting stationary obstacles, such as parked cars, which limit the available free space; recognising the traffic signs and traffic lights that are relevant; and detecting and classifying additional traffic participants, such as pedestrians, who might cut in between the lead vehicle and the host vehicle. The DaimlerChrysIer demonstrator Urban Traffic Assistant (UTA) has devoted special attention to information, warning, and assistant functions in an inner-city environment. UTA is an E-class Mercedes-Bent containing sensors for longitudinal speed, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, yaw and pitch rate, and the sfeering wheel angle. It is equipped with a stereo black-and-white camera system as well as a color camera. UTA has access to throttle, brake, and steering. Furthermore, it displays the results of the perceptual modules in a graphical environment from either the driver's perspective or a virtual viewpoint. The computer hardware in UTA comprises three 400-MHz Linux/Pentium II (SMP) PCs for the perception of the environment and one Lynx/604e PowerPC for the control of sensors and actuators View full abstract»

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  • 8. Japan's superconducting Maglev train

    Page(s): 9 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a Maglev train under the guidance of the Japanese Ministry of Transport. The Maglev train is an advanced train that can run more than 500 km/h with a linear synchronous motor (LSM) that has both a superconducting magnet on board and an armature coil in the ground. The Maglev train was tested on the Yamanashi Maglev test line. Tests began in 1997, which exercised various functions of performance. The main results of the tests are reported in this article View full abstract»

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  • 9. ADC parameters and characteristics

    Page(s): 44 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, most of the signal processing performed in electronic systems is digital, and the performance of the analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) present at the borders of the digital domain become very important. The most recent applications in telecommunication, measurement, and consumer electronics call for ever-increasing ADC resolution and speed. The uncertainty of ADC performance strongly affects overall system accuracy. Both manufacturers and system integrators are intensely concerned with ADC performance. View full abstract»

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  • 10. Measurement-based performance analysis of wind energy systems

    Page(s): 15 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wind measurements for identifying and characterizing wind resources require instrumentation and analysis techniques for defining signal processing features for gusts, turbulence, and inflow winds. This paper describes the importance of those features for determining responses of wind turbines. In addition, when the system is deployed, the instrumentation that must be coordinated to manage the utility connection requirements, such as assessing reactive power supply, fault ride-through, and power quality monitoring, is also discussed. The control schemes for wind energy generation systems are discussed and associated with the system signal processing required to control active power generation. View full abstract»

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  • 11. Thermal performance of CMOS-SOI transistors from weak to strong inversion

    Page(s): 28 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2082 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A promising solution to continue the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) scaling roadmap at the 22 nm technology node and beyond is CMOS-silicon on insulator (SOI), which is used especially in low-power and "system on chip" applications. CMOS-SOI involves building conventional MOSFETs on very thin layers of crystalline silicon. The thin layer of silicon is separated from the substrate by a thick layer of buried SiO2 film, thus isolating the devices from the underlying silicon substrate and from each other. CMOS-SOI technology is already a leading technology in a wide range of applications where integrated CMOS-SOI-microelectromechanical systems or nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) technologies provide unique sensing systems for IR and terahertz (THz) imagers. CMOS-SOI technology is traditionally classified into partially depleted (when the silicon device layer is thicker than the maximum gate depletion width) and fully depleted devices (when the device layer is fully depleted before the threshold voltage is reached). It may also be classified, like all CMOS technology, according to the minimal channel length, Lmin. This study focuses on partially depleted 0.18 RF CMOS-SOI technologies [4] with emphasis on the weak and strong inversion regions. This process is suitable for mixed-signal design because of its maturity and relatively low cost, while the methodology and results presented here may be extended to any advanced CMOS-SOI nano-transistors. The results of this study may provide a systematic approach to assessing the thermal behavior of CMOS-SOI transistors operating in a wide range of temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • 12. Integration of photovoltaic solar power - the quest towards dispatchability

    Page(s): 21 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Existing photovoltaic (PV) power plants impact the power grid in a negative way due to a lack of voltage regulation, energy storage, forecasting and wide-area communications, measurement, and control. Currently utility- scale distributed solar PV plants on distribution networks have nominal capacities that are compatible with distribution substation MVA ratings e.g., between 5 and 30 MW. Furthermore, PV plants in the 30 to 100 MW power range are currently integrated in transmission networks. The system impacts are discussed, and mitigation solutions are proposed using advanced power converters, energy storage systems, as well as local and remote measurements and forecasting options. Case studies are provided. View full abstract»

