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Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE

Popular Articles (April 2015)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. Recent advances in MEMS sensor technology – biomedical applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 8 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) use microminiature sensors and actuators. MEMS technology provides the benefits of small size, low weight, high performance, easy mass-production and low cost. This article is the first part of a three-part series on MEMS sensors. In the present article, we provide a general introduction to MEMS sensing and the primary sensing techniques. Next, MEMS-based bio-medical sensors are explained. We consider MEMS devices that are: designed to detect triglycerides, c-reactive protein, and glucose, respectively; bio-inspired robotic fingers with tissue softness characterization sensors for pressure measurement during surgical procedures; for counting blood cells; acoustic sensors for 2-D sound source localization; pressure measurement sensors on the wings of an insect-like flying robot; and ultra-miniature sensors for intramuscular pressure measurement. The second part of the series will be dedicated to mechanical sensors. There, some related technologies of MEMS sensors will be discussed including compensation for environmental effects, the Casimir effect, and harvesting of energy for self-powered sensors. Also, the subject of sensor selection will be addressed. The third part will treat MEMS sensing in the thermo-fluid and electro-magnetic domains. View full abstract»

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  • 2. Signal identification for emerging intelligent radios: classical problems and new challenges

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 11 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1890 KB)  

    Signal identification, which initially found applications in electronic warfare and spectrum monitoring and surveillance, has been recently considered for commercial communications in the context of software defined and cognitive radios. In this article, I present a snapshot of the status of signal identification algorithms, starting from a general description of maximum likelihood (ML) and feature based (FB) approaches to a more detailed discussion of a practical methodology using cyclostationarity-based features. I discuss the cyclostationarity-based features of various signals and the criteria of decision for their identification, while considering classical problems of identifying single carrier linearly digitally (SCLD) modulated signals, as well as new challenges posed by the identification of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), SC frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE), and multiple-transmit antenna signals. I conclude the article with remarks on practical solutions to signal identification and open research issues. View full abstract»

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  • 3. Software defined network traffic measurement: Current trends and challenges

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 42 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB)  

    Next generation networks such as Software Defined Networks (SDN) must support the integration of new paradigms of service offerings such as virtual cloud computing, big data applications, data centers services, and rich multimedia content. Operators of next generation SDNs are responsible for configuring policies that employ traffic monitoring tools and measurement mechanisms to detect and react to a wide range of network events and applications. In this article, we take a look at traffic measurement methods in SDNs, cover their strengths and weaknesses, point to open issues, and remaining future challenges. View full abstract»

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  • 4. An introduction to I2C and SPI protocols

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 8 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, at the low end of the communication protocols we find the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) and the serial peripheral interface (SPI) protocols. Both protocols are well suited for communications between integrated circuits for slow communication with on-board peripherals. The two protocols coexist in modern digital electronics systems, and they probably will continue to compete in the future, as both I2C and SPI are actually quite complementary for this kind of communication. View full abstract»

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  • 5. Recent advances in MEMS sensor technology-mechanical applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 14 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is the second of a three-part series on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor technology. In the first part, a general introduction to MEMS sensing was given, including its underlying principles [1]. Biomedical MEMS sensors were also described by reviewing the principles of bio-sensing and describing a typical set of biologically inspired sensors. In this part, mechanical sensors for displacement, acceleration, impact, vibration, force and torque, and stress and strain are discussed. Various applications of these sensors include high-g measurement, study of golf swing dynamics, vibration control of space inflatable structures, force and torque measurement in micro-robots, bone stress monitoring, metrology, and characterization of nano-scale structures. Some related technologies of MEMS sensors are discussed including compensation for environmental effects, the Casimir effect, and harvesting of energy for self-powered sensors. Also, the subject of sensor selection is addressed. Part 3 of the series will present MEMS sensing in the thermo-fluid and electromagnetic domains. View full abstract»

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  • 6. Japan's superconducting Maglev train

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 9 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a Maglev train under the guidance of the Japanese Ministry of Transport. The Maglev train is an advanced train that can run more than 500 km/h with a linear synchronous motor (LSM) that has both a superconducting magnet on board and an armature coil in the ground. The Maglev train was tested on the Yamanashi Maglev test line. Tests began in 1997, which exercised various functions of performance. The main results of the tests are reported in this article View full abstract»

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  • 7. Instrumentation and Measurement in Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 4 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB)  

