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IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics

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  • A Formal Basis for the Heuristic Determination of Minimum Cost Paths

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):100 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (1998)  |  Patents (56)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2391 KB)

    Although the problem of determining the minimum cost path through a graph arises naturally in a number of interesting applications, there has been no underlying theory to guide the development of efficient search procedures. Moreover, there is no adequate conceptual framework within which the various ad hoc search strategies proposed to date can be compared. This paper describes how heuristic info... View full abstract»

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  • Information Value Theory

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):22 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (206)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB)

    The information theory developed by Shannon was designed to place a quantitative measure on the amount of information involved in any communication. The early developers stressed that the information measure was dependent only on the probabilistic structure of the communication process. For example, if losing all your assets in the stock market and having whale steak for supper have the same proba... View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Morphology of Systems Engineering

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):156 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2044 KB)

    A study of the structure and form of systems engineering using the technique of morphological analysis is presented. The result is a model of the field of systems engineering that may be rich in applications. Three uses given for illustration are in taxonomy, discovery of new sets of activities, and systems science curriculum design. View full abstract»

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  • Prior Probabilities

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):227 - 241
    Cited by:  Papers (684)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3452 KB)

    In decision theory, mathematical analysis shows that once the sampling distribution, loss function, and sample are specified, the only remaining basis for a choice among different admissible decisions lies in the prior probabilities. Therefore, the logical foundations of decision theory cannot be put in fully satisfactory form until the old problem of arbitrariness (sometimes called "subjectivenes... View full abstract»

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  • The Foundations of Decision Analysis

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):211 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (93)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1955 KB)

    Decision analysis has emerged from theory to practice to form a discipline for balancing the many factors that bear upon a decision. Unusual features of the discipline are the treatment of uncertainty through subjective probability and of attitude toward risk through utility theory. Capturing the structure of problem relationships occupies a central position; the process can be visualized in a gra... View full abstract»

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  • A Tutorial Introduction to Decision Theory

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):200 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2303 KB)

    Decision theory provides a rational framework for choosing between alternative courses of action when the consequences resulting from this choice are imperfectly known. Two streams of thought serve as the foundations: utility theory and the inductive use of probability theory. The intent of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to this increasingly important area of systems science. The... View full abstract»

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  • Use of Stochastic Automata for Parameter Self-Optimization with Multimodal Performance Criteria

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):352 - 360
    Cited by:  Papers (57)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2017 KB)

    The application of stochastic automata to adaptive parameter optimization problems is considered. The fundamental problem is that of relating the concepts of automata theory and mathematical psychology learning theory to the usual notion of a performance index in a control system. Consideration is given to a number of possible automata structures, linear and nonlinear. One particular linear model ... View full abstract»

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  • Systems Theory from an Operations Research Point of View

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):9 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB)

    Operations Research's interest in systems is confined to normative aspects of systems which are at least partially self-controllable. A mathematical scheme is developed for representing the structure and behavior of such systems. By use of this scheme it is possible to isolate and measure inefficiencies caused by structure, communications, decision making, and by any combination of these. The effe... View full abstract»

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  • Review of Design Optimization Techniques

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):14 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1972 KB)

    The process of finding the optimum design of a complex system involves the use of a great deal of human judgment. From the dawn of civilization, man has, by judgment alone, produced designs close to being optimum. Today, the engineer has the fantastically powerful tool of the digital computer to help him with design problems. But it must always be borne in mind that the computer is no more than a ... View full abstract»

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  • A Multistage Solution of the Template-Layout Problem

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):145 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1045 KB)

    The template-layout problem is to determine how to cut irregular-shaped two-dimensional pieces out of given stock sheets in an optimum manner without making an exhaustive search of all possible arrangements of the pieces. An algorithm is described for solving template-layout problems with a digital computer. The method of solution requires that the irregular shapes be enclosed, singly or in combin... View full abstract»

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  • Objectives of Simulation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):370 - 373
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1254 KB)

    Steps that must be taken to increase the acceptance of the results of simulation in terms of the decision process by the resource manager are discussed. The actions covered are categorized in terms of the technological content of the practice itself and those relating to the process of the practice. Specific work underway to increase responsiveness and accuracy and to reduce costs are related. Sug... View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Smoothing Theory

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):63 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1775 KB)

    Differential equations are developed for the smoothing density function and for the smoothed expectation of an arbitrary function of the state. The exact equations developed herein are difficult to solve except in trivially simple cases. Approximations to these equations are developed for the smoothed expectation of the state and the smoothing covariance matrix. For linear systems these equations ... View full abstract»

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  • Feature Extraction on Binary Patterns

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):273 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1359 KB)

    The objects and methods of automatic feature extraction on binary patterns are briefly reviewed. An intuitive interpretation for geometric features is suggested whereby such a feature is conceived of as a cluster of component vectors in pattern space. A modified version of the Isodata or K-means clustering algorithm is applied to a set of patterns originally proposed by Block, Nilsson, and Duda, a... View full abstract»

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  • Dynamical Characteristics of the Fusional Vergence Eye-Movement System

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2004 KB)

    Experiments have been performed on the fusional vergence eye-movement mechanism in humans to provide a comparison with the established dynamical characteristics of the versional eye-movement system. Transient and frequency response experiments indicate that the fusional vergence system is not characterized by sampled data or refractory operation. When provided with a periodic input, this system ma... View full abstract»