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  • 13. Hydro energy generation and instrumentation & measurement: hydropower plant efficiency testing

    Page(s): 10 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hydroelectric turbine-generator units are equipped with different types of permanent monitoring sensors mainly for maintenance and safety but not for the efficiency measurement. Acceptance tests such as the efficiency measurement require additional precision instrumentation. Several measurement techniques exist to perform the testing and making the choice depends on the power plant configuration and the instrumentation capability. The best method is the one that is the easiest to implement for the given turbine-generator unit and that gives reliable results. Although performed on site, the accuracy requirements for these tests are very stringent and are key factors for the successful completion of tests and their acceptance from both the manufacturer and the end user. Finally, measuring the efficiency of a hydraulic generating unit is essential for the optimization of its operation, which means more electrical energy and revenue for the same amount of water. View full abstract»

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  • 14. Load cells in force sensing analysis -- theory and a novel application

    Page(s): 15 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Load cells have long been used to sense and measure force and torque. When properly designed and used, they are very accurate and reliable sensors. Load cells are applied in several different fields, usually for weighing measurements. Among many other things, food, vehicles, and animals are weighed daily with load cells. The gripper of a robotic arm that picks up an object can be equipped with load cells in order to provide compression force feedback to the control system to prevent the object from being damaged or released too early. Also, load cells can be used to sense the compression forces during a robot's walk to provide data for the equilibrium-controlling system. In industrial machinery, rods, beams, wheels and bars are instrumented in order to check the forces exerted on them. The volume or level of a tank can be measured indirectly by means of a load cell that monitors the total weight. Lift units can also have a load's total weight measured to prevent overload. Because of such a variety of possible applications, load cells are very important. This paper describes some of the theory and practice of load cells, including their basic elements and the electronics necessary for measurement. As an application example, the development of a 3-ring spherical load cell is presented which can be used to measure compression forces on fruit during storage and transportation is presented. View full abstract»

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  • 15. Measurements and sensors for motion tracking in motor rehabilitation

    Page(s): 30 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a brief overview of the commercial solutions and the research proposals for measuring the patient's movements, and is organized as follows. In Section 1, a review of laboratory measurement equipment for the patient's mobility evaluation will be described. In Sections 2 and 3, some proposals of portable measurement systems, used to monitor the patient or track his/her progresses during the treatment at home and in clinical environments, are presented and discussed. The measurement methods presented are marker-based motion capture and analysis systems, marker-less motion capture and analysis systems, robot-based and exoskeleton systems, vision systems and virtual reality, and personal motion measurement systems based on sensor networks. View full abstract»

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  • 16. Understanding IEEE 1451-Networked smart transducer interface standard - What is a smart transducer?

    Page(s): 11 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article introduces the IEEE 1451 standard for networked smart transducers. It discusses the concepts of smart transducers, IEEE 1451 smart transducers, the architecture of the IEEE 1451 family of standards, application of IEEE 1451, and example implementations of the IEEE 1451 standards. In conclusion, the IEEE 1451 suite of standards provides a set of standard interfaces for networked smart transducers, helping to achieve sensor plug and play and interoperability for industry and government. View full abstract»

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  • 17. Genetic algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    Page(s): 26 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2094 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Engineers and scientists use instrumentation and measurement equipment to obtain information for specific environments, such as temperature and pressure. This task can be performed manually using portable gauges. However, there are many instances in which this approach may be impractical; when gathering data from remote sites or from potentially hostile environments. In these applications, autonomous navigation methods allow a mobile robot to explore an environment independent of human presence or intervention. The mobile robot contains the measurement device and records the data then either transmits it or brings it back to the operator. Sensors are required for the robot to detect obstacles in the navigation environment, and machine intelligence is required for the robot to plan a path around these obstacles. The use of genetic algorithms is an example of machine intelligence applications to modern robot navigation. Genetic algorithms are heuristic optimization methods, which have mechanisms analogous to biological evolution. This article provides initial insight of autonomous navigation for mobile robots, a description of the sensors used to detect obstacles and a description of the genetic algorithms used for path planning. View full abstract»

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  • 18. The mathematical theory of evidence and measurement uncertainty

