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Popular Articles (April 2015)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. A Future Way of Storing Information: Resistive Random Access Memory.

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 12 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1896 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electronic information storage has become one of the major needs of modern societies, and it represents a market of more than US$5 billion [1]. Among all of the existing technologies, flash memory is the most widespread because of its simple structure, high integration, and fast speed [2]. The core cell of this device is based on the charge and discharge of a capacitor using a transistor as a tiny switch [3], but, as the devices are scaled down, this configuration presents some physical limitations [4]. Therefore, new ways for information storage are required, and, among all existing nonvolatile memories, one that has raised major expectations in recent years is resistive random access memory (RRAM) [5]. In this article, we present the working principle and functioning of the most promising RRAM devices for future information storage. View full abstract»

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  • 2. U-Health Smart Home

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 6 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2739 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new generation of a ubiquitous health smart home is being developed to support the elderly and/or people with chronic diseases in their own home. The goal of the U-Health smart home is to help the elderly to continue to live a more independent life as long as possible in their own home while being monitored and assisted in an unobtrusive manner. This concept of a ubiquitous health care (U-Health) smart home for the elderly has been identified by governments and medical institutions as an important part of the economical, technological, and socially acceptable solution to maintain the health welfare system viable for future generation. View full abstract»

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  • 3. Next-Generation Nanoelectromechanical Switch Contact Materials: A Low-Power Mechanical Alternative to Fully Electronic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 18 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2129 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The deficiency of existing electrical contact materials is currently a significant impediment to the commercialization of nanoelectromechanical (NEM) contact switches?a low-power ?beyond complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology?. NEM switches using traditional metallic electrical contact materials, even those composed of inert, noble metals such as gold (Au) and platinum (Pt), demonstrate premature failure due to either their adhesiveness or catalytic activity, leading to a buildup of insulating interfacial contaminants. Commercially viable NEM switches demand novel contact materials along with efficient methods to evaluate the performance of these materials. View full abstract»

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  • 4. Nanowire-Based Anisotropic Conductive Film: A Low Temperature, Ultra-fine Pitch Interconnect Solution.

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 4 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3135 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advanced microelectronics packaging, driven by the multiple benefits of system performance, power, size, and cost, has now entered the three-dimensional (3-D) era. According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 2012 [1], the interconnect pitch size is predicted to be 4-16 μm at the global interconnect level by the year 2018. Silicon die incorporated with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology [2] can be stacked using solder microbumps as high-density interconnects [3]. However, solder microbump technology faces many challenges because of the intermetallic compound growth and an underfill requirement as the bump size reduces [4]. Meanwhile, the temperature of the soldering process is more than 260 oC, which can result in high thermal stress in the devices and impact the thermal budget of the processing, particularly for the multitechnology node-stacking processes [5]. Therefore, developing interconnect methods, which can provide ultrafine-pitch capability and low-temperature process for 3-D systems, attracts continuous attention from industry [6]. View full abstract»

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  • 5. Surface plasmon nanophotonics: A tutorial

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 12 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this tutorial is to give a practical introduction to surface plasmon nanophotonics. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are introduced as a waveguide mode at a single interface. It is shown how SPPs in nanostructures can both concentrate the local field intensity and shorten the optical wavelength. Localised surface plasmons (LSPs) are introduced and described using the quasi-static approximation. It is shown how LSPs lead to local field enhancement, which may be further cascaded to achieve additional enhancement. A brief discussion of six application areas of surface plasmon nanophotonics is given: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing, SERS, enhanced fluorescence, nonlinear optics, nanolithography and sub-wavelength imaging, and optical trapping. View full abstract»

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  • 6. Inorganic Nanoparticles: Engineering for Biomedical Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 21 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1999 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are small particles with diameters in the range of 1?100 nm. They have shown special and enhanced physical and chemical properties depending on the particle size. The four most common inorganic NPs are 1) noble metal, 2) magnetic, 3) fluorescence, and 4) ?multifunctional, e.g., luminescent magnetic. Table 1 shows the three major types of inorganic NPs and their special applications in medical devices. View full abstract»

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  • 7. Holographic Printing of Three-Dimensional Photonics Structures: A very large-scale integration approach.