    The demand for ubiquitous connectivity is challenging the physical constraints placed upon current communication systems. In addition, customers expect higher and higher quality from their service providers. Consequently, equipment manufacturers are required to produce systems that can be quickly deployed and provide bandwidth-efficient communications. To meet this goal, instrumentation and measurements play a fundamental and invaluable role. View full abstract»

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  • 8. Ultra-wideband instantaneous frequency estimation

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 26 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB)  

    Determining the instantaneous frequency of a signal is required for many applications ranging from radio astronomy to defense applications. Unfortunately, the scan rate is often too long over a wideband spectrum compared to the time scale of signals of interest. We present an instantaneous frequency measurement receiver, which allows for simultaneous measurement of multiple frequencies and amplitudes across an ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth. Powered by the photonic time stretch A/D converter, the high effective sampling throughput of the system provides high temporal resolution and improvement of frequency and amplitude estimation capability through advanced signal processing. This flexible system has adjustable instantaneous bandwidth and frequency resolution, an ultrafast sweep time, and reduced hardware complexity compared to other instantaneous frequency measurement systems. View full abstract»

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  • 9. Testing software defined and cognitive radios using software defined synthetic instruments

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 19 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB)  

    Software Defined Radios (SDRs) are wireless communication systems in which many of the radios' important functional elements, including filtering, frequency translation and modulation/demodulation, are implemented in software via Digital Signal Processing (DSP) techniques using embedded processors and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) as described by Harris and Lowdermilk in 2010 [1]. SDRs differ from traditional radios that typically employ custom silicon to implement such functions. SDRs exhibit several advantages over traditional radios, including re-configurability and reduced development costs and time-to-market since they do not require custom silicon. SDRs also enjoy long life cycles, since they can readily be adapted to meet future needs. Cognitive Radios (CRs) are a special class of SDRs that employ adaptive DSP technologies to implement spectral management. This enables CRs to deliver improved effective bandwidth, quality of service, and enhanced security, which have become increasingly important in modern commercial and military wireless communications applications. View full abstract»

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  • 10. Microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation - Overview and recent advances

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 26 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3757 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article focuses on three recent applications of microwave and millimeter wave NDT&E techniques that involve novel instrumentation development and measurements, including: 1) disbond detection in strengthened concrete bridge members retrofitted with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates; 2) corrosion and precursor pitting detection in painted aluminum and steel substrates; and 3) detection of flaws in spray-on foam insulation and the acreage heat tiles of the Space Shuttle through focused and synthetic imaging techniques. These applications have been performed at the Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing Laboratory (amntl) at the University of Missouri-Rolla. View full abstract»

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  • 11. Smart grids Part 2: Synchrophasor measurement challenges

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 13 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart grids pose two sorts of interesting challenges to phasor measurement techniques. The main challenge results from estimating the parameters of voltage and current signals. It has been a hot topic since the advent of the phasor measurement unit (PMU) in the acquisition of synchrophasors of a power system under dynamic conditions. There are several research groups working in this field who have published recent exemplary papers [1]-[4]. They investigated the important role played by the IEEE Synchrophasor Standard [5] in this endeavor. The other incipient problem is the electromechanical mode identification field. In this case, new phasor estimation methods are recently competing with the well-known Prony Method (Chap. 1 of [6]) or the Hilbert- Huang technique (Chap. 2-3 of [6]) to decompose a power oscillation into its dynamic modes. View full abstract»

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  • 12. A cloud-based approach to spectrum monitoring

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 33 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB)  

    Thousands of wireless communication systems have been fielded, with hundreds more under development. The RF spectrum has growing economic value to consumers, businesses, and governments worldwide. This has generated such a demand for wireless bandwidth that spectrum allocation, the existing primary method of spectrum management, is becoming increasingly inadequate. In this paper, we briefly summarize the response to the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Agency's Notice of Inquiry concerning a Spectrum Monitoring Pilot Program and present a cloud-based system-of-systems for spectrum monitoring based on the response to the Inquiry. We describe the interface to the cloud as an important enabler and propose a solution that allows ontology descriptions to be used for both spectrum management and monitoring. These ontology descriptions support the use of semantic techniques such as queries, responses, and reasoning. View full abstract»

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  • 13. Smart grids Part 1: Instrumentation challenges