    Page(s): 39 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    The concept of measurement uncertainty and the way it should be treated are considered by the "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement," known as GUM that follows an intrinsically probabilistic approach. Presently, the GUM has been universally accepted and its recommendations followed to associate an uncertainty value to the measured value. For this reason, in this paper, we start from the GUM and its fundamental concepts and definitions to introduce an interesting and promising generalization of these same concepts in terms of Theory of Evidence. View full abstract»

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  • 19. Testing nacelles of wind turbines with a hardware in the loop test bench

    Page(s): 26 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1134 KB)  

    Testing of wind energy converters (WEC) at ground level in contrast to an in-field setup has increased in the last years. As it is an approach which is fundamentally different to in field-testing, it requires significant modifications of the measurement environment and the layout of the sensor system. To increase the reliability of WECs, a detailed investigation of the status of various electrical and mechanical values is necessary because good condition monitoring guarantees a well-controlled state of the turbine in the desired point of operation. This leads to an appropriate maintenance strategy that enhances the lifetime of the WEC. Crucial physical values can be identified easier at ground level testing than with an in-field setup. This article addresses the realization of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) concepts on signal and power level for the use in WEC nacelle testing. Moreover, the functionality of the 1 MW demonstrator test bench operating in HIL mode with a DUT controlled by the original nacelle controller is shown. View full abstract»

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  • 20. Automatic noninvasive measurement of arterial blood pressure

    Page(s): 32 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discussed arterial blood pressure measurement. Because of the high rate of hypertension in the adult population and its harmful effects, the measurement of arterial blood pressure is of great clinical significance. Manual sphygmomanometry, developed more than a hundred years ago, is currently the most accurate non-invasive technique for arterial blood pressure measurement. Since manual sphygmomanometry requires a well-trained examiner, only single measurements of blood pressure will generally be performed by a physician during a given visit. This single measurement only provides partial information since blood pressure changes spontaneously. The available automatic blood pressure meters, mainly based on oscillometry, can be used at home but some of them are of low accuracy. A direct technique for the measurement of systolic blood pressure by means of the detection of the blood pressure pulses' reappearance during cuff deflation has the potential to provide accurate automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure. View full abstract»

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  • 21. WirelessHART field devices

    Page(s): 20 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the Wireless Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (WirelessHART, WH) Protocol which has evolved from the HART Protocol is presented. It is one of the most prominent industrial wireless mesh network communications protocols for process automation applications. We describe how the protocol copes with RF link difficulties. A case study of the network behavior is given using a previously developed FD with commercial tools and analysis software developed by the authors for use in industry to obtain network data. View full abstract»

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  • 22. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Page(s): 33 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4543 KB)  

    In this article, we examine prognostics and health management (PHM) issues using battery health management of Gen 2 cells, an 18650-size lithium-ion cell, as a test case. We will show where advanced regression, classification, and state estimation algorithms have an important role in the solution of the problem and in the data collection scheme for battery health management that we used for this case study. View full abstract»

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  • 23. Measurement science: constructing bridges between reality and knowledge

    Page(s): 6 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    In this paper, we propose an explanation of the crucial role of measurement in our society by describing measurement as a bridge between the empirical world and the information world. We describe measurement science as built upon this feature, and we discuss its basic motivation and scope accordingly. View full abstract»

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  • 24. Optical pressure measurement: using fiber optic transducers in hypersonic flight vehicles

    Page(s): 38 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The supersonic combustor of a hypersonic engine is a harsh environment in which to apply close-coupled sensors. While fiber optic sensors have some inherent advantages over conventional electronic sensors, the first challenge was to design a fiber optic connector that could support the application of fiber optic sensors. We have designed a high-temperature fiber optic connector that will allow the placement of a fiber optic sensor into the wall of a high-temperature pressure vessel such as the DCR combustor. This connector has proven versatile enough to support monitoring of the ignition status of the combustor via looking at the spectral content of the flame. Additional information about the combustion process can be obtained by using multiple fibers and multiple detectors with different wavelength sensitivities or by connecting the fiber to a spectrometer. We have also shown that two different fiber optic transducer manufacturers, using two different fiber optic sensing technologies, can produce fiber optic pressure transducers that can be installed inside of the high-temperature fiber optic connector. These pressure transducers were closely coupled to the combustor and have successfully monitored the combustor pressure during short ground tests. The transducers used for these tests were modifications of standard designs by Fiso Technologies and Optrand Inc. The small size of the fiber optic pressure transducers and their high-temperature capability allowed them to be applied in locations where the application of conventional strain gauge transducers is not possible. Such close coupling of the transducers allowed observation of phenomena not seen with prior existing instrumentation. Both of the transducers furnished useful data; however, optimization of the transducers was not possible under the scope of this program. It should be noted that the hypersonic DCR tests are short ground tests using heat sink model hardware. The optical sensors have not yet been proven in a flight environment, where the run times will be longer and the combustor temperatures will be higher. We must perform additional work to make them ready for flight tests. View full abstract»

