IRE Transactions on Communications Systems

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  • The Sum of Log-Normal Probability Distributions in Scatter Transmission Systems

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):57 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (403)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (938 KB)

    The long-term fluctuation of transmission loss in scatter propagation systems has been found to have a logarithmicnormal distribution. In other words, the scatter loss in decibels has Gaussian statistical distribution. Therefore, in many important communication systems (e.g., FM), the noise power of a radio jump, or hop, has log-normal statistical distribution. In a multihop system, the noise powe... View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of PSK vs FSK and PSK-AM vs FSK-AM Binary-Coded Transmission Systems

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):87 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1301 KB)

    The performance of phase shift keyed (PSK), frequency shift keyed (FSK), PSK amplitude modulation (PSK-AM), and FSK amplitude modulation (FSK-AM), systems are compared for binary coded transmission in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. This performance is based on the relative probability of error, operating range, required system bandwidth, and system frequency instability. The import... View full abstract»

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  • On Optimal Diversity Reception, II

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):22 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    In a previous paper the structure of the optimal multi-diversity receiver for a fading, noisy diversity channel was determined under the assumption that the memory of the receiver does not extend beyond the time interval of the signal currently being received. The probability of error for such a receiver is determined herein under the following assumptions: the channel is binary and symmetric; the... View full abstract»

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  • Performance of Digital Phase-Modulation Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):3 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (65)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (390 KB)

    This paper analyzes the performance of digital phase modulation systems in Gaussian noise and determines required signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the number of discrete phases and the desired error rate, under conditions of no fading. Both coherent detection with a locally-derived reference carrier and phase comparison detection are considered. The calculations show that multiphase modulati... View full abstract»

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  • A simplified diversity communication system for beyond-the-horizon links

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (335 KB)

    For nearly a year the US Federal TelecomMunication Laboratories have had in operation a 900 mc beyond-the-horizon two-way link between the Nutley, New Jersey laboratories and Southampton, Long Island. Early results using PTM have already been reported. Briefly, an annual median path-loss some 20db greater than that predicted by Bullington was found, but the bandwidth was adequate for pulse modulat... View full abstract»

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  • A Coherent Digital Amplitude and Phase Modulation Scheme

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):90 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (50)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (503 KB)

    In this paper, we present a technique for a combination of amplitude and phase modulation for digital communication. This technique assumes phase coherence between transmitter and receiver. For purposes of analysis, we also assume baud synchronization. The technique involves the simultaneous and independent amplitude modulation of two carriers of the same frequency which are in quadrature with eac... View full abstract»

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  • On the Optimum Detection of Digital Signals in the Presence of White Gaussian Noise-A Geometric Interpretation and a Study of Three Basic Data Transmission Systems

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):336 - 372
    Cited by:  Papers (59)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (2976 KB)

    This paper considers the problem of optimally detecting digital waveforms in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. A technique for representing the transmitted signals and the additive noise which leads to a geometric interpretation of the detection problem is presented on a tutorial level. Subsequently, this technique is used to derive the optimum detector for each of three basic data tr... View full abstract»

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  • The Telephone Channel in a Global Communications System

    Publication Year: 1961, Page(s):247 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)

    The nominal 4-kc telephone channel is by far the most dominant parameter of contemporary telecommunication networks. It is, directly or otherwise, underwritten by a world-wide investment of the order of fifty billion dollars. The engineering of present and future global communication networks must therefore provide for working with and into such channels, concomitantly with finding avenues out of ... View full abstract»

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  • Combined Digital Phase and Amplitude Modulation Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):150 - 155
    Cited by:  Papers (60)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (599 KB)

    The performance of phase modulation communication systems is investigated for the asymptotic case of a high signal-to-noise ratio. A simple and excellent approximation to the probability of error is derived for both coherent and phase-comparison demodulation. In addition, a simple expression is derived for the asymptotic degradation of phase-comparison demodulation. When the number of bits per sam... View full abstract»

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  • Dependence of the Maximum Range of Tropospheric Scatter Communications on Antenna and Receiver Noise Temperatures

    Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):35 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (397 KB)