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 4 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article describes the transformational changes that have occurred in the last few years in the field of laser holographic lithography. As the nanotechnology industry demands a scalable manufacturing solution for 3-D nanostructures and devices, researchers around the world are answering the call. The persistent efforts and ingenuities of scientists and engineers have transformed laser holographic lithography into a one-optical-element and one-laser-exposure process that is amendable into the existing VLSI fabrication scheme. Leveraged by advances in other fields of optics technology such as adaptive optics, the laser holographic lithography will continue to evolve into a simple, robust, flexible, and scalable manufacturing tool for sophisticated 3-D nanostructures and devices. View full abstract»

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  • 8. Nanoresonators in Sensors and Molecular Transportation: An Introduction to the Possibilities of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Sheets

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 29 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent studies in the growing field of nanotechnology have been oriented toward the development of nanomechanical resonator systems. The ultrahigh frequency of nanoresonators facilitates a wide range of new applications such as ultrahigh-frequency-sensitive sensors, molecular transportation, high-frequency signal processing, biological imaging, quantum measurement, and radio-frequency communications. In this article, the applications of nanoresonators made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene in sensors and molecular transportation are reviewed. Studies on the use of nanoresonators for the detection of atoms/molecules based on vibration and wave propagation analyses are outlined. View full abstract»

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  • 9. Gold Nanocluster DNase 1 Hybrid Materials: An Efficient Method for DNA Contamination Sensing.

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 25 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Protein-encapsulated gold nanocluster (P-AuNC) synthesis was first demonstrated in 2009 [1]. Initially, these P-AuNCs were used as cellular imaging agents as the protein shell surrounding the AuNC made them highly biocompatible. However, recent studies have begun to show that these stabilizing proteins may also retain native biological function, thus giving a dual functionality to these hybrid molecules. Here, we present the synthesis of DNase 1 stabilized AuNCs (DNase 1:AuNCs) with core sizes consisting of either eight or 25 atoms. The DNase 1:Au8NCs exhibit blue fluorescence, whereas the DNase 1:Au25NCs are red emitting. Moreover, in addition to the intense fluorescence emission, the synthesized DNase 1:AuNC hybrids retain the native functionality of the protein, allowing simultaneous detection and digestion of DNA with a detection limit of 2 mg/mL (Figure 1). The DNase 1:AuNCs could be conveniently employed as efficient and fast sensors to augment the current inefficient and time-consuming DNA contamination analysis techniques. View full abstract»

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  • 10. Energy storage is the core of renewable technologies

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 13 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1857 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The article is about nanotechnology energy storage, focusing on solar energy harvest and utilization strategies. A review of the general features of the variety of energy storage, their development, technical and economical feasibility are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • 11. Graphene Based On-Chip Interconnects and TSVs : Prospects and Challenges

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 14 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the first four decades of the semiconductor industry, the system performance was entirely dependent on transistor delay and power dissipation. With technology scaling, the transistor delay and power dissipation significantly reduced; however, a negative impact on the interconnect performance was realized. The reduction in the cross-sectional area of copper (Cu) interconnects resulted in higher resistivity under the effects of enhanced grain and surface scattering. Moreover, with smaller interconnect dimensions and higher operating frequency, the performance of Cu interconnects is gradually being limited by the electromigration effect, stability, operational bandwidth, and crosstalk. This trend is forcing researchers to find an alternative solution for high-speed very-large-scale integration (VLSI) interconnects. View full abstract»

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  • 12. Body on a Chip: Re-Creation of a Living System In Vitro

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 6 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2076 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Body on a chip could contribute to human health and be an extremely useful application in nano/microengineering. However, in reality, body on a chip is still at the proof-of-concept stage, such as in terms of the placement of multiple tissues within a single device, and much effort is required for its development into a practical and useful technology. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to advance individual technologies such as micro/nanoengineering, tissue engineering, and stem cell manipulations and the integration of these technologies. This means that the development of body on a chip requires interdisciplinary research and, if achieved, it would not only represent a vast advancement in drug discovery but would also increase our understanding of specific disease mechanisms. In particular, in conjunction with hPSCs, which are specified for rare diseases, body on a chip will serve as a new platform to study unsolved and unstudied mechanisms of rare diseases and provide cures for such diseases. View full abstract»

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  • 13. Thermionics, Thermoelectrics, and Nanotechnology: New Possibilities for Old Ideas

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 4 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The term solar cell usually brings photovoltaics to mind. Indeed, the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity has dominated the realm of solar-energy harvesting for the past 50 years. However, researchers have now begun to re-evaluate the possibilities of thermionic and thermoelectric energy conversion because of some of their attractive features. These processes involve the conversion of heat to electricity, or light to heat to electricity, and have been investigated for over a century. Advances in nanoscale materials and fabrication techniques have now opened new doors for the application of these effects. View full abstract»

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  • 14. Carbon Nanotubes for Organic Solar Cells

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 18 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ideal interdigitated heterojunctions are considered to be the best solution for high-performance organic solar cells. However, the implementation of the ideal interdigitated structure is difficult. In this article, the general application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in organic solar cells is first discussed followed by the investigation of electrical roles of CNTs in organic solar cells. Based upon the current research results, we propose a novel inverted interdigitated structure for organic photovoltaic cells, which can be implemented by vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA CNTs). The power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells with this interdigitated structure, verified by simulation, exceeds the state-of-the-art performance. View full abstract»