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  • 25. The Potential of Haptics Technologies

    Page(s): 10 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In spite of the significant recent progress, the incorporation of haptics into virtual environments is still in its infancy due to limitations in the hardware, the cost of development, as well as the level of reality they provide. Nonetheless, we believe that the field will one day be one of the groundbreaking media of the future. It has its current holdups but the promise of the future is worth the wait. The technology is becoming cheaper and applications are becoming more forthcoming and apparent. If we can survive this infancy, it will promise to be an amazing revolution in the way we interact with computers and the virtual world. The researchers organize the rapidly increasing multidisciplinary research of haptics into four subareas: human haptics, machine haptics, computer haptics, and multimedia haptics View full abstract»

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  • 26. The mathematical theory of evidence and measurement uncertainty - Expression and combination of measurement results via the random-fuzzy variables

    Page(s): 36 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1145 KB)  

    In a previous paper [1], it was proved how total ignorance can be effectively represented, in Shafer's theory of evidence [2], by a rectangular possibility distribution. In addition, it was shown how this concept can be usefully employed to mathematically represent situations that are often met in the measurement practice, especially in the industrial world [3]. The aim of this new paper is to show how possibility distributions can be effectively used to represent any kind of knowledge, from total ignorance to total evidence, and combine different contributions, if necessary. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 14 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Aging and degradation of transportation infrastructure pose significant safety concerns, especially in light of increased use of these structures. The economic downturn further exacerbates such concerns, especially for critical structures such as bridges, where replacement is infeasible and maintenance and repair are expensive. The US Federal Highway Administration has classified over 25% of the bridges in the United States as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete, underscoring the importance of structural health monitoring (SHM) to ensure public safety. We give an overview of emerging wireless sensor networks (WSN) for autonomous SHM systems, their application, the power use and sources needed to support autonomy, and the type of communication that allows remote monitoring. View full abstract»

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  • 28. Recent advances in MEMS sensor technology—thermo-fluid and electro-magnetic devices

    Page(s): 16 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is the final part of a three-part series on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor technology. In the first part, a general introduction to MEMS sensing was given including the underlying principles [1]. Biomedical MEMS sensors were described and the principles of bio-sensing in a typical set of biologically inspired sensors were presented. The second part discussed mechanical sensors and their applications [2]. Some important issues of MEMS sensors were addressed, including the need to compensate for environmental effects, the Casimir effect, harvesting of energy for self-powered sensors, and the subject of sensor selection. View full abstract»

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  • 29. Marine energy generation systems and related monitoring and control

    Page(s): 27 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy is very important to the world as a driver of the modern society. According to estimations done by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the total global energy consumption is about 17 500 TW·h/yr [1]. In the past, fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas supplied the biggest part of this global consumption, and they were far larger than those of the renewable energy sources as Fig. 1 shows for 1973 [2]. In 2011, the production of renewable energy and global energy consumption increased, even though renewable energy was still much smaller than fossil fuels as Fig. 1 shows. [2]. View full abstract»

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  • 30. A DIY pipelined analog to digital converter that utilizes compressive sensing

    Page(s): 46 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reading about things is all fine and good, but the best way to understand a concept is to put it into practice. After years of one of us (Shlomo) teaching about analog to digital converters (ADCs) and digital to analog converters (DACs) in general, pipelined ADCs in particular, and discussing, experimenting with, and writing about compressive sensing, the time had come to build a sensor that utilizes all of these technologies. View full abstract»

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  • 31. The significance of energy storage for renewable energy generation and the role of instrumentation and measurement

    Page(s): 34 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (623 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy storage is not a new concept but is gaining importance in the context of the energy transition paradigm. It is expected to play a key role in future electric power systems as the growing development of renewable energy resources and their increasing share in the energy mix introduce significant challenges to the existing power grid due to the high variability of these sources and loads. With competitive energy storage, it will be possible to introduce more flexibility in the electrical system. View full abstract»