    This paper describes the dependence of the maximum range of scatter communications on noise sources both internal and external to the communications system. The discussion centers around the relative contribution of the new low noise solid state amplifiers in extending the range of communications in the face of terrestrial and extraterrestrial (cosmic) noise sources. It is shown that the apparant ... View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of Delay Distortion Correction by Time-Reversal Techniques

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):2 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (491 KB)

    Experiments relating to methods of correcting delay distortion by time-reversal have been made utilizing a slow-speed picture transmission system. The improvements in picture quality by phase correction of a 3 KC telephone loop 30.4 miles long and a 5 KC loop from Murray Hill, N. J., to Los Angeles, Calif., and back are demonstrated. The total distance that the signal was transmitted over the 5 KC... View full abstract»

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  • High-Gain Antennas for VHF Scatter Propagation

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):56 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (793 KB)

    Rhombic antennas were the first type employed in the study of propagation via ionospheric scatter. By the use of electrically long leg-lengths gains of the order of 20 decibels were obtained. Experimental measurements using model techniques indicated that assumptions usual in the design of rhombic antennas remained valid even for leg-lengths of 25 to 40 wavelengths. In order to obtain a more compa... View full abstract»

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  • Group Synchronization for Digital Transmission Systems

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):381 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (939 KB)

    Group synchronization systems with digital feedback are studied, which are particularly applicable for PCM systems. Group synchronization is used to determine the time origin of a sequence of binary signals by finding a specified deterministic pattern from a randomly modulated binary sequence. A statistical analysis is made on the recovery process of synchronization, which is a discrete-time rando... View full abstract»

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  • System Parameters Using Tropospheric Scatter Propagation

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):87 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (986 KB)

    Accumulated data from published sources and from unpublished research on tropospheric forward scatter propagation are reviewed and condensed for practical applicatian to FM communication systems. Antennas suitable for use on scatter paths are reviewed and the limitations on usable gains are discussed. General design methods for FM systems are presented and reduced to a design chart that includes t... View full abstract»

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  • Routing Procedures in Communications Networks-Part I: Random Procedures

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):322 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (883 KB)

    A study is made of possible routing procedures in military communications networks in order to evaluate these procedures in terms of future tactical requirements. In Part I this study is devoted to procedures involving random choices. In such networks each message path is essentially a random walk. Estimates of the average traverse time of each message and average traffic flow through each node ar... View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Fading Spectrum on the Binary Error Probabilites of Incoherent and Differentially Coherent Matched Filter Recievers

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):160 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (106)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (820 KB)

    Previous derivations of the influence of fading on the error probabilities of binary data transmission systems have assumed that the fading rate is so slow that fluctuations within a bit may be ignored. This slow fading assumption is removed in the present paper which derives general expressions for the binary error probabilities of incoherent and differentially coherent matched filter receivers e... View full abstract»

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  • Predetection Diversity Combining with Selectively Fading Channels

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):32 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (83)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (859 KB)

    The effective use of predetection (or IF) linear combining of diversity channels requires that all frequency components be added in = phase. In view of the time-variant phase characteristics of fading channels, some form of instantaneous phase correction must be provided prior to the diversity combining so that proper in-phase addition will result. If the instantaneous fading is not uniform over t... View full abstract»

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  • High-Speed Frequency-Shift Keying of LF and VLF Radio Circuits

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):29 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1904 KB)

    Present VLF transmitters are limited in transmission speed to approximately 20 words per minute because of the bandwidth limitations of the High-Q antenna circuit. To permit an increase in transmission speed, a unique method has been developed which makes use of the variation of reactance of the antenna circuit in synchronism with frequency shift modulation of the carrier. The method makes possibl... View full abstract»

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  • Performance of Combined Amplitude and Phase-Modulated Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):232 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (539 KB)

    The performance of two types of digital phase-and amplitude-modulated systems is investigated for the high signal-to-noise ratio region. Approximate expressions for the probability of error and channel capacity of the more optimum of these two systems are compared with corresponding expressions for probability of error and channel capacity for a digital phase-modulated system. It is shown that the... View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Loss Curves for Propagation at Very Low Radio Frequencies

    Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):58 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (642 KB)

    Curves of the transmission loss are presented for the propagation to great distances at frequencies in the range 10 to 20 kc. The theoretical model of the ionosphere assumed is a sharply bounded homogeneous ionized medium. The working formula for the field is a sum of waveguide-type modes. The calculated results compare favorably with experimental data at 16.6 kc over the Pacific Ocean. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of Adjacent-Channel Interference from On-Off Keyed Carriers