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  • 15. Nanotechnology Public Funding and Impact Analysis: A Tale of Two Decades (1991-2010)

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 9 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanotechnology's economic and societal benefits have continued to attract significant research and development (R&D) attention from governments and industries worldwide. Over the past two decades, nanotechnology has seen quasi-exponential growth in the numbers of scientific papers and patent publications produced. New research topics and application areas are continually emerging, and investment from government, industry, and academia [1], [2] has expanded at substantial levels. But what is the impact of public funding on nanotechnology? How important is its role in driving innovation, invention, and knowledge transfer? View full abstract»

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  • 16. Stretching Silver: Printed Metallic Nano Inks in Stretchable Conductor Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 6 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2452 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Stretchable electronics, recently highlighted as novel devices, attempt the biomimicry of humans? stretchable skin while maintaining full functionality. The stretchability of electronic devices overcomes restrictions on applications for flexible electronics and provides even more options for applications since stretchability ensures that electronic devices are conformable to any curved surface and can even be wrapped around irregularly shaped objects and attached onto surfaces, stretching out and restoring back regularly or irregularly [1]?[4]. View full abstract»

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  • 17. Sensitized Solar Cells via Nanomaterials: A Recent Development in Quantum Dots-Based Solar Cells

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 16 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The economic growth in many parts of the world during the past decade was sustainable because of affordable energy prices. The dependence on oil and electricity has made energy a vital component of our energy needs. In the 20th century, the population quadrupled, and our energy demand increased by 16 times. The exponential energy demand is exhausting our fossil fuel supply at an alarming rate. About 13 terawatts (TW) of energy is currently needed to sustain the lifestyle of 6.5 billion people worldwide. By the year 2050, we will need an additional 10 TW of clean energy to maintain the current lifestyle. To achieve this goal, alternative energy sources to coal,oil, and gas must be provided, such as power from wind and water, biomass, or solar energy. While a future energy mix will most likely be based on all of these sources, only the sun provides the earth with about 104-times more energy than the global daily consumption. Solar energy can be converted to different kinds of energies, such as heat, hydrogen, and electricity. The most direct way is to convert sunlight into electricity by solar cells. View full abstract»

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  • 18. Nanomaterials for Green Energy: Next-Generation Energy Conversion and Storage

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The breakthroughs in next generation energy conversion and storage in thin-film and multifunctional devices depend on nanomaterials and composites, particularly with facile processing and manufacturing techniques. In recent years, several emerging technology breakthroughs have enabled unprecedented device performance when nanomaterials and devices are integrated at the converging length scales. For example, metal nanowires (NWs) incorporated in micro- or nanofluidic channels create plasmonic surface enhancement for biological and chemical sensing to at least a twofold increase in magnitude. Another exciting development is that nanomaterial assemblies are integrated with waveguides and optical fibers to improve light interactions for energy conversion in photosynthesis reactions and solar energy storage. These materials are optimized for electrical as well as optical properties in the devices. Nanostructured carbonaceous materials, semiconductor metal oxides, polymers, and metal NWs enable next-generation solar and wind energy harvesting, chemical and electrical storage, stretchable and flexible electronics, transparent electrodes, and displays. View full abstract»

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  • 19. Piezoresistive Strain Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotube Networks: Contemporary approaches related to electrical conductivity.

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 11 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3911 KB)  

    Since they were discovered in 1991 [2], CARBON nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted enormous attention because of their remarkable properties [1], such as high electrical conductivity, ultrasmall diameter, and large aspect ratio. In addition, CNTs exhibit significant electromechanical properties [3] that could be useful in applications for piezoresistive-type sensors such as strain gauges, pressure sensors, chemical and biological sensors, microelectronic devices, and structural condition monitoring through strain sensing [4]. In addition to the application of a single CNT in various nanoelectromechanical applications, CNT researchers have gradually moved toward potential applications of CNTs as filler candidates in various types of multifunctional material systems, representing a new direction with broad applications [5], [6]. View full abstract»

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  • 20. Plumbing the Depths of the Nanometer Scale

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 13 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7931 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanometer-scale plumbing systems that can transport attograms of material are no longer a pipe dream. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their extremely strong mechanical strength and nanometer-sized hollow cores, are ideal candidates for nanochannels. Experimental setup for investigating the mechanisms of mass delivery is demonstrated in this article. Two Cu-filled CNTs supported on a sample holder and a probe provide three different cases to investigate subjected to electric current, thermal transport, charges, and ionization. Shown here are the schematic of nanorobotic spot welding, time-resolved TEM images from video frames showing the flowing process. The copper core started to flow inside the carbon shells from the root to the tip as the bias voltage reaches up to 2.5 V. Also shown is the mass changes along with time. The mass flow rate is then drawn out from the fitting curve as approximately 120 ag/s. Correlation of the current density and the mass flow rate shows that the driven mechanism is electromigration. The mechanisms for filling and transport have been demonstrated and explained, but significant developments are required for complete system construction. View full abstract»

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  • 21. New Opportunities for Polymer Nanocomposites in Microfluidics and Biomedical MEMS: An introduction to cutting-edge composite polymer materials for use in microfluidics and biomedical MEMS.