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  • 32. Cardiac pacemakers: past, present and future

    Page(s): 21 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pacemakers were the first active implantable devices. Being so commonly known nowadays, their use has been integrated to our daily lives, like the use of the aspirin or antibiotics. Only 60 years ago, people with heart diseases would have a very poor life quality or even died but ever since the use of pacemakers several heart diseases are not life threatening anymore. In this article, I present basic concepts about the physiology of the heart, the history of the development of cardiac pacemakers, and the characteristics of today's pacemaker designs. View full abstract»

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  • 33. What is virtual instrumentation?

    Page(s): 10 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)  

    A virtual instrument is composed of some specialized subunits, some general-purpose computers, some software, and a little know-how. The instrument no longer has to be in one box. Virtual instruments can be simple or very complex. Understanding the real field of virtual instrumentation is just beginning. Over the next few years, there will be a rash of subunits specifically designed for the virtual instrumentation market. These will provide the building blocks for the next generation of field instrumentation and measurement. View full abstract»

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  • 34. Weather Forecasting [Legalmetrology]

    Page(s): 60 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB)  

    Even if we do not know the exact cause nor the real extent, we are experiencing climatic changes that may be contributing to extreme weather events. In the United States, rising ocean temperatures contributed to the destructive power of hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, while in Europe, increased rainfall led to recent flooding in the UK, France, and Italy. Although it is impossible to say that climate change actually caused any of these events, computer models indicate that we should see more extreme weather in the future. View full abstract»

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  • 35. Inkjet-printed sensors: a useful approach for low cost, rapid prototyping [Instrumentation Notes]

    Page(s): 36 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over the past ten years, the development of low cost graphic technology-based sensors has been proceeding rapidly. The use of innovative materials and substrates has also picked up momentum. The interest in such sensors is justified by the need for both low cost, rapid prototyping techniques for research laboratories and mass-production processes for the realization of very low cost devices. Examples of addressed devices are RFID tags, antennas, keyboards, displays and especially sensors. The rapid prototyping of inexpensive devices and sensors by printing technologies is of great importance for the everyday activities of the scientific community including research laboratories and academia. View full abstract»

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  • 36. The smartphone-enabled DMM

    Page(s): 47 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB)  

    The digital multimeter (DMM) is pervasive among technicians, engineers, and do-it-yourselfers. For a very small amount of money, one can obtain an instrument that measures dc and ac voltage, current, and resistance. DMMs have seen modest improvement since the original instruments, with advances in accuracy and improved features due primarily to advances in microelectronic integration. With the advent of smartphones, we see another possibility for advancement in DMMs. The two primary advantages of a smartphone-enabled DMM are compact size due to using the smartphone as the display and the opportunity for customized user interfaces for specific applications. In this article, we develop a prototype pen-style DMM that uses Bluetooth to communicate with an Apple iPhone. View full abstract»

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  • 37. Software testing for safety critical applications

    Page(s): 38 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (986 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Software quality indicates how well the software product complies with the user requirements. Safety-critical applications in industrial automation such as industrial measurement and instrument software pose unique concerns for software quality due to its demanding requirements on system performance. Effective software testing can ensure the software quality as well as help the developer garner customer kudos for high-quality software. In this article, various issues on industrial measurement and instrument software testing are discussed. (Code inspections and audits are complementary activities to software testing and are very effective. This article addresses only testing; it does not address code inspections and review). View full abstract»

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  • 38. Frequency-domain measurement of 60 GHz indoor channels: a measurement setup, literature data, and analysis

    Page(s): 34 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Despite the unique capability of 60-GHz technology to offer a multi-gigabit rate and a huge unlicensed bandwidth (up to 7 GHz), a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its full deployment. The system performance of capacity, coverage, and throughput need to be well understood. All of these are based on characterizing the propagation channel and establishing realistic channel models of wireless systems [1]. Many researchers have reported on propagation studies of indoor channels at 60 GHz using frequency-domain measurements. However, details are scarce in the literature on whether different indoor environments and different frequency-domain measurement setups affect the measurement results in the millimeter-wave frequency band. This article explains the setup details of time resolution, spatial resolution, and windowing, then summarizes and analyzes frequency-domain measurement results selected from important research [2]-[9]. The mean path loss model and the average cumulative distribution function of a root mean squared (rms) delay spread are proposed and compared using measured results from the literature to describe the complete channel characteristics of indoor environments at 60 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Camera as the instrument: the rising trend of vision based measurement

