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Industry and General Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Popular Articles (February 2015)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. Advanced Color Sensing and Control Methods

    Publication Year: 1968 , Page(s): 486 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1697 KB)  

    Utilizing the unique properties of photovoltaic cells for color sensing provides a radically new concept for adaption to control and packaging processes. Integrated with conventional electronic circuitry they may be used for controlling many processes dependent upon color. This paper discusses the properties of photo-voltaic cells, concepts for use as color sensors, and potential areas of application in control processes. View full abstract»

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  • 2. Resistance of Low-Voltage AC Arcs

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 607 - 616
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5187 KB)  

    Arcing tests conducted in the electrical laboratory indicate that the most probable value of resistance of the low-voltage arc in ohms is equal to 40 divided by the arcing current to the 0.85 power. It is believed that this equation is approximately correct for 120 to 600 volt, 60-Hz ac stable arcing as ir a typical arcing burn-down in a panelboard or switchboard in which the arc length is approximately 21/2 inches. At any point in the low-voltage system having an impedance of R + jX, the most probable value of arcing current is equal to V/(Rarc + R + jX). The calculation is made by a process of iteration starting with the bolted fault value of current. Curves of arcing current versus bolted fault current simplify the problem of calculating the arcing-current value. View full abstract»

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  • 3. The Thyristor Electronic Transformer: a Power Converter Using a High-Frequency Link

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 451 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2352 KB)  

    The electronic transformer is a device which behaves in the same manner as a conventional power transformer in that it steps voltage levels up or down while providing isolation and can accommodate load current of any power factor. It contains thyristor power switches which convert the low-frequency (dc to 400-Hz) voltage wave to a high-frequency (in the order of 10 000 Hz) wave. A comparatively small magnetic transformer then provides the voltage level transformation and isolation functions. Similar thyristor power switches then reconstruct the original low-frequency wave at the desired output voltage level. This device can incorporate additional features not found in a conventional transformer, such as current limiting and current interruption. The theory of operation is presented and confirmed by experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • 4. General Analysis of Three-Phase Inverters

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 672 - 679
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2706 KB)  

    A method of analysis for three-phase inverters is described. The method is based on Park vectors [1], [2] and predicts the waveforms of inverter quantities under various load conditions. The procedure discussed can be used to determine the commutation sequence of a pulsewidth modulated inverter. The current distribution of the inverter can be obtained from the current vector. The vectors of the inverter voltage and currents are determined for passive R-L and R-C loads. Oscillograms of the current vectors are shown for different loads. View full abstract»

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  • 5. Torque Pulsations in Induction Motors with Inverter Drives

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 318 - 323
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2082 KB)  

    Torque pulsations in induction motors would have an average value of zero and therefore are generally neglected by inverter induction machine system designs. A simple equivalent circuit method is presented for estimating the magnitude of torque fluctuations under steady-state operating conditions based on single-phase equivalent circuits. The method indicates that torque fluctuations are due mainly to the interaction of fundamental flux in the air gap at harmonic rotor currents. Inverters producing a 6-stepped voltage waveform, the predominant pulsating torque is at the sixth harmonic and the magnitude of the fluctuation is independent of operating frequency, provided that constant volts per Hz is maintained. The method is extendable to PWM inverter-machine systems with similar conclusions with respect to variation of torque over the input frequency range. However, for the PWM inverter with a fixed number of pulses per cycle, the torque pulsations can approach or exceed full-load average torque. The method outlined is simple and amenable to hand calculations. View full abstract»

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  • 6. Underground Corrosion and Electrical Grounding

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 237 - 243
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2363 KB)  

    Underground corrosion associated with electrical grounding has caused numerous problems in operating electric systems. Much of the difficulty is due to dissimilar metal effects between buried copper and steel connected together via the grounding network. Unfortunately, these effects are widely ignored in electrical design and the requirements of electrical protection and corrosion mitigation are often seen as opposing each other. Experience has shown that both sets of requirements can be met. On electric distribution lines, the most helpful measures against corrosion include the use of galvanized steel rather than copper for grounding electrodes. Sacrificial anodes are helpful for adding additional corrosion protection where needed. Underground copper wire should be tinned or otherwise coated to avoid or minimize dissimilar metal effects. Research is in progress for determining what coatings would be best for this purpose. View full abstract»