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 6 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In general, a smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses digital technology for measurement, control, and protection functions to ensure a network security. It tries to solve the problem of weather-dependant fluctuations of renewable energy power supplies (e.g. wind turbines, or photo-voltaic systems) when they are connected to an actual power system. In two papers in this issue, we present some of the challenges raised by Smart Grids in instrumentation and measurement applications, putting emphasis on synchrophasor estimation. In this part 1 article, we describe the problem of identifying a normal condition from a fault condition and between a fault condition and an oscillation using phasor estimations in protective relays. In "Synchrophasor Measurement Challenges in Smart Grids," we discuss a novel synchrophasor- estimation algorithm that improves the accuracy of the estimates under oscillations conditions and serves to identify electromechanical modes in Smart Grids. This algorithm ameliorates protection as well as measurement applications in smart grids. View full abstract»

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  • 14. Software defined radio: Part 22 in a series of tutorials on instrumentation and measurement

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 23 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A software defined radio (SDR) is a communication system that performs many of its required signal processing tasks in a programmable digital signal processing (DSP) engine. The engine is coupled to the air interface of analog circuits and antennae by analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters (ADCs and DACs). The SDR's software reprograms the DSP segment of the radio's physical layer to reconFigure the radio system parameters and can thus synthesize multiple radios. The software can also select and alter the air interface components as well as the higher level data processing layers of the radio system. View full abstract»

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  • 15. The measurement of oxygen saturation in arterial and venous blood

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 9 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article describes about the non-invasive optical measurement techniques to assess oxygen saturation in arterial and venous blood. The pulse oximeters for arterial oxygen saturation measurement use light in two wavelengths, in the red and infrared regions, and calibration is used to account for the difference in optical path-length between them. The accuracy of the commercial pulse oximeters is adequate for monitoring patients during surgical operation, where the clinical information that is needed is the absence of dramatic deterioration in the respiration efficiency. However, the error in pulse oximetry is too high for the clinical assessment of lung function, probably because of the need for calibration in the available technique. The use of two wavelengths in the infrared, instead of one wavelength in the red and one in the infrared region, enables the use of pulse oximetry without calibration. The technique can also be used for determining venous blood saturation, which is important for assessment of the adequacy of tissue blood supply. View full abstract»

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  • 16. The future of instrumentation and measurement

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 22 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (261 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reports on the future technologies, research, and areas of development in the field of instrumentation and measurement. View full abstract»

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  • 17. ADC parameters and characteristics

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 44 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, most of the signal processing performed in electronic systems is digital, and the performance of the analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) present at the borders of the digital domain become very important. The most recent applications in telecommunication, measurement, and consumer electronics call for ever-increasing ADC resolution and speed. The uncertainty of ADC performance strongly affects overall system accuracy. Both manufacturers and system integrators are intensely concerned with ADC performance. View full abstract»

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  • 18. Load cells in force sensing analysis -- theory and a novel application

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 15 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Load cells have long been used to sense and measure force and torque. When properly designed and used, they are very accurate and reliable sensors. Load cells are applied in several different fields, usually for weighing measurements. Among many other things, food, vehicles, and animals are weighed daily with load cells. The gripper of a robotic arm that picks up an object can be equipped with load cells in order to provide compression force feedback to the control system to prevent the object from being damaged or released too early. Also, load cells can be used to sense the compression forces during a robot's walk to provide data for the equilibrium-controlling system. In industrial machinery, rods, beams, wheels and bars are instrumented in order to check the forces exerted on them. The volume or level of a tank can be measured indirectly by means of a load cell that monitors the total weight. Lift units can also have a load's total weight measured to prevent overload. Because of such a variety of possible applications, load cells are very important. This paper describes some of the theory and practice of load cells, including their basic elements and the electronics necessary for measurement. As an application example, the development of a 3-ring spherical load cell is presented which can be used to measure compression forces on fruit during storage and transportation is presented. View full abstract»

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  • 19. Cardiac pacemakers: past, present and future

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 21 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pacemakers were the first active implantable devices. Being so commonly known nowadays, their use has been integrated to our daily lives, like the use of the aspirin or antibiotics. Only 60 years ago, people with heart diseases would have a very poor life quality or even died but ever since the use of pacemakers several heart diseases are not life threatening anymore. In this article, I present basic concepts about the physiology of the heart, the history of the development of cardiac pacemakers, and the characteristics of today's pacemaker designs. View full abstract»

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  • 20. How can energy be scavenged from wideband vibrations?