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):41 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1229 KB)

    The well-known reduction of sideband interference by filtering in the keying circuit of transmitter is examined in detail to determine the amounts of sideband reduction which can be obtained with practical filters and still retain desirable keying waveforms. It is found that reductions in interfering bandwidths by 1OO to 1 or more over unfiltered keying at sideband levels of 70 db or more below th... View full abstract»

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  • The Atomichron: An atomic frequency standard

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):25 - 27
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (246 KB)

    The Atomichron is the first practical device to refer time to an atomic standard. The four most basic quantites involved in physical measurements are length, mass, charge and time and it is essential that a standard unit be defined for each of these entities - a standard unit which is unvarying and is readily accessible for comparison at any desired time. It is an accepted fact that the elementary... View full abstract»

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  • Conservation of Communications Bandwidth for Traffic Control

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):53 - 59
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (538 KB)

    This paper analyzes the quantity of information present in a group of aircraft moving at known average velocities within a definite geographical sector. Computations of time required between determination of the position of each aircraft is computed on the basis of the residuals of an infinite time series representation of aircraft position. The positionl information quantities and the time interv... View full abstract»

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  • Synchronous Communications

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):99 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    It can be shown that present usage of amplitude modulation does not permit the inherent capabilities of the modulation process to be realized. In order to achieve the ultimate performance of which AM is capable synchronous or coherent detection techniques must be used at the receiver and carrier suppression must be employed at the transmitter. When a performance comparison is made between a synchr... View full abstract»

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  • The Possibity of Extending Air-Ground UHF Voice Communications to Distances Far Beyond the Radio Horizon

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):106 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1414 KB)

    Certain of the results of a detailed research investigation of 220 Mcps tropospheric "scatter" field strengths at long distances and high altitudes carried out here at the Air Force Cambridge Research Center are reviewed in some detail. On the basis of the airborne data obtained to date, supplemented by fading statistics obtained here and elsewhere, reasonable initial estimates can be made of the ... View full abstract»

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  • A 600 Kilowatt High Frequency Amplifier

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):40 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (2586 KB)

    A description is given of the electrical circuits and mechanical construction of a power amplifier designed primarily for use in single sideband suppressed carrier operation having a peak envelope power output of 600,000 watts. The amplifier is also designed to handle an off-on keyed CW signal or frequency shift keyed signal at a continuous power output of 300,000 watts. Some of its features are c... View full abstract»

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  • RF Spectra and Interfering Carrier Distortion in FM Trunk Radio Systems With Low Modulation Ratios

    Publication Year: 1961, Page(s):107 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (787 KB)

    This paper provides formulas for evaluating RF spectral shape and interfering carrier distortion in connection with FM trunk radio systems having low modulation ratios. Numerical results are given for 1800-speech-channel systems. The curves showing interfering carrier distortion are of particular interest in connection with systems using RF multiplex (i.e., systems consisting of a number of carrie... View full abstract»

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  • An Electronic Multicoupler and Antenna Amplifier for the VHF-Range

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):43 - 48
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (658 KB)

    A single-stage distributed amplifier for the frequency range from 25 to 223 Mc/s may be used as an antenna amplifier for compensation of cable-attenuation or, in connection with a divider network, as a multicoupler for feeding six receivers from a common antenna. Singlestage amplification results in not only low noise level due to the parallel tube circuitry employed but also in a low cross-modula... View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of IF and Baseband Diversity Combining Receivers

    Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):8 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (641 KB)

    Techniques of diversity reception have advanced rapidly with the advent of over-the-horizon communication. Because of the rapidly fluctuating signals encountered in tropospheric scatter propagation, strong-signal selection (switching diversity) has been largely supplanted by more sophisticated signal-combining techniques. Present tropospheric scatter systems commonly employ either postdetection ra... View full abstract»

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  • Choosing the Optimum Type of Modulation - A Comparison of Several Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):14 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)