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  • 7. Slip Power Recovery in an Induction Motor by the Use of a Thyristor Inverter

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 74 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2240 KB)  

    The low-speed efficiency of an induction motor is improved by rectifying slip-frequency power, inverting this to line frequency, and injecting it back into the supply directly (line feed-back) or through auxiliary stator windings (stator feedback). Torque-speed curves then have the nature of a variable-speed drive. The low power factor and nonsinusoidal supply current of the line feedback connection are improved by use of the stator feed-back method but the improvement of efficiency is then much less. Line feedback with a two-phase induction motor eliminates the need for a variable control voltage source. View full abstract»

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  • 8. Safe Locked Rotor Time: How Safe Is It?

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 708 - 712
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3410 KB)  

    Stalling of an induction-motor, or its failure to accelerate upon start-up, produces both thermal and mechanical stress within the stator and rotor which can be damaging. Whether the stator winding or rotor cage reaches unsafe stress limits first depends upon individual motor design. "Safe locked time" is considered the maximum period a motor can be locked on the line without significant loss of motor life. The nature of these stresses imposed on motor components, how they vary with design, and why the nature of acceleration heating differs from that of locked rotor heating is explained. Equally important, the effect of the motor's "safe time-current characteristic" (which expresses internal stress limits in terns of line current) on the problem of protective relaying is described. Solution of this problem inust depend upon the system designer's understanding of this characteristic. View full abstract»

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  • 9. Design Considerations for Microwave Oven Cavities

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 74 - 80
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4212 KB)  

    The heating mechanism in a microwave oven results from the interaction of a high-frequency electromagnetic field and the food within it. In most ovens the field is generated by a magnetron which converts dc energy to high-frequency energy at approximately 2450 MHz. This energy is then propagated into the oven chamber which is, in reality, a multimode resonant cavity where the energy is reflected from the walls to create standing wave patterns. To properly design a microwave oven, one must consider not only the magnetron but also the dimensions and resonant properties of the oven cavity. The designer must strive for a uniform energy density within the cavity for uniform cooking of the food and must be sure the cavity presents the proper load to the magnetron. These objectives are discussed, and a procedure for obtaining them is outlined. View full abstract»

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  • 10. The Use of Concrete-Enclosed Reinforcing Rods as Grounding Electrodes

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 337 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4470 KB)  

    The findings of Ufer that concrete-encased metal objects were effective in providing improved grounding under adverse soil conditions suggests that the reinforcing framework of footings for the columns of structural steel buildings would provide effective grounding function and means. Ensuing tests in high, medium, and low resistivity soils indicate that the grounding capability of such reinforced foctings (per unit) is equivalent to that of conventional electrodes under low and medium soil resistivity conditions and superior to them under high soil resistivity conditions. In addition, the much larger number of column footings required for structural reasons does, when used, provide much more effective grounding under all soil conditions than previously used systems. The steel framework of such buildings, if electrically connected at each column base to an inherent grounding electrode, then functions as a very efficient grounding network for system, lightning, and static grounding. Fault grounding should always employ a return conductor following the routing of the faulted conductor. The use of new types of grounding electrodes is becoming obligatory due to the widening unsuitability of water pipe systems for grounding purposes. This unsuitability is due to the use of nonconducting joints in the water piping and to the use of nonconducting piping for the water system. View full abstract»

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  • 11. Optimum Vo1tage and Frequency for Polyphase Induction Motors Operating with Variable Frequency Power Supplies

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 480 - 487
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2349 KB)  

    Induction motors with variable frequency are becoming more widely used for variable speed drives. These motors may operate over a wide torque and speed range. By an adjustment in voltage and frequency, a motor can be made to operate at the minimum loss for any torque and speed. Equations and curves are developed to find the voltage and frequency to produce the minimum loss, and also to find the value of the loss. It is shown that for a typical motor, the slip speed should be allowed to increase slightly as required torque increases if minimum loss is to be attained. View full abstract»

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  • 12. Polyphase Induction Motor Noise

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 339 - 358
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4711 KB)  