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 40 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Portable devices, including wireless multi-sensor nodes and wearable electronics, are becoming widely used. Such systems require continuous power sources, and sometimes the use of batteries can be a limiting factor in the exploitation of the device functionality, especially when application contexts require a long operation time. In the framework of autonomous systems, power harvesting represents an interesting and powerful solution to scavenge energy from the environment. View full abstract»

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  • 21. What is virtual instrumentation?

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 10 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)  

    A virtual instrument is composed of some specialized subunits, some general-purpose computers, some software, and a little know-how. The instrument no longer has to be in one box. Virtual instruments can be simple or very complex. Understanding the real field of virtual instrumentation is just beginning. Over the next few years, there will be a rash of subunits specifically designed for the virtual instrumentation market. These will provide the building blocks for the next generation of field instrumentation and measurement. View full abstract»

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  • 22. Software testing

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 48 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (321 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are several types of software testing that are widely used in the current IT world. This paper explain some of these types of tests and describes the author's experiences with them. When a tester knows what type of testing is needed, it greatly improves the test results and ultimately decreases the number of defects. Test methods covered include glass box testing, black box testing, system testing, database testing, and security testing, and test team selection is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • 23. Recent advances in MEMS sensor technology—thermo-fluid and electro-magnetic devices

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 16 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is the final part of a three-part series on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor technology. In the first part, a general introduction to MEMS sensing was given including the underlying principles [1]. Biomedical MEMS sensors were described and the principles of bio-sensing in a typical set of biologically inspired sensors were presented. The second part discussed mechanical sensors and their applications [2]. Some important issues of MEMS sensors were addressed, including the need to compensate for environmental effects, the Casimir effect, harvesting of energy for self-powered sensors, and the subject of sensor selection. View full abstract»

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  • 24. Smart electric energy measurements in power distribution grids

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 17 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (201 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart Grid (SG) is an expression that has diffused worldwide. However, the meaning of this expression is not commonly shared, since there is not yet a totally defined or accepted idea of smartness. What is commonly recognized is that significant changes are occurring in electric systems, and traditional management and protection schemes will not be suitable for next generation electric grids [1]. This paper discusses some of the challenges and the opportunities related to the measurement of energy in modern distribution grids. In particular, the possibility to estimate energy flows in the network branches is explored, by focusing on the importance of a proper choice of the components of the distributed measurement system, mainly in terms of typology, metrological characteristics, and number and position of the measurement devices. View full abstract»

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  • 25. Camera as the instrument: the rising trend of vision based measurement

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 41 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article we gave an overview of vision-based measurement (VBM), its various components, and uncertainty in the correct IM (instrumentation and measurement) metrological perspective. VBM is a fast rising technology due to the increasing affordability and capability of camera and computing hardware/software. While originally a specialized application, VBM is expected to become more ubiquitous in our everyday lives as apparent from the applications described in this article. View full abstract»

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  • 26. Genetic algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 26 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2094 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Engineers and scientists use instrumentation and measurement equipment to obtain information for specific environments, such as temperature and pressure. This task can be performed manually using portable gauges. However, there are many instances in which this approach may be impractical; when gathering data from remote sites or from potentially hostile environments. In these applications, autonomous navigation methods allow a mobile robot to explore an environment independent of human presence or intervention. The mobile robot contains the measurement device and records the data then either transmits it or brings it back to the operator. Sensors are required for the robot to detect obstacles in the navigation environment, and machine intelligence is required for the robot to plan a path around these obstacles. The use of genetic algorithms is an example of machine intelligence applications to modern robot navigation. Genetic algorithms are heuristic optimization methods, which have mechanisms analogous to biological evolution. This article provides initial insight of autonomous navigation for mobile robots, a description of the sensors used to detect obstacles and a description of the genetic algorithms used for path planning. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Ball bearing damage detection using traditional signal processing algorithms

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 20 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2554 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault detection and diagnosis of ball bearings has always been a challenge when monitoring rotating machinery. Specifically, bearing diagnostics have seen extensive research in the field of fault detection and diagnosis. This article reviews traditional algorithms used to detect and diagnose faulty bearings in heavy-duty milling machine tool spindle heads. Different kinds of faults have been created deliberately on the bearings of a test spindle head. The prediction effectiveness of several detection methods are tested when faults are in different stages of development. View full abstract»

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  • 28. Sensors and signal conditioning