    The engineer designing a new communications system often has available a choice between several different types of RF modulation. The four main methods considered here are standard amplitude (AM), double-sideband suppressedcarrier (DSBSC), single-sideband (SSB), and frequency (FM) modulations. Some of their basic system performance characteristics are evaluated on a comparative basis for the trans... View full abstract»

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  • Planning Aspects of Globe-Circling Communications System of High Capacity, Reliability, and Performance Quality

    Publication Year: 1961, Page(s):298 - 311
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1483 KB)

    The need for very long-haul circuits of high-quality has developed considerably over the last few years. Recent developments in the under-seas cable field indicate that a global cable network might be devised to solve much of this traffic problem. A review is made of the basic considerations which enter into the planning of such a network, and it is pointed out that political difficulties may toda... View full abstract»

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  • The Theory of FM Demodulation with Frequency-Compressive Feedback

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):226 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (2307 KB)

    The application of frequency-compressive feedback around an amplitude-insensitive FM demodulator promises important reductions of distortion and noise sensitivity in the demodulation of wide-band FM signals. In this paper, the basic theory of FM demodulation with frequency-compressive feedback (FCF) is presented after a brief discussion of the concept of noise threshold and of the usefulness of th... View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Diversity Improvement in Multiple Frequency Shift Keying

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):177 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)

    Multiple frequency shift keying (MFSK) is a modulation suitable for transmitting digital data under fading conditions. A quantitative analysis of MFSK-with-diversity is presented. The MFSK signals on the several diversity channels are presumed to be perturbed independently by Rayleigh fading and additive white Gaussian noise. Also, it is assumed that fading is slow and that envelope, cross-correla... View full abstract»

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  • Doppler Phenomena in Space Communications

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):25 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (538 KB)

    The Doppler phenomenon is studied under spaceflight conditions. These conditions impose restrictions, and introduce influences which otherwise are of negligible importance. Examples of undesired effects of the Doppler shift in space communications and of applications for useful purposes are given. General relations are derived for the Doppler shift which permit consideration of the space-flight co... View full abstract»

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  • A Synchronous Communications Receiver for the Military UHF Band

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):129 - 133
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (510 KB)

    A synchronous receiver for double-sideband suppressed carrier signals in the 225-mc to 400-mc band is described. The receiver is suitable for voice or data link operation and provides automatic correction of Doppler shifts in the received signal. The "local carrier" oscillator is crystal stabilized at the IF frequency, and electronically tuned by a closed servo loop in which the locallygenerated c... View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Data Transmission System

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):201 - 205
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)

    A real-time data transmission system was designed for and installed at the Atlantic Missile Range. This system is used to transmit the digital range, azimuth, and elevation coordinates from remotely located AN/FPS-16 radars into the Range Safety IBM 704 Computer at Cape Canaveral, Fla. The radar data is transmitted at a 10PPS rate and is used in the computation of a predicted impact point ten time... View full abstract»

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  • Concerning Optimum Frequencies for Space Vehicle Communication

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):167 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (739 KB)

    Optimum frequencies for the varied needs of space vehicle communication can best be determined from the estimated system performance. Each of the contributing equipment and propagation factors over the range of the radio frequency spectrum affects the minimum tolerable signal-to-noise power ratio at the receiver. Over the range of the radio frequency spectrum, the behavior of the individual buildi... View full abstract»

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  • 50-kw Antenna Switching System

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):295 - 301
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (2002 KB)

    There are many HF radio installations today that illustrate the need for an improved antenna switching technique. Today there is a growing requirement to connect rapidly any one of several 50-kw transmitters to any one of many antennas. An antenna switching system must be broad-band, convenient to use, fast, safe for operating personnel, and free of appreciable impedance discontinuities. This pape... View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Low-Noise Techniques on Tropospheric Scatter Communications

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):302 - 306
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)

    This paper defines the expected benefits to be derived from the use of low-noise receiver techniques when applied to tropospheric scatter systems in the 1000 to 2000-mc range. Calculations were made of the expected antenna noise temperatures for "smooth" and "rough" ground locations. These data, plus the known and anticipated performance of various low-noise techniques, permitted the calculation o... View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Propagation Fading and Antenna Fluctuations on Communication Systems in a Jamming Environment

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):43 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (2199 KB)