    Increasing awareness of industrial noise pollution and the sparsity of published literature on noise control of electric motors indicate the need for a comprehensive review of the problem as well as its solutions. Fundamental concepts of noise generation, propagation, and measurement are presented and historic limits are referred to. Specific electrical and mechanical noise sources are discussed as are source and transmission control measures. Several illustrative numerical samples are used. Definite electric motor noise classifications are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • 13. Reevaluation of Lethal Electric Currents

    Publication Year: 1968 , Page(s): 467 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (55)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2945 KB)  

    Low-frequency electric currents of a few milliamperes flowing through the body cause muscular contractions. In the arm such an effect may make a subject unable to let go of a live conductor. The highest currents which 99.5 per cent of men and 99.5 percent of women are able to let go have been shown to be 9 and 6 mA, respectively. Currents somewhat larger than this, in the range of 20 to 40 mA, passing across the chest may arrest respiration leading to asphyxia, unconsciousness, and even death. View full abstract»

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  • 14. The Problem of Arcing Faults in Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 15 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6058 KB)  

    Many cases of electrical equipment burndown arising from low-level arcing-fault currents have occurred in recent years in low-voltage power distribution systems. Burndown, which is the severe damage or complete destruction of conductors, insulation systems and metallic enclosures, is caused by the concentrated release of energy in the fault arc. Both grounded and ungrounded electrical distribution systems have experienced burndowns, and the reported incidents have involved both industrial and commercial building distribution equipment, without regard to manufacturer, geographical location, or operating environment. View full abstract»

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  • 15. A Synchronous Tap Changer Applied to Step-Up Cycloconverters

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 244 - 249
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2786 KB)  

    The operating principles of a transformer tap changing system are presented. The system is named synchronous tap changer because it changes taps in synchronism with its input signal. The purpose of a synchronous tap changer is to change the turns ratio of a transformer in a manner which will reduce the distortion content of the incoming signal. In effect, it is an active filter. It is expected to find use in power type systems. View full abstract»

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  • 16. Application of Integrated Circuits to Industrial Control Systems with High-Noise Environments

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 278 - 281
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1883 KB)  

    A definition of both dc and ac noise margin is presented and used to compare the noise sensitivity of various logic devices. For integrated circuit applications in very high-noise environments, a systematic design method is proposed that produces noise immune systems. The method, which is based on the flow table approach for sequential circuits, gives the location of a minimum number of slow gates or slow-down networks, while critical race conditions are easily identified and eliminated. View full abstract»

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  • 17. What to Look for in a Low-Voltage Unit Substation

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 710 - 719
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3454 KB)  

    Many considerations from location to breaker selection in the application of low-voltage unit substations in the cement industry are presented. Five basic topics are covered in the following order: general considerations, high-voltage section, transformer section, breaker section, and device coordination. Features of the new solid-state trip device now available on low-voltage circuit breakers plus coordination aspects of fault protection are also discussed. The material is presented in such a manner that it can be used as a check list when specifying low-voltage unit substations. View full abstract»

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  • 18. The Application of Lasers to Industry

    Publication Year: 1968 , Page(s): 379 - 390
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9647 KB)  

    The recent increase in energy output, average power, and reliability of some lasers has made them worthy of consideration for manufacturing operations. Pulsed lasers can be used for hole punching and spot welding. Low-power continuous output gas lasers can be used for a wide variety of applications, including optical alignment, interferometric precision measurements, and measurements of fluid flow velocity. Other continuous output lasers, such as the carbon dioxide gas laser, are capable of power outputs in excess of 103 watts at greater than 10 percent efficiency and can be used to cut materials in unique ways. Lasers show particular promise for use in automated operations, and the use of a light beam as a cutting agent eliminates the need for maintenance such as cleaning and sharpening. View full abstract»

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  • 19. Torque Amplification and Torsional Vibration in Large Mill Drives

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 333 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (10871 KB)  

    Dynamic characteristics of rotating drive trains in reversing hot mills are discussed. Linear reactions of a classical spring-mass mechanical system and nonlinear reactions of a mill drive train were studied by field tests and analytical computations. Meaningful approaches are offered by these studies to many mechanical problems which have been hitherto undefined. View full abstract»

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  • 20. A New Ground Fault Protective System for Electrical Distribution Circuits