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 48 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The challenge we take up in this fourth installment in a series of tutorials in instrumentation and measurement is to consider how to make a sensor work in a measurement system. Signal conditioning broadly includes the steps needed to make the sensor an active part of a measurement system by providing excitation, if required, and then performing the preliminary actions needed to obtain a signal that can be processed. What's done to and with that signal is the subject of future parts of this tutorial series. Luckily, we don't have to wait that long to get results, because the output of the signal conditioning stage can be used for something as simple as driving a display subsystem so that we see results. Signal conditioning is a critical step in a measurement system but so is each element as emphasized by the serial model we have been using so far to depict the basic elements of an instrument. However, it is important to keep in mind that many overall performance limits of a measurement are strongly influenced by what happens in the signal conditioning stage. For example, linearity, accuracy, noise rejection, and long-term drift behaviors will be strongly affected by decisions made here. View full abstract»

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  • 29. The Potential of Haptics Technologies

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 10 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (60)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In spite of the significant recent progress, the incorporation of haptics into virtual environments is still in its infancy due to limitations in the hardware, the cost of development, as well as the level of reality they provide. Nonetheless, we believe that the field will one day be one of the groundbreaking media of the future. It has its current holdups but the promise of the future is worth the wait. The technology is becoming cheaper and applications are becoming more forthcoming and apparent. If we can survive this infancy, it will promise to be an amazing revolution in the way we interact with computers and the virtual world. The researchers organize the rapidly increasing multidisciplinary research of haptics into four subareas: human haptics, machine haptics, computer haptics, and multimedia haptics View full abstract»

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  • 30. Spectrum analyzers today and tomorrow: Part 2

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 36 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this second part of the two-part article on spectrum analyzer evolution, future advances in spectrum analysis have been addressed, specifically the advances in real-time spectrum analysis. The proposed extension of real-time spectrum analyzers with a Filterbank architecture has been developed as a generalization of the classical overlapped windowed-FFT concept. This leads to further improvements in performance and flexibility, in terms of frequency and time resolution and trigger response time. Overlapped processing at full analysis bandwidth is realized at a favorable computation and implementation cost. View full abstract»

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  • 31. Efficacy of the frequency and damping estimation of a real-value sinusoid Part 44 in a series of tutorials on instrumentation and measurement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 48 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6863 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sinusoidal and damped sinusoidal signals are common in different branches of engineering. Estimation of frequency and damping is very important in many fields [1]–[15], e.g., linear system identification, speech processing, image processing, transient analysis, electric power system analysis, radar and sonar systems, communication, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), mechanical spectroscopy, economics, seismology, and others. The literature on the subject is very rich. Recently an interesting introduction to frequency and damping estimation methods was published in the IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine [15]. In this paper, we focus on the methods with the best performance for a single component, damped, real-valued sinusoidal signal disturbed by additive white Gaussian noise. In our previous works [14] and [16]–[18], we investigated these estimation methods, two-point and three-point interpolated Discrete Fourier Transform (IpDFT) for an undamped sinusoidal signal analyzed with Rife-Vincent class I, Kaiser-Bessel and Dolph-Chebyshev windows, methods of Bertocco, Yoshida and Bertocco-Yoshida family for orders 0-3, the Agrez algorithm, IpDFT for damped sinusoidal signal analyzed with Rife-Vincent class I windows, time domain and frequency domain Least Squares (LS) optimization, Hilbert transform, covariance, Prony, iterative Steiglitz-McBride (STMB), Kumaresan-Tufts, total least squares, Matrix Pencil (MatPen), and Pisarenko. For this presentation, we choose only the best methods from the above set, i.e. the Bertocco-Yoshida order 1 (BY1) STMB and MatPen. We also describe the iterative leakage correction algorithm [19] with application to BY1, and compare all results with the well-known Aboutanios and Mulgrew algorithm (AbM) [13]. Our intention is to describe and compare the best existing algorithms. We consider a real-valued signal because it is a typical measurement case. The DFT spectrum of this signal is disturbed by a spect- al leakage [5]. View full abstract»

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  • 32. Robotic security systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 30 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fixed and mobile sensors can be used in the early detection and assessment technology that is crucial for homeland security. Unattended sensors provide a historically recognized capability for effective force manipulation in security and surveillance roles, particularly in the case of perimeter defense. The robot-deployed intrusion detection and assessment sensor packages confirm sources of motion, heat or noise, with the added flexibility of further relocation as needed to track a disturbance. A system of robotic security platforms that automatically respond in an adaptive fashion to potential disturbances reported by a broad-area field of fixed unattended sensor represents a powerful new defensive to for mitigating terrorist threat. View full abstract»