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 6 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From the miniaturization of laboratory instrumentation for bedside rapid diagnosis of disease to bioanalytical instrumentation for studying individual cells or molecules in new ways using micromachined structures, microfluidics is well established as an exciting area of research with great promise and an ever-growing application base. Microfluidics is revolutionizing laboratory methods and biomedical devices, offering new capabilities and instrumentation for multiple areas such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis, proteomics, enzymatic analysis, single-cell analysis, immunology, point-of-care medicine, personalized medicine, drug delivery, and environmental toxin and pathogen detection. Through the combination of biosensors; microchannel fluid transport; and other micromechanical, optical, chemical, and fluidic components; microfluidic-based instrumentation has spawned research into miniaturized systems, e.g., bedside rapid diagnosis, wearable environmental monitoring, and biological single-cell monitoring. View full abstract»

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  • 22. Feeling the Pressure: A Parylene-Based Intraocular Pressure Sensor

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 8 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is important for the prevention and treatment of certain human eye diseases. For example, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world according to the World Health Organization [1]. The majority of glaucoma patients have an IOP >; 20 mmHg (compared with a normal IOP of 10 mmHg), which could damage patients optic nerves in the backside of the eye and cause irreversible blindness. Currently, there is no cure for glaucoma, but with early diagnosis and proper treatment, the visual loss can be slowed or eliminated. Due to the lack of other symptoms or pain, and the eye's ability to compensate for loss of peripheral vision, many glaucoma patients are unaware of the disease's development until it is severe. In fact, only half of the patients in the United States are aware of having glaucoma. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent blindness. Thus, a device to diagnose early-stage glaucoma is in demand. View full abstract»

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  • 23. Maximizing Nanotechnology Education at Purdue University: Its Integration into the Electrical Engineering Technology Curriculum

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 19 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (979 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanotechnology education continues to be a national priority [5], [12] while requiring an integration of the basic disciplines (physics, chemistry, and biology) into the systems of engineering and technology. Training the next-generation workforce in this complex and highly interdisciplinary field presents many opportunities and challenges. Various nanotechnology courses and programs [1], [4], [15] have been developed with differing levels of success. The issues of prerequisite material, student selective interests, and program-specific requirements are a few of the challenges that have slowed the rate of nanotechnology education. Also, access to and training on scanning probe microscopes (SPMs), one of the premier tools of nanotechnology [2], has been limited, particularly at the undergraduate level. A few laboratories [7], [13] have been centered around the atomic force microscope (AFM), a subset of the SPM. However, these systems are expensive, and it is a challenge to retain the expertise necessary to maintain, operate, and train students on these systems. View full abstract»

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  • 24. Nanotube Devices for Digital Profiling: A focus on cancer biomarkers and circulating tumor cells.

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 20 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1911 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were first discovered in 1869 in the blood of patients suffering from metastatic disease by an Australian physician, Thomas Ashworth, using optical microscopy [1]. The current understanding is that these CTCs mediate the spread of cancer at distant sites, including the lungs, liver, bones, and brain. CTCs are shed by primary and metastatic cancers in the range of 1-77,200/ml [2], [3]. Recent clinically approved techniques for CTC detection include Veridex from Cell Search [4], the CTC chip [5], and the ADNA test [6], [7], to name a few. Table 1 presents a list of CTC detection methodologies and their U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval stages. Although these methods are impressive, none are handheld point-of-care devices; the test cannot be administered in the clinic, with results available in a few minutes both for CTCs and cancer biomarkers. Therefore, with this objective in mind, we present our results on the development of nanotube devices for detection of both protein biomarkers and CTCs using nanotube devices. View full abstract»

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  • 25. Efficient reuse of waste energy

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 28 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ecological awareness is all important for our environment. How to transfer the waste heat to electric power from exhaust pipes is discussed, which might serve to decrease the consumption of petroleum. We have presented a model of a thermal resistor network to estimate the power generated with thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules and investigated a concept of harvesting waste heat with TEG in automobile applications. To apply the high performance of new nanocrystalline TE materials into the developed TEG module would be very important for the automobiles in future. View full abstract»

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  • 26. Raman Scattering Surface Signal Enhancement: Induced by Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoclusters and nanorods.