    Page(s): 41 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article we gave an overview of vision-based measurement (VBM), its various components, and uncertainty in the correct IM (instrumentation and measurement) metrological perspective. VBM is a fast rising technology due to the increasing affordability and capability of camera and computing hardware/software. While originally a specialized application, VBM is expected to become more ubiquitous in our everyday lives as apparent from the applications described in this article. View full abstract»

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  • 40. An integrated system for machine tool spindle head ball bearing fault detection and diagnosis

    Page(s): 42 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2854 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automatic detection and diagnosis systems have always attracted considerable interest in control engineering due to their positive effects of increasing safety and product quality in machinery condition monitoring and maintenance applications. Implementing automated detection and diagnosis has always been a challenge in rotating machines. In this article, we present the development of a strategy to detect and diagnose faulty bearings in a heavy-duty milling machine tool's spindle head and its implementation in a real machine. First, a comparison study of advanced methods for ball bearing fault detection in machine tool spindle heads is presented. Then, two automatic diagnosis procedures are compared: a fuzzy classifier and a neural network, which deal with different implementation questions involving the use of a priori knowledge, the computation cost, and the decision making process. The challenge is not only to be capable of diagnosing automatically but also to generalize the process regardless of the measured signals. Two actions are taken to achieve some kind of generalization of the application target: the use of normalized signals and the study of the Basis Pursuit feature extraction procedure. Finally, automatic monitoring system implementation on a real milling machine tool is presented. View full abstract»

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  • 41. Land mine detection

    Page(s): 22 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Currently, very little technology is used in real-world demining activities. Active programs by the U.S. Army in both land mine detection sensor development and systems integration are evaluating new technologies, incrementally improving existing technologies, increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false alarm rate, and planning out usable deployment scenarios. Through iterative design/build test cycles, and blind and scored testing at Army mine lanes, steady progress is being made. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation - Overview and recent advances

    Page(s): 26 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3757 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article focuses on three recent applications of microwave and millimeter wave NDT&E techniques that involve novel instrumentation development and measurements, including: 1) disbond detection in strengthened concrete bridge members retrofitted with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates; 2) corrosion and precursor pitting detection in painted aluminum and steel substrates; and 3) detection of flaws in spray-on foam insulation and the acreage heat tiles of the Space Shuttle through focused and synthetic imaging techniques. These applications have been performed at the Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing Laboratory (amntl) at the University of Missouri-Rolla. View full abstract»

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  • 43. Spectrum analyzers today and tomorrow: part 1 towards filterbanks-enabled real-time spectrum analysis

    Page(s): 6 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is Part 1 of a two-part article on spectrum analyzer technology and the future capabilities enabled by introducing filterbanks. A spectrum analyzer (SA) is the primary tool for studying the spectral composition of many electrical, acoustic or optical waveforms. It displays a power spectrum over a given frequency range, changing the display as the properties of the signal change. Today, it is an essential element of the engineer's toolbox. In this part, we will start by reviewing SA architectures in an historical perspective. The architectures and working principles of swept based and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based SAs are discussed. Then, we zoom in on the so-called Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers (RTSA) and discuss the more significant performance criteria as a function of the measurement problem at hand. In the last section, we discuss several applications made possible by RTSA. The extension of RTSA with filterbanks is the main topic of Part 2 of this article which will appear in the December 2013 issue of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine. View full abstract»

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  • 44. Micromachined microsensors for manufacturing

    Page(s): 20 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1857 KB)  

    The rapid development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies in recent years has provided a high degree of spatial miniaturization and integration of electromechanical components, which enable integrated sensing and control in manufacturing. This article provides an overview of the state of the art of micromachined microsensors for the measurement of mechanical signals in the manufacturing industry for automobiles, manufacturing, medical equipment, environment, robotics, food, and other consumer products. Measurements of pressure, acceleration, and acoustic emission (AE) are the three physical quantities that are most encountered in industrial and manufacturing applications. Discussed are the major design parameters of such microsensors, such as dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy and provide a real-world application. Also discussed are the issues related to the spatial integration of signal processing, power supply, and wireless communication with the sensing elements, which are of direct relevance to the overall performance of the microsensors. View full abstract»