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  • 33. Electrical distribution system state estimation: measurement issues and challenges

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 36 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The distribution grid is the infrastructure that transports electrical energy generated by large plants that are long distances away to the final user. A typical distribution grid consists of High-to-Medium Voltage (HV/MV) transformation centers; the MV grid; Medium-to-Low Voltage (MV/LV) transformation centers; and the LV grid, both three-phase and single-phase. Residential and commercial customers are mainly connected to the LV, while large industrial facilities are connected to the MV. View full abstract»

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  • 34. A brief overview of weather radar technologies and instrumentation

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 10 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Weather radar technologies and instrumentation play a vital role in early warning of severe weather. For example, the annual impacts of adverse weather on the U.S. national highway system and roads are staggering: 7,400 weather-related deaths and 1.5 million weather-related crashes [1]. In addition, US$4.2 billion is lost each year as a result of air traffic delays attributed to weather. Research on high-impact weather is broadly motivated by society's need to improve the prediction of these weather events. The research approaches to accomplish this goal vary significantly with the inherent predictability of the weather system. For example, the current forecast approaches for issuing warnings of short-lived events, such as tornadoes and flash floods, are primarily based on observations with a focus on advanced Doppler radar measurements. View full abstract»

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  • 35. Hydro energy generation and instrumentation & measurement: hydropower plant efficiency testing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 10 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hydroelectric turbine-generator units are equipped with different types of permanent monitoring sensors mainly for maintenance and safety but not for the efficiency measurement. Acceptance tests such as the efficiency measurement require additional precision instrumentation. Several measurement techniques exist to perform the testing and making the choice depends on the power plant configuration and the instrumentation capability. The best method is the one that is the easiest to implement for the given turbine-generator unit and that gives reliable results. Although performed on site, the accuracy requirements for these tests are very stringent and are key factors for the successful completion of tests and their acceptance from both the manufacturer and the end user. Finally, measuring the efficiency of a hydraulic generating unit is essential for the optimization of its operation, which means more electrical energy and revenue for the same amount of water. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Measurement-based performance analysis of wind energy systems

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 15 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wind measurements for identifying and characterizing wind resources require instrumentation and analysis techniques for defining signal processing features for gusts, turbulence, and inflow winds. This paper describes the importance of those features for determining responses of wind turbines. In addition, when the system is deployed, the instrumentation that must be coordinated to manage the utility connection requirements, such as assessing reactive power supply, fault ride-through, and power quality monitoring, is also discussed. The control schemes for wind energy generation systems are discussed and associated with the system signal processing required to control active power generation. View full abstract»

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  • 37. Time interleaved analog to digital converters: Tutorial 44

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 42 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (921 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This tutorial has addressed the structure and basics of TIADCs, including errors, implementation concerns and possible solutions. While the past few years have shown a sharp increase in patents and industry participation, academic research around the world is still ongoing to improve performance while reducing computational complexity, particularly in the area of nonlinear mismatch correction and scalable correction schemes to handle massively interleaved structures. Reduction in this complexity is critical to reduce the cost of digital logic in post conversion correction structures as well as the power consumption of the overall TIADC system through the use of smaller, simpler post conversion components. TIADCs are currently used in the field for test and measurement as well as communications and other applications. View full abstract»

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  • 38. A brief tutorial on the IEEE 1451.1 Standard - Part 13 in a series of tutorials in instrumentation and measurement

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 38 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 1451.1 standard addresses the definition of a network capable application processor (NCAP). The NCAP is a piece of hardware and software that acts as a bridge between transducers and the communication network. On the field side, an abstraction layer provides high-level functionality to communicate with transducers. On the network side, an abstraction layer provides high-level functionality to handle network requests. In the middle, the control routine adds intelligence to the NCAP by running algorithms that process the data received by both sides (the field and the network) and decide the next state of the system. The software architecture of the 1451.1 Std. is based on an information model, a data model, and two network communication models.The diversity of fieldbuses and network protocols leads a manufacturer to closed, less-flexible, and generally more-expensive solutions. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Measurements and sensors for motion tracking in motor rehabilitation

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 30 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a brief overview of the commercial solutions and the research proposals for measuring the patient's movements, and is organized as follows. In Section 1, a review of laboratory measurement equipment for the patient's mobility evaluation will be described. In Sections 2 and 3, some proposals of portable measurement systems, used to monitor the patient or track his/her progresses during the treatment at home and in clinical environments, are presented and discussed. The measurement methods presented are marker-based motion capture and analysis systems, marker-less motion capture and analysis systems, robot-based and exoskeleton systems, vision systems and virtual reality, and personal motion measurement systems based on sensor networks. View full abstract»