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 217 - 227
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7671 KB)  

    Distribution circuits which are solidly grounded or grounded through low impedance present a problem relative to fast clearing of ground faults. This is especially true in low-voltage grounded Y circuits which are connected to bus ducts or long runs of metallic conduct. The problem involves sensitivity in detecting low ground fault currents as well as coordination between main and feeder circuit protective devices. Fault clearing must be extremely fast where arcing is present. View full abstract»

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  • 21. Changing Aspects of Rural Underground Distribution

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 83 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5829 KB)  

    The potential of underground distribution in rural areas is examined in terms of the gain in safety and reliability as well as in appearance. The applicability of underground service to specific rural loads and to conditions resulting from right-of-way difficulties and exposure to severe weather is discussed. Ferroresonance, charging current, voltage control, and other problems connected with the operation of relatively long, lightly loaded primary cables are recognized. The prospects for future development of underground rural distribution are discussed in relation to the rapidly changing pattern of rural life in the United States. View full abstract»

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  • 22. Instrument Transformers

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 563 - 569
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3311 KB)  

    Instrument transformers serve an important role in the protective circuits of industrial and commercial electric power systems. They are auxiliary devices that are used in the measurement of current and voltage. They reproduce in their secondary circuits, in a definite and known proportion suitable for use in protective devices, the current or voltage of their primary circuits with the phase relations substantially preserved. They are used to protect personnel and apparatus from high voltages and to permit the use of reasonable and standardized insulation levels and current-carrying capacities in the protective device circuits. The high degree of accuracy required for meters and instruments is not essential for protective purposes. Since system protection and coordination is the subject, the aspects of high accuracy for metering are not covered. The two general types are 1) current transformers, used in current measurement; and 2) potential transformers, used in voltage measurement. View full abstract»

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  • 23. The Magic of I2t

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 384 - 392
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2975 KB)  

    Evaluation of the effects of a short-time irregular-shape current pulse on the conductors and devices through which such current pulses pass can be a perplexing problem to the industrial power system engineer, as well as to those working in other areas. The adverse effects may range from a nuisance mal-function in the overall circuit to a catastrophic explosive failure in power circuit equipment. View full abstract»

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  • 24. Maintenance of Computers and Instrumentation

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 720 - 726
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1497 KB)  

    The major problems of computer and instrumentation maintenance are discussed with the aim of reducing downtime. To achieve this goal the maintenance engineer must possess a thorough knowledge of all aspects of the computer and its operation. View full abstract»

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  • 25. Zener diode - a protecting device against voltage transients

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 481 - 488
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2467 KB)  

    This paper begins with a discussion of the different modes of operation of a zener diode and continues with a study of its behavior during voltage transient conditions. A critique of the accepted electrical analogies of the thermal circuit of a zener diode is conducted, and the analysis of the thermal response of a zener diode to a power pulse is made in a highly simplified thermal model. A brief review of basic semiconductor knowledge is included as a frame of reference for the discussion of the causes of zener diode failure. The concept of zener diode failure produced by a high rate of rise of the junction temperature is introduced. View full abstract»

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  • 26. Commutation dv/dt Effects in Thyristor Three-Phase Bridge Converters

    Publication Year: 1968 , Page(s): 665 - 672
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2373 KB)  

    A significant factor to be considered in properly designed thyristor converter circuits is dv/dt. The intent of this paper is to analyze a three-phase bridge circuit and show the following. 1) dv/dt faults due to turn-on transients are a threat only for operation in the inverter mode. 2) dv/dt faults due to the thyristor recovery transient are a threat for rectifier operation from about 50 to 0 percent of maximum dc output voltage (a between 60 and 90 degrees) as well as in the inverter mode. 3) dv/dt due to recovery is generally less severe and more easily suppressed than that due to turn-on. 4) Turn-on induced dv/dt can be calculated approximately by the use of simple equivalent circuits. 5) Recovery induced dv/dt can also be calculated if peak reverse current is known. 6) Thyristor critical dv/dt rating at 50 to 60 percent of rated anode voltage may be more useful than present standard ratings. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Electrical Cable Protection

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 310 - 325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3994 KB)  