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 29 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful technique that has been widely applied in different fields to identify molecular structures and characterize atomic interactions. In this article, we introduce the theory and instrumentation relevant to SERS induced by silicon dioxide (SiO2)-coated shell isolated gold nanoparticles (Au@SiO2) core-shell nanoclusters (NCs) and nanorods (NRs). We explain the synthetic methods used to generate Au@SiO2 core-shell NCs and NRs and show how they can be manipulated for SERS applications, including their use in biosensors that are able to quantitatively analyze small molecules and their roles in the structural identification of -amorphous ultrathin solid-state film materials and in elucidating the interphase reactions between the electrode and electrolyte in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Our findings support the view that SERS techniques, used in conjunction with metallic NCs or NRs, can reduce the detection limits for target molecules and are, thus, applicable to future studies of nanoscale materials. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Transport in Graphene: Studying Layers of BN, SiC, and SiO2

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 18 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We will examine the mobility and high-field velocity in graphene placed upon various substrates, such as boron nitride (BN), silicon carbide (SiC), or silicon dioxide (SiO2). The transport is subject to the intrinsic phonons in graphene as well as flexural modes, but it is the remote polar modes from the substrate and impurities sited between the substrate layer and graphene that dominate the mobility and velocity. View full abstract»

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  • 28. Virtual Learning Environments: How They Can Benefit Nanotechnology Safety Education

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 15 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (867 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Progress has been made to increase awareness and funding to investigate worker exposure during the nanotechnology production process; however, compliance with widely accepted safety procedures for nanoworkers has yet to be fully realized [7]. The call for further emphasis on this topic was raised by the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (2012) and also in a recent article in IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine, in which the author commented that "Even though hazard data exist for many classes of nanomaterials, some of which carry unwanted health effects, there is little focus on the potential for human exposure and on workplace issues? [1]. This article explores the potential of virtual learning environments (VLEs) for nanotechnology safety education and presents a recent research study with implications for nanoeducators (Figure 1). View full abstract»

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  • 29. A Microsized Microbial Solar Cell: A demonstration of photosynthetic bacterial electrogenic capabilities.

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 24 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3094 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article focuses on a microsized microbial solar cell (MSC) that can produce sustainable energy through photosynthetic reactions of cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 in the anode. The MSC has 57-μL anode/cathode chambers defined by laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates. We obtained a maximum power density of 7.09 nW/cm2, which is 170 times more power than previously reported microelectromechanical system (MEMS) MSCs. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current during the day than at night, indicating light-dependent photosynthetic processes. Considering that sunlight offers an unlimited source of energy, the development of self-sustainable MSCs that rely on light as an energy source will become an increasingly important area of research in the future. In accordance with the MSC, we developed a photosynthetic cathode-based microbial fuel cell (MFC), showing that the use of cyanobacteria can be useful as well as efficient and sustainable catalysts for the cathode since they act as oxygenators. View full abstract»

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  • 30. National Program on Nano Technology: Fostering the advancement and industrialization of nanotechnology in Taiwan.

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 12 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The National Program on Nanotechnology (NPNT), launched in 2003, is a landmark project in Taiwan to promote the scientific and technological development of the country's academic and industrial sectors. This article will provide an overview of the NPNT, including the missions, research and technology achievements, academia-industry and international collaborations, and future goals. Through the effort made by the NPNT, the promotion of industrial investments and economic competitiveness will be fostered by a continuous industry revolution in terms of resource development and realization of academic research results in practical products. The ultimate goal of the commercialization of nanotechnology can be accomplished in Taiwan. View full abstract»

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  • 31. Monolayer Uniformity of the Nanosphere Mask: Two-dimensional ordered gold nanoparticle arrays with nanosphere lithography.

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 20 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is a simple, effective, and convenient technique for the fabrication of nanoholes, pillar structures, and nanoparticles. An optimal parameter is required for each procedure to fabricate the desired nanostructure, especially for optoelectronic applications to increase their optoelectronic conversion efficiency or some biomedical detection. We produced arrays of gold (Au) nanoparticles with these particles smaller than 100 nm for an application; hence, we focused on precise control in every step. With an innovative method, the step of droplet evaporation in microwells, the monolayer of polystyrene (PS) bead mask achieved great uniformity. By simply adjusting the droplet size and the colloidal concentration, we obtained the largest monolayer area. The monolayer of PS beads on the substrate served as a mask through which Au films were deposited. As a water film occurred on the PS beads that might block the Au deposit onto the substrate, the PS beads had to be treated with an oxygen (O2) plasma to enlarge the interstices between them. The thickness of the Au deposited was tuned to fabricate annealed nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm. According to this control, the Au nanoparticles were small and formed highly dense arrays. View full abstract»