    The effect of different degrees of both slow propagation fading and antenna fluctuations on the performance of communication systems in the presence of interference was analyzed. The performance of the system was evaluated from the aspect of the probability of error which in turn is related to the required system margin. The results are plotted for a large variety of fading conditions for both the... View full abstract»

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  • Intermodulation Distortion and Efficiency Analysis of Multicarrier Repeaters

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):68 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (426 KB)

    Under suitable conditions a common RF repeater may be used to amplify a number of modulated carriers. The basic limitations are efficiency and intermodulation distortion introduced within the frequency band of any modulated carrier wave by the other modulated carrier waves. Any repeater contains a high-power tube for which the output-input characteristic has nonlinearities that introduce a certain... View full abstract»

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  • Criteria for the Ultimate Capability of the Optimized Tropospheric Scatter System

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):187 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (542 KB)

    Behavior of the tropospheric scatter mechanism is now sufficiently well understood to permit a determination of optimum transmission criteria. The requirements for optimization are established from the channel signal-to-noise ratio equation. It is shown that the optimum is related not only to the basic RF transmission loss, but also to the effective noise figure, antenna gain and medium aperture l... View full abstract»

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  • Coexistence of Celestial and Terrestrial Communications

    Publication Year: 1961, Page(s):460 - 462
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    Artificial satellite repeaters will revolutionize radio communication by permitting the use of microwaves over long paths. There will also be a continuing and mounting need for terrestrial applications of microwave services over relatively short distances. Achieving coexistence between these long- and shortdistance systems will conserve and enhance the utilization of the microwave spectrum. Extens... View full abstract»

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  • The Comparison of Digital Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):141 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1022 KB)

    Two methods are proposed for comparing the performances of digital communication systems differing in the number of available signals, in bandwidth, in rate of transmission, and in complexity. The systems are ranked on the basis of the probability of correct reception of transmitted messages. The signal durations are adjusted so that the systems have either equal bandwidths or equal rates of trans... View full abstract»

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  • Point-to-Point Radio Relaying via the Scatter Mode of Tropospheric Propogation

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):39 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (912 KB)

    Formulas are given for determining the transmitter power required to provide a specified grade of service in point-to-point radio relaying of the following types of signals: television, frequency modulation high fidelity music, frequency modulation voice, frequency shift telegraph, and a just measurable signal. Allowance is made for the antenna gains, the carrier frequency, the systems bandwidth, ... View full abstract»

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  • The Square-Law Single-Sideband System

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):257 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1207 KB)

    A new method of generation of a single-sideband signal has been developed which provides distortionless reception with a square-law envelope detector. This performance is achieved through a new system design rather than a less subtle method, such as carrier reinsertion. It is well known that a single-sideband signal can be represented as a combination of amplitude and phase-modulated signals. Most... View full abstract»

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  • Digital Phase Control Techniques

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):237 - 246
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)

    An analysis of a partially digitized phase-locked loop usingZ-transform sampled data theory is presented. Responses are obtained at various junctions of the loop for both a step frequency input and for a sinusoidal frequency input. These responses are compared with the corresponding responses for an analog phaselocked loop. Stability criterion and root locus are determined. Effects of q... View full abstract»

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  • Economic Analysis of Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):416 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    Modern communications systems are made up from a wide variety of building blocks and they utilize many different techniques. The system designer must first consider what equipments will meet the requirements of the user and should then determine the total cost, i. e., capital cost as well as operating cost of the possible choices. This paper discusses the technical factors to be considered and out... View full abstract»

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  • Air Traffic Control in the Jet Age

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):34 - 47
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB)

    An effective forward step in terminal area air traffic control has been accomplished by development and installation of Radar Approach Control (RAPCON) Center and control tower prototype facilities described. Esoteric complexes detailed provide airport and approach controllers with radar and communication implementation of manual aids to jet and propeller driven traffic control procedures and tech... View full abstract»

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  • A novel decoder for digital communication

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):73 - 84
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (960 KB)

    Where digital systems are used, it is frequently desired to store bits of information, temporarily. This is often necessary when other operations such as checking, are occurring. Following temporary storage, it is then often desired to place the information in long-time storage in the form of open and closed switch contacts. The methods and equipment now used Bre expensive, bulky and complex. The ... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The current retitled publication is  IEEE Transactions on Communications.

Full Aims & Scope