    The primary considerations involved in cable protection are presented along with some methods of applying the protection. The proper selection and rating (derating) of cables is as much a part of cable protection as the application of the short-circuit and overcurrent protection devices. The whole scheme of protection is based on a cable rating which is matched to the environment and operating conditions. Methods of assigning these ratings are discussed View full abstract»

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  • 28. The Effects of High-Voltage DC Power Transmission Systems on Buried Metallic Pipelines

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 403 - 415
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2062 KB)  

    The types of high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) system configuration and the detrmental effects that this type of transmission can have on its surroundings are summarized. Discussed in detail are the test procedures followed and camred out to determine some of the effects on a major pipeline by simulated conditions, followed up by tests with the actual HVDC system and subsequent tests with the operating HVDC system at its initial and ultimate load levels and how the experienced interference was offset by conventional cathodic protection methods. View full abstract»

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  • 29. Computer-Aided Thyristor Overload Current Ratings for Motor Drive and Other Applications Requiring Repetitive Overloads

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 524 - 535
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3180 KB)  

    The wide usage of the silicon-controlled rectifier in high-power applications is due, to a large degree, to the inherent overload capability of thyristors. Motor drive applications, for example, are characterized by complex load duty cycles and short-time overloads when accelerating the motor. Welding cycles, zero-crossfiring power control, and pulsewidth-modulated inverters are other examples where the overload capability of the silicon-controlled rectifier is important. The many types of overload conditions that can occur in thyristor applications are defined and the procedures and equations utilized are described. The complexity of such equations dictate that even with the utility of the electronic computer some approximations are required. The accuracy of these approximations is analyzed and the range of reasonable accuracy established. Due to the large number of variables of thyristor overload ratings the presentation of overload capability curves is difficult. The presentation of short-time, occasional, and complex overload ratings independent of ambient temperature, as presented, is a significant step in providing the industry with accurate and useful overload information on thyristors. View full abstract»

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  • 30. The Separately Excited DC Traction Motor Applied to DC and Single-Phase AC Rapid Transit Systems and Electrified Railroads, Part II---Application

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 650 - 657
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1431 KB)  

    The characteristics and the construction of the separately excited dc traction motor has been described in [1]. This type of motor can be used for traction only because of the availability of large power thyristors. In this paper, the type of control circuit required in order to use the separately excited dc motor (dc-dc chopper or ac-dc converters) will be investigated depending on the power supply available (ac or dc). View full abstract»

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  • 31. Electrical Safety in Industrial Plants

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 10 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB)  

    Many who handle electrical equipment mistakenly believe their tolerance to electric shock is related to their ability to withstand the pain of the shock. Actually, the lethal incidence is a function of current passage through the heart region, where there are no sensory nerves to detect pain. Additionally, the onset of possibly lethal currents is only marginally higher than those ranked just painful and well within the range of industrial low-voltage power systems. While asphyxiation is the physiological result of the first zone of over-painful shock, the second zone results in heart ventricular fibrillation, or heart disfunction. Not only is the latter nonself-curing on cessation of the current, but it is generally lethal within about 3 minutes. Constant awareness and specific safety instructions to those involved with electrical or electrically driven equipment, together with vigilant policing of the safety aspects of the equipment, are hallmarks in preventing personnel shock. View full abstract»

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  • 32. Reliability and Availability Comparison of Common Low-Voltage Industrial Power Distribution Systems

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 416 - 424
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2424 KB)  

    A quantitative reliability and availability comparison has been made of three common circuit arrangements used in industrial power distribution systems. This includes a simple radial system, a primary-selective system, and a secondary-selective system. Published failure rates and outage duration times were used for the reliability data of the electrical equipment. Probability of failure and statistical analysis were used in making the quantitative calculations of the reliability and availability of the three power distribution systems. The simple radial system analyzed had an average forced hours downtime per year that was between 5.9 to 9.0 times larger than a secondary-selective system. The importance of two separate power supply sources from the electric utility has been identified and analyzed. This paper contains an approach that could be used to assist in cost-reliability tradeoff decisions in the design of the power distribution system. View full abstract»

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  • 33. An SCR Inverter with Good Regulation and Sine-Wave Output

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 176 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (77)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3386 KB)  