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  • 32. Nanocarbon-Based Hybrid Materials for Electrocatalytical Energy Conversion: Novel Materials and Methods

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 22 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rising global energy demand has stressed the need to develop and implement novel materials and methods for sustainably harvesting, conserving, and using energy. The ability to control the interconversion of energy from one form to another with a high rate and efficiency at low cost is essential. Electrochemistry is a fundamental science to study the conversion between electrical and chemical energies. Its principle has been applied to a range of energy technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, and electrolytic or solar water splitting devices. In contrast to fossil fuel combustion, electrochemical reactions are direct and clean processes with minimal environmental impact. They are not limited by Carnot efficiency and therefore can attain substantially higher efficiency than, for example, a conventional heat engine at low temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • 33. Nanorobotic Processing of Graphene: A platform tailored for rapid prototyping of graphene-based devices.

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 14 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene, an ultrathin membrane consisting of carbon, is currently the focus of numerous research groups around the world. Due to its outstanding physical properties, this new type of material is highly promising in enabling several novel applications. However, up until now, the integration of high-quality graphene into real devices remains challenging. This article presents a nanorobotic platform tailored for the rapid prototyping of graphene-based devices. Applying the capabilities of this platform, a nanorobotic strategy is proposed that enables the identification, electrical characterization, and integration of graphene into device structures without using any time-consuming lithographical procedures. In this way, graphene-based devices can be fabricated and classified within a few hours, significantly reducing the effort and, consequently, the costs of device prototyping. As an example of this strategy, graphene flakes are electrically characterized and transferred onto a target area of a final device. View full abstract»

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  • 34. Carbon nanotubes in nanopackaging applications

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 22 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    CNTs are recently discovered materials made by rolled-up sheets of graphene. They may be made either by a single shell [single-walled CNT (SWCNT) with radius ranging from 0.7 to 3-4 nm] or several nested shells [multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) with outer radius typically of the order of some tens of nanometers]. The length of a nanotube may reach the order of millimeters, and hence, this nanostructured material exhibits an excellent form factor, able to comply with the ultrafine pitches required in nanopackaging. CNT (carbon nanotubes) to be used for vertical vias or interconnects for packaging applications, very high-density SWCNT bundles must be demonstrated. When using MWCNT bundles instead, the achieved density comes from a compromise between the CNT radius and its shell number. The fabrication process must provide low contact resistance, good direction control, and compatibility with CMOS technology. The road for CNTs to replace copper in chip packaging is still long, but the gap between theoretical predictions and practical applications is reducing faster and faster. View full abstract»

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  • 35. Bionanomanipulation Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 9 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2503 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explains how an AFM-based nanorobot was developed to visualize and quantify the dynamics of cell proteins interactions under physiological and pathophysiological conditions at the nanoscale. As these events are directly related at the molecular level to the causes of many life-threatening or incurable diseases, the development of an AFM-based nanorobot, which can image and manipulate biological objects at the single molecule level, is a novel approach to reveal disease markers and elucidate the disease mechanisms. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Scaling properties of nanotube-based macroscopic cables through multiscale numerical simulations

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 14 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1350 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles are extremely interesting for engineering applications because of their density, elastic modulus, and mechanical strength. In particular, ambitious structures such as space elevators or superbridges (i.e., kilometer-long suspended bridges) could be conceived by exploiting the unique properties provided by CNT technology.Many experimental studies exist for the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of CNTs or CNT yarns; however, numerical studies clearly become indispensable when predictions are to be made for full-scale structures.To address these issues, we describe a numerical procedure based on a hierarchical fiber-bundle model (HFBM) approach specifically developed to carry out multiscale simulations for CNT-based cables and estimate relevant mechanical characteristics such as Young's modulus, strength or released energy during damage progression, and evaluate the scaling of these properties with cable size. View full abstract»

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  • 37. Nanomaterials-Based Solutions: Detection of arsenic in contaminated water.

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 17 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In many regions of the world, drinking water has been contaminated with arsenic, resulting in a serious public health crisis and posing a threat to global sustainability. Therefore, the detection of arsenic in contaminated water has received considerable attention from the research community. The unique properties of nanomaterials can be harnessed by incorporating them into sensors that may improve their sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, and portability. This article highlights the recent advances in nanomaterials-based sensors for the detection of arsenic in contaminated water. The various sensing techniques and their applications in nanomaterials-based sensing are presented. The future direction toward a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for sensing real-world samples is also outlined. View full abstract»

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  • 38. Optical Tweezer Technology