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  • 40. Land mine detection

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 22 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Currently, very little technology is used in real-world demining activities. Active programs by the U.S. Army in both land mine detection sensor development and systems integration are evaluating new technologies, incrementally improving existing technologies, increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false alarm rate, and planning out usable deployment scenarios. Through iterative design/build test cycles, and blind and scored testing at Army mine lanes, steady progress is being made. View full abstract»

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  • 41. Automatic noninvasive measurement of arterial blood pressure

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 32 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discussed arterial blood pressure measurement. Because of the high rate of hypertension in the adult population and its harmful effects, the measurement of arterial blood pressure is of great clinical significance. Manual sphygmomanometry, developed more than a hundred years ago, is currently the most accurate non-invasive technique for arterial blood pressure measurement. Since manual sphygmomanometry requires a well-trained examiner, only single measurements of blood pressure will generally be performed by a physician during a given visit. This single measurement only provides partial information since blood pressure changes spontaneously. The available automatic blood pressure meters, mainly based on oscillometry, can be used at home but some of them are of low accuracy. A direct technique for the measurement of systolic blood pressure by means of the detection of the blood pressure pulses' reappearance during cuff deflation has the potential to provide accurate automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Integration of photovoltaic solar power - the quest towards dispatchability

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 21 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Existing photovoltaic (PV) power plants impact the power grid in a negative way due to a lack of voltage regulation, energy storage, forecasting and wide-area communications, measurement, and control. Currently utility- scale distributed solar PV plants on distribution networks have nominal capacities that are compatible with distribution substation MVA ratings e.g., between 5 and 30 MW. Furthermore, PV plants in the 30 to 100 MW power range are currently integrated in transmission networks. The system impacts are discussed, and mitigation solutions are proposed using advanced power converters, energy storage systems, as well as local and remote measurements and forecasting options. Case studies are provided. View full abstract»

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  • 43. Tutorial 20: flow meters: part 2 - Part 20 in a series of tutorials in instrumentation and measurement

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 21 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3870 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tutorial 18, "Flow Meters: Part 1", covered the basic concepts of flow meters, explained the working principles of volumetric and mass flow meters, presented error compensation techniques, and included a brief explanation of smart flow meters. In the second part of this tutorial, I explain the primary working principles, advantages, and disadvantages of the following four types of inferential flow meters: differential pressure, variable area, target, and velocity flow. I present some experimental results from a linearization technique using a nonlinear A/D converter (ADC) to linearize a differential flow meter's square-root characteristic. View full abstract»

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  • 44. The mathematical theory of evidence and measurement uncertainty

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 14 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the previous papers, it was shown how possibility distributions can be effectively employed to represent and propagate uncertainty in measurements. In particular, it was shown how the Random-Fuzzy variables (RFVs) can be effectively employed to represent a measurement result. The effects of the systematic and random contributions to uncertainty can be well identified in the RFV, and all confidence intervals at all confidence levels are provided, so that complete information about the measurement result is given. Moreover, this distinction also allows one to model the propagation of the systematic and the random contributions in two different ways, according to their different nature and different behavior when they combine. View full abstract»

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  • 45. The mathematical theory of evidence and measurement uncertainty

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 39 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The concept of measurement uncertainty and the way it should be treated are considered by the "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement," known as GUM that follows an intrinsically probabilistic approach. Presently, the GUM has been universally accepted and its recommendations followed to associate an uncertainty value to the measured value. For this reason, in this paper, we start from the GUM and its fundamental concepts and definitions to introduce an interesting and promising generalization of these same concepts in terms of Theory of Evidence. View full abstract»

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  • 46. The fundamental concepts of power theories for single-phase and three-phase voltages and currents: Part 27 in a series of tutorials on instrumentation and measurement

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 37 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4789 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the author discussed the generalization of non-active, reactive and apparent power concepts to nonstandard situations. Although the most general case has not been dealt with for lack of space, the main message should be clear: the generalization of the classical concepts is not straightforward. Measuring these quantities in non-standard (distorted, unbalanced and polyphase) situations is not just a matter of accuracy, but first requires clarification of which physical properties to characterize to arrive at the definition of the concepts, and only then suitable measurement techniques can be developed. View full abstract»