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  • 45. Measuring image similarity: an overview of some useful applications

    Page(s): 24 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Why is measuring image similarity useful? There are abundant computer imaging applications requiring some kind of similarity measurement as part of their processes. Although the applications are quite varied, and the implementation details of each solution are unique, all share the common thread in that features or attributes of the image (in each specific application) are measured and then compared to other features from a database of images or with some reference model to extract some meaningful conclusions or functionality about the image data on hand. This paper describes several methods of measuring image similarity: a pattern recognition approach, comparison of frames in a video sequence, image stabilization using a homographic transformation, and using image feature points to compute similarities and generate an image mosaic. View full abstract»

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  • 46. Speech processing utilizing the Kalman filter

    Page(s): 10 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Kalman filter is one of the most widely applied tools in the statistical signal processing field, especially in the context of causal online applications [1]. This article presents an introduction to the Kalman filter; the desired signal and its corresponding measurements are modeled, the Kalman filter is formulated and presented with an intuitive explanation of the involved equations, applications of the filter are given in the context of speech processing, and examples of two popular applications in speech enhancement and speaker tracking are provided. View full abstract»

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  • 47. How to test graphical user interfaces

    Page(s): 27 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2129 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An approach for automatically testing GUIs in the MATLAB environment has been proposed. We developed a software tool that tests GUIs by simulating the user through an action recorder. We proposed a heuristic test procedure: providing random input to GUI, but guiding the randomness with predefined weights assigned to the user controls. The weights change during the testing process, as the controls are activated. The errors are collected for later investigation. View full abstract»

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  • 48. Polite protocols [Instrumentation notes]

    Page(s): 45 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In engineering, as in life, it pays to be polite. When polite folk engage in conversation, one does not interrupt the other. If two people do happen to start talking at the same time, one of them stops and listens to the other person until that person finishes speaking. Polite people constantly make 'measurements' of what is happing around them, and they only talk if they find that no one else is. Many protocols rely on & actually require that - their users be polite. The protocols require that if one instrument would like to transmit, to "talk," while another is transmitting, the instrument that is not yet transmitting must wait for its turn to transmit. We consider two examples of such protocols. First, we consider a piece of the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) protocol, and we describe how the I2C protocol implements a "listen constantly" policy. Then, we discuss and describe a system that allows multiple polite users to share a limited amount of bandwidth - that implements a very simple "virtual cognitive radio." View full abstract»

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  • 49. Climate network: A climatological network for energy applications in urban areas

    Page(s): 18 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (527 KB)  

    Most energy consumption in Italy and other developed countries occurs in urban areas and urban-like industrial districts. The energy utilization rate is affected by local climate (e.g., for heating or cooling), and in turn, the dissipation of energy changes the local climate, affecting energy demand [1]. This interaction is highly complex, and its fine details tend to be highly site- and time-dependent, due to the large nonuniformities of thermal, roughness and radiation elements, as urban areas quickly evolve. A comprehension of it, and the underlying energy balance, is of paramount importance in order to devise rational plans and actuate them in measurable terms. View full abstract»

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  • 50. What does a perfect blood pressure meter look like from a clinician point of view?

    Page(s): 15 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (791 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In our usual busy cardiology clinic, we always measure the blood pressure (BP) of our patients hundreds of times each week. At this moment, many physicians are still using a mercury sphygmomanometer in outpatient and inpatient clinics, and our hands lose gripping power by evening (Fig. 1). On the other hand, for a patient who comes to my office complaining of high BP for the first time, I always ask them to measure their BP at home or to wear an ambulatory BP monitoring device to obtain as exact and precise BP data as possible. However, such patients sometimes complain about the cumbersomeness or discomfort of frequent home BP measurements. Thus, I feel that the way of measuring BP (to pressurize a cuff manually or mechanically, to release it, and to read the value of BP) has not changed drastically for a long time even under this digital and computerized world. In this article, I give an overview of some problems faced in measuring BP, and propose an ideal BP measurement machine or mechanism for a clinician to measure BP as efficiently and comfortably as possible. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine contains applications-oriented and tutorial articles on topics in the broadly based areas of instrumentation system design and measurement techniques.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Wendy Van Moer

wendy.w.vanmoer@ieee.org
IandMMagazineEIC@ieee.org