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 17 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The optical tweezer, with the ability to apply force and deformation on a micro scaled object on the order of piconewton (pN, 10~12 N) and nanometer (nm, 10~9 m), is utilized in this study to manipulate primitive myeloblasts from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients for biomechanical properties characterization. Mcrobeads are attached to cell surfaces serving as handles. Cells are stretched by moving the beads with optical traps and progressively increasing the distance between them. Through force calibration and image processing, the relationship between stretching force and induced cell deformation can be established, from which the biomechanical properties of AML myeloblasts are characterized based on a computational model. The findings in this study will provide insights into the cell mechanics of primitive AML hematopoietic cells. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Nano- and Biotechniques in Electronic Packaging

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 23 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3268 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Packaging is a part of technology that merges the functional components to systems and ensures the operation of these systems for all environmental conditions allowed. It comprises the geometric arrangement of the components within the system, energy supply, signal distribution, heat dissipation, and the implementation of protective functions. The Research Training Group (RTG) "Nano- and Biotechniques for Electronic Packaging" contributes to this process by developing and investigating new and innovative packaging solutions that apply methods from nano- and biotechnology. This work focused on the materials and technologies not yet used for packaging. This approach enables new packaging solutions that are totally different from the ones used up to now. View full abstract»

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  • 40. Synthesized Aluminum Nanowires for Future Interconnects [Nanopackaging]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 24 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (806 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the Al interconnect became an old technology that was already replaced by Cu, the world of bottom-up synthesis could give the old Al a new opportunity. While there is not much data in relation to bottom-up synthesized Cu nanowires, this stress-induced grown AlNWs show almost ideal resistivity originated from perfect surface without grain boundaries. It also showed low loss microwave transmission over 100 GHz, and the breakdown current is much larger than that of patterned interconnects. One difficulty of such bottom-up synthesized nanowires is the accurate alignment of the nanowires at the designated position. There are several works that provide possible clues to this problem. The dielectrophoretic alignment and solution-based Langmuir-Blodgett technique are some examples. View full abstract»

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  • 41. In It to WIN It

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 4 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanotechnology and its applications are poised for explosive growth in the years ahead. The Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), with a new state-of-theart Quantum Nano Centre, a young and dynamic research faculty, and home to hundreds of Canada's best nanotechnology engineering students, is positioned to contribute to that growth as one of the foremost centers for nanoresearch and innovation in the world. From developments in advanced lithium-ion battery technologies, next-generation solar photovoltaic cells, and thermoelectric conversion materials to hybrid bionanocomposite materials and nanocatalysts, advances in fundamental understanding of materials design will lead to real-world applications. WIN anticipates major progress in organic electronic devices, large-area displays, and miniaturized CNTs or graphene-based X-ray sources. Single-electron and single-photon quantum devices enabled by nanotechnology will be fabricated and employed in quantum information processing. Handheld lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices with microfluidic flow in channels controlled by electric fields will become a reality for disease and pathogen diagnosis, replacing more bulky and expensive analytical instrumentation. Drugs encapsulated in nanoparticles delivering therapies directly to a cancerous tissue will be in clinical trials for early adoption, and new, innovative nanotools for imaging and measurement will be introduced. These are only a few of the exciting results researchers expect to see from the next ten years of research at WIN. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Realizing Terawatt-Scale Solar Electricity: Nanotechnology-Enabled Physical Mechanisms and Material Properties

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 6 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we briefly review the importance of efficiency for PVs, the thermodynamic efficiency limits, and implications for PVs. Also, we have reviewed how nanostructures can improve existing devices and theoretically allow devices near the thermodynamic limits. View full abstract»

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  • 43. Video Rate Atomic Force Microscopy: Use of compressive scanning for nanoscale video imaging

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1965 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a powerful instrument for studying and exploring the nanoworld [1]. AFM can obtain ultrahigh-resolution images at the subnanoscale level. However, AFM has a very significant drawback of slow imaging speed, which is due to its working principle. A conventional AFM conducts a raster scan of an entire area to generate a topography image. Therefore, the frame rate is low, making it impossible for observation of biological and physical processes that are dynamic in nature with a lifespan of a few minutes or even seconds, such as the structural change of cells, carbon nanotube shape change, and so forth [2]?[5]. In addition, for AFM-based nanomanipulations and nanomeasurement, the low frame rate makes it difficult to achieve a real-time visual guide manipulation [6], [7]. Operators usually have to wait for finishing imaging to visualize the manipulating results. Therefore, there is an increasing demand on a fast-imaging AFM system that can capture a continuous phenomenon occurring in seconds. View full abstract»

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  • 44. Advancing Electronic Packaging Using Microsolder Balls: Making 25-nm Pitch Interconnection Possible