    SCR inverters of the sine-wave type are well known. Some have the disadvantages of poor regulation, very high component voltages when operating under heavy load, and an inability to operate with no load. View full abstract»

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  • 34. A Power Frequency Plasma Torch for Industrial Process Heating

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 36 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3796 KB)  

    A power frequency plasma torch is described specifically designed for application to industrial heating processes using a magnetically rotated radial arc for which efficiency and reliability were considered to be the main criteria. Operation at moderate supply voltage with a high overall circuit power factor is obtained by using a separate ignition supply for reigniting the arc at each half-cycle. The design is based on a wide range of preliminary investigations many of which may be applied to both ac and dc plasma torches or other arc operated devices. The operating characteristics of the plasma torch are given, and a thermal balance has been carried out enabling the efficiency to be accurately measured. An efficiency greater than 60 percent has been measured in this way. View full abstract»

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  • 35. New Developments in High-Frequency Power Sources

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 29 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3246 KB)  

    The induction heating industry has recently introduced a new high-frequency power source, the static frequency converter. The converter uses solid-state low-loss thyristors to guide currents to the induction heating load generating high-frequency power at high efficiency. Unlike the conventional motor generator, the output frequency of the static converter is variable, being self-controlled from the induction heating load. It follows the load impedance and adjusts itself to maintain preset conditions. This paper describes to the potential induction heating user what a static converter is, how it works, and how it compares with its more familiar counterpart, the motorĂ‚Â¿generator. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Bus and Switchgear Protection

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 24 - 28
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    This paper is a first draft of Chapter XI of a proposed publication on preferred practice in system protection and coordination being developed by the Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Committee of the IGA Group. It presents ideas on the application of protective equipment to industrial and commercial power system buses and switchgear. View full abstract»

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  • 37. Plugging an Induction Motor

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 10 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Plug stopping a low-inertia squirrel-cage induction motor can provide a very quick stop, but the motor draws high peak currents from the power system and delivers high transient torques to the driven machinery. This engineering phenomena is well documented, yet the potential pitfalls of plugging applications are often not appreciated. The induction motor is so widely used in industry that a review of its plugging characteristics may be useful. View full abstract»

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  • 38. High-Voltage Solid-State Torque Control for Long Reversing Conveyor

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 141 - 148
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    Large bulk material handling facilities have been and are being built today in which the belt conveyor has an important part. This paper describes a motor control system for an improved method of accelerating long belt conveyors. The application of the drive motor and its control system can have significant effect on belt life and initial cost of the control, motor, and drive equipment. View full abstract»

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  • 39. New Developments in Automatic Warehouse and Material Handling Control

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 180 - 185
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    A review is presented of the "tools" now available to the materials handling control system designer for integration into control systems for material handling systems, from the limit switch to the programmed logic controller. The importance of coordination of electrical system design with that of the mechanical devices used in the system is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • 40. Design of High-Voltage Substations

    Publication Year: 1966 , Page(s): 286 - 296
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    The expansion of electric usage in all types of industrial facilities has caused an increased demand for high-voltage substations owned and located on the industrial property. This paper reviews the problems encountered in the design of these substations and provides a basis for the engineering work necessary to solve them. Specific sections deal with the 1-line diagram, protective relay systems, lightning protection, circuit breakers, transformers, systems, lightning protection, circuit breakers, transformers, switches, and bus design. An example of a typical station is provided and references are included for the details necessary to solve the problems in various special areas. View full abstract»

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  • 41. Capacitor Charging from Batteries with DC--DC Converters

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 600 - 606
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    The major problems encountered in designing converters for capacitor charging are discussed. A design approach is outlined for designing an inductive storage (blocking oscillator) type converter and a design example given. Particular emphasis is placed on problems associated with using low-voltage nickel cadmium cells to power the converter. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Recent Developments in Machine Vibration Monitoring

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 149 - 158
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    Electronic vibration monitoring devices are spreading to a wide variety of industrial machinery applications. Present monitor designs are capable of predictive signaling of impending mechanical problems in many classes of prime movers and loads. View full abstract»

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  • 43. Silicon Rectifier Locomotive Developments in Europe