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  • 47. High-frequency dielectric measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 24 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4869 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The demands on dielectric material measurements have increased over the years as electrical components have been miniaturized and device frequency bands have increased. Well-characterized dielectric measurements on thin materials are needed for circuit design, minimization of crosstalk, and characterization of signal-propagation speed. Bulk material applications have also increased. For accurate dielectric measurements, each measurement band and material geometry requires specific fixtures. Engineers and researchers must carefully match their material system and uncertainty requirements to the best available measurement system. Broadband measurements require transmission-line methods, and accurate measurements on low-loss materials are performed in resonators. The development of the most accurate methods for each application requires accurate fixture selection in terms of field geometry, accurate field models, and precise measurement apparatus. View full abstract»

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  • 48. Detecting motor bearing faults

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 30 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-phase induction motors are the workhorses of industry because of their widespread use. They are used extensively for heating, cooling, refrigeration, pumping, conveyors, and similar applications. They offer users simple, rugged construction, easy maintenance, and cost-effective pricing. These factors have promoted standardization and development of a manufacturing infrastructure that has led to a vast installed base of motors; more than 90% of all motors used in industry worldwide are ac induction motors. Causes of motor failures are bearing faults, insulation faults, and rotor faults. Early detection of bearing faults allows replacement of the bearings, rather than replacement of the motor. The same type of bearing defects that plague such larger machines as 100 hp are mirrored in lower hp machines which has the same type of bearings. Even though the replacement of defective bearings is the cheapest fix among the three causes of failure, it is the most difficult one to detect. Motors that are in continuous use cannot be stopped for analysis. We have developed a circuit monitor for these motors. Incipient bearing failures are detectable by the presence of characteristic machine vibration frequencies associated with the various modes of bearing failure. We will show that circuit monitors that we developed can detect these frequencies using wavelet packet decomposition and a radial basis neural network. This device monitors an induction motor's current and defines a bearing failure. View full abstract»

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  • 49. Reconfigurable real-time hardware-in-the-loop environment for automotive electronic control unit testing and verification

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 31 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To satisfy the ever increasing needs for safety, comfort, and environment protection of today's vehicles, the Electronic Control Units (ECU) and various sensors are getting more and more complex. Therefore, developing new control algorithms and cost efficient verification tools for a new generation of ECUs and sensors has become a highly important issue. This paper deals with the design and implementation of a versatile automated Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) test environment, which facilitates the development of control algorithms, calibration, and verification of state of the art sensors and ECUs. The environment is able to emulate the vehicles' dynamic behavior, reduces the time required for development and testing, and eliminates the need for using expensive real vehicles for testing purposes. View full abstract»

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  • 50. Real time vision for intelligent vehicles

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 22 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors first discuss the Intelligent StopandGo system, a sophisticated cruise control that autonomously follows a lead vehicle, pays attention to the relevant elements of the traffic infrastructure, and accounts for other traffic participants. The Intelligent StopandGo represents a multiyear effort by DaimlerChrysler to build a sophisticated cruise control that can function on highways, on secondary roads, and in urban environments. It combines the following capabilities: extracting lane boundaries, even when they are not clearly marked and do not contain the typical structure of highways; detecting a vehicle that can be followed, estimating ifs distance, speed, and acceleration; detecting stationary obstacles, such as parked cars, which limit the available free space; recognising the traffic signs and traffic lights that are relevant; and detecting and classifying additional traffic participants, such as pedestrians, who might cut in between the lead vehicle and the host vehicle. The DaimlerChrysIer demonstrator Urban Traffic Assistant (UTA) has devoted special attention to information, warning, and assistant functions in an inner-city environment. UTA is an E-class Mercedes-Bent containing sensors for longitudinal speed, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, yaw and pitch rate, and the sfeering wheel angle. It is equipped with a stereo black-and-white camera system as well as a color camera. UTA has access to throttle, brake, and steering. Furthermore, it displays the results of the perceptual modules in a graphical environment from either the driver's perspective or a virtual viewpoint. The computer hardware in UTA comprises three 400-MHz Linux/Pentium II (SMP) PCs for the perception of the environment and one Lynx/604e PowerPC for the control of sensors and actuators View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine contains applications-oriented and tutorial articles on topics in the broadly based areas of instrumentation system design and measurement techniques.

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Prof. Wendy Van Moer

wendy.w.vanmoer@ieee.org
IandMMagazineEIC@ieee.org