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 24 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electronic packaging technology has advanced in the direction of integrating diverse components into one package to satisfy market demands for multifunctionality as well as portability. For this reason, various packaging structures have been introduced, such as multichip modules, package on package, package in package, and eventually three-dimensional (3-D)-chip stacks. All of these approaches require increased input/output (I/O) counts, resulting in fine-pitch assembly. Therefore, the most critical issue in current electronic packaging is how to assemble fine-pitch components while avoiding an electrical short circuit in the x-y direction. Much research has been done on fine-pitch interconnecting technology using microsolder balls smaller than 200 nm, but the problems of solder-ball handling and low yield remain. In addition, there have been few reports so far about the fine-pitch interconnection below 25-nm pitch using microsolder balls. Three-dimensional-chip stacks require an additional microsolder and copper hybrid bumping and patterning processes on through silicon via (TSV), which increases the processing cost. View full abstract»

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  • 45. The Development of an Infrared Camera Using Graphene: Achieving Efficient High-Resolution Infrared Images.

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1169 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-performance quantum infrared cameras are substantially expensive and complicated in comparison to general visible light cameras. Producing a high-resolution infrared camera is especially difficult due to the lack of suitable photon absorption materials in the infrared spectrum and various challenges involved in design, manufacturing, and characterization. Graphene, a novel one atomic-layer-thick carbon material, is a promising building block for the next generation nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices [1]. Graphene exhibits remarkably high conductivity [2], high electron mobility [3], [4], and a unique band structure [5], [6], which allows it to operate as nano infrared detectors [7], [8]. View full abstract»

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  • 46. The Heat Is On: Graphene Applications

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 15 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well recognized that power consumption and heat removal in state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) with the nanometer size of transistors is an urgent challenge. The electronic industry's transition to multicore designs, where the performance increase is achieved not via the increase in the clock frequency but rather through the increase in the number of processors, helped to alleviate some of the thermal issues but has not solved the problem of the nonuniformity of heat distribution inside a computer chip. View full abstract»

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  • 47. Nanotechnology and Asbestos: Informing Industry About Carbon Nanotubes, Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide, and Nanosilver

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 6 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With greater knowledge comes greater responsibility and greater liability. When it comes to nanotechnology, our ability to understand the potential risks is unprecedented, thanks in part to the asbestos mass tort experience. If the nanotechnology industry wants to avoid a similar catastrophe, the lessons of the asbestos litigation should be heeded now. View full abstract»

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  • 48. Communicating Novel Computational State Variables: Post-CMOS Logic

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 15 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3226 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The semiconducting material silicon forms the heart of the current complimentary metal?oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Over the last four decades, the productivity of silicon technology has increased by a factor of more than a billion [1]. This growth in silicon technology was made possible by a steady reduction in the feature size, which helps pack more functionality per cost in a microprocessor. Today, the silicon-based semiconductor industry is an approximately US$270 billion market [1]. This exponential growth of the semiconductor industry was first observed by Dr. Gordon Moore. In 1965, Moore observed that the computing power of a microprocessor doubled every 18?24 months, and this observation later became known as Moore?s law [2]. In essence, Moore?s law is an economic law that serves to guide long-term planning and to set targets for research and development in the semiconductor industry. However, quantum-mechanical laws dictate that there are fundamental challenges associated with scaling on-chip components to below 10 nm [3]. A revolutionary innovation in semiconductor technology would be needed to sustain Moore?s law for advanced technology nodes below 10 nm [1], [4]. We examine performance trends of on-chip devices and interconnects upon dimensional scaling. This is followed by a discussion on emerging technologies and the repercussions of interconnects for these novel technologies. View full abstract»

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  • 49. Nanotech Commercialization in the United States [Commercialization]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 24 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (125 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the previous issue, I focused on R&D trends and also referred to concerns regarding the United States and the importance of maintaining steady funding by the public and private sectors for emerging technologies such as nanotech. The overall R&D funding climate is always a leading indicator of future innovation activity, and delays or reductions can spread out the time necessary to bring to market commercial products. Though companies and even the government become hard pressed to keep up the pace in a down economy, the ramifications of falling behind can be severe in terms of lost opportunities and competitiveness. Many areas of nanotechnology are still in a nascent stage of development, and sudden breakthroughs may lead to strong disruptions in existing technology and product markets in relatively short order. View full abstract»

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  • 50. Carbon Nanotube-Based Artificial Tracheal Prosthesis: Carbon nanocomposite implants for patient-specific ENT care.

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 27 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed the first patient-specific carbon nanotube (CNT) composite artificial tracheal implant tested on a porcine model in vivo. The experimental subject has survived with the implant with no apparent problems. Carbon nanocomposite material and the patient-specific approach have also been used to develop a voice prosthesis device as well as new microclips for wound closure. This article presents our experimental investigation with the carbon nanocomposite materials for constructing patient-specific ear, nose, and throat (ENT) implants. View full abstract»

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