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 72 - 84
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    After a short historical review of the use of semiconductor junctions as rectifiers, first in control circuits and then in the application to auxiliaries on locomotives and MU (multiple unit) cars, the use of silicon on main power rectifiers on these vehicles in place of ignitrons is examined, especially in France where 50-cycle single-phase electrical traction is now extensively used and is the only system applied on all new lines. After a survey of the new problems which appear in conjunction with the use of semiconductor rectifiers, some of the most recent applications in France are described briefly. Attention is called to the fact that 25 locomotives and MU cars are in service and 182 are in the process of being built. Future uses are diesel-electric locomotives with ac generators and rectifiers, substations for main lines, and silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) for auxiliary functions and main circuits, with the voltage control and the possibility of inverter operation combined in the same equipment for a new prototype locomotive. View full abstract»

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  • 44. Fundamentals of Laser Beam Machining and Drilling

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 90 - 96
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    The high intensity which can be obtained by focusing the pulsed energy emitted by a ruby laser offers much potential as a tool for nearly forceless machining. The method can be used on any material, regardless of thermal properties, which can be evaporated without decomposition, including almost all ceramics and metals. View full abstract»

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  • 45. Modern Lighting System Design for the Holland Tunnel

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 339 - 342
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In 1927, a modem vehicular tunnel lighting system consisted of incandescent lamps mounted within the tunnel walls to provide illumination on the roadway. New York's Holland Tunnel, which was opened to traffic during that year, was designed with such a lighting system. In 1960, it was decided to modernize this system. To accomplish this, a new fluorescent lighting fixture and system that had to provide a high level of illumination in the tunnel while utilizing and adapting the existing tunnel electrical system at minimum cost, was designed, developed, and installed. View full abstract»

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  • 46. Open-Wye-Type Phase Conversion Systems

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 146 - 148
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    This paper describes the novel open-wye-type phase conversion system which operates three-phase motors on single-phase power. The system is initially depicted in its most basic circuit, with more sophisticated circuits presented as the paper progresses. Circuit voltages and currents are outlined for the basic system. Also presented is the increment (part winding) starting circuit used for large motors, such as a 100-hp 1200-r/min motor driving a rock crusher, operating on single-phase power. View full abstract»

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  • 47. Demand Estimation for Sizing Distribution Transformers and Secondary Services in Rural Areas

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 260 - 267
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    Demand, energy con umption, and appliance data from 1156 rural consumers in 34 states were analyzed to determine coefficients of equations for predicting the 30-minute demands of individual consumers. Consumers in the South were found to have higher demands in relation to energy consumption than those in the North, and separate analyses were made for the two regions. The equations for predicting demand when used with appropriately programmed computers permit the automatic print-out of lists of consumers that may have overloaded transformers or services. View full abstract»

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  • 48. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Frequency Inverter Using Single SCR

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 378 - 388
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A low-cost solid-state circuit is described for generating up to a kilowatt of power over the frequency range of 400 Hz to 30 kHz. The circuit features good waveform and good regulation into a wide range of load magnitude and phase angle. View full abstract»

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  • 49. The Effect of HVDC Ground Current on Oil Field Corrosion

    Publication Year: 1968 , Page(s): 260 - 266
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    The advent of HVDC power transmission raises serious questions about the possible adverse effects of HVDC ground current on uncoated well casings and short pipelines. Model studies indicate that interference will be a problem near the ground electrodes. Proximity of well casings to the anodic ground electrode will be particularly harmful because corrosion is intensified toward the lower ends of the casings, where cathodic protection is most difficult. View full abstract»

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  • 50. Evidence of Need for Improved Coordination and Protection of Industrial Power Systems

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 393 - 396
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper was developed to introduce the showing of slides depicting damage to industrial distribution apparatus from sustained arcing and fire. The pictures selected from accident case histories should serve as evidence of the need for improved coordination and protection of industrial power systems. A systematic periodic maintenance practice is suggested and strongly encouraged to detect impending trouble before faults occur. This is a rewarding investment towards assuring continued reliable and profitable productive operation. While this undoubtedly will reduce the frequency of trouble, faults do occur from any one of a number of unforeseeable reasons in the best of installations. Proper coordination and adequate protection can mean the difference between a minor accident or a catastrophe. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1971. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.

Full Aims & Scope