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  • Studies in Postural Control Systems Part III: A Muscle Spindle Model

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):127 - 132
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1021 KB)

    A linear lumped-parameter mechanical model of the muscle spindle is presented. It is shown that the model simulation on a digital computer exhibits the spindle behavior in most aspects of transient ramp-stretch performance. The requirements that such a model places on the mechanisms of fusimotor control are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Stochastic Differential Game with Controllable Statistical Parameters

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):17 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    A differential game is described where the opponents are a missile and a radar. The problem is formulated so that linear theory can be used in finding the optimal strategies of both opponents. The missile uses a mixed strategy by adding white noise into its controller. The statistics of this noise (the covariance completely describes the noise) can be controlled. In finding the optimal strategy fo... View full abstract»

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  • A Formulation of Fuzzy Automata and Its Application as a Model of Learning Systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):215 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (118)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1592 KB)

    Based on the concept of fuzzy sets defined by Zadeh, a class of fuzzy automata is formulated similar to Mealy's formulation of finite automata. A fuzzy automaton behaves in a deterministic fashion. However, it has many properties similar to that of stochastic automata. Its application as a model of learning systems is discussed. A nonsupervised learning scheme in automatic control and pattern reco... View full abstract»

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  • On How Often the Supervisor Should Sample

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):140 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1025 KB)

    A procedure is presented for specifying how long a supervisor or monitor of a process should wait between input samples to maximize a given value or payoff function, assuming he resets the controls with each sample as a function of the best information he has. The procedure is based upon Bayesian preposterior information analysis. View full abstract»

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  • System Study of Emission Control for Passenger Cars

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):311 - 321
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1589 KB)

    The results of a total system analysis leading to the optimal design of an automotive exhaust air pollution control device are presented. The purpose is to demonstrate a capability for effectively optimizing design parameters of a subsystem in an operating environment which are subject to three optimality criteria: minimum cost for fixed performance; maximum effectiveness (emission reduction) per ... View full abstract»

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  • Feature Selection in Pattern Recognition

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):33 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2076 KB)

    The problem of feature selection in pattern recognition is briefly reviewed. Feature selection techniques discussed include 1) information theoretic approach, 2) direct estimation of error probability, 3) feature-space transformation, and 4) approach of using stochastic automata model. These techniques are applied to the selection of features in the crop classification problem. Computer similation... View full abstract»

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  • Natural Bilinear Control Processes

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):192 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1365 KB)

    A nonlinear class of models for biological and physical processes is surveyed. It is shown that these so-called bilinear systems have a variable dynamical structure that makes them quite controllable. While control systems are classically designed so there are no unstable modes, bilinear systems may utilize appropriately controlled unstable modes of response to enhance controllability. View full abstract»

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  • Sequential Algorithm for the Design of Piecewise Linear Classifiers

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):166 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (742 KB)

    A sequential algorithm for designing piecewise linear classification functions without a priori knowledge of pattern class distributions is described. The algorithm combines adaptive error correcting linear classifier design procedures and clustering techniques under control of a performance criterion. The classification function structure is constrained to minimize design calculations and increas... View full abstract»

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  • Solution of Practical Optimization Problems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):49 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)

    A method is described for the solution of both linear and nonlinear optimization problems with inequality constraints. Use of the suggested method permits the point of conditional absolute minimum to be found directly when the objective function has a single minimum and when the constraints generate a feasible design region. The method is based on simple repetitive calculations and is, therefore, ... View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Allocation and System Analysis

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):207 - 214
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1763 KB)

    The optimum allocation of a fixed stock of unreliable units to a random number of demands is discussed. The demands occur at Poisson times; several types of criteria are described, but the most important optimum presented is of the probability that at least one allotted unit does not fail at every Poisson demand. Hence this concerns how unreliable elements can best be used to create a reliable sys... View full abstract»

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  • A stochastic automaton model for the synthesis of learning systems

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):109 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1383 KB)

    A class of stochastic automaton models for the synthesis of a learning system to operate in a random environment is proposed. These models are based on defining a learning algorithm which relates the probability distribution of the response and the corresponding performance of the system. For different forms of the learning algorithm which satisfy specified requirements, with particular emphasis o... View full abstract»

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  • Visual Feature Extraction by a Multilayered Network of Analog Threshold Elements

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):322 - 333
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5300 KB)

    A new type of visual feature extracting network has been synthesized, and the response of the network has been simulated on a digital computer. This research has been done as a first step towards the realization of a recognizer of handwritten characters. The design of the network was suggested by biological systems, especially, the visual systems of cat and monkey. The network is composed of analo... View full abstract»

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  • The Widget Problem Revisited

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):241 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB)

    The Jaynes "widget problem" is reviewed as an example of an application of the principle of maximum entropy in the making of decisions. The exact solution yields an unusual probability distribution. The problem illustrates why some kinds of decisions can be made intuitively and accurately, but would be difficult to rationalize without the principle of maximum entropy. View full abstract»

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  • On the Modeling of Police Patrol Operations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):276 - 281
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1256 KB)

    An analytical approach to several operational problems of urban police departments is introduced. In particular, the focus is on urban police patrol forces and the two important activities of a patrol car (or patrol unit) 1) answering a call for police service, 2) performing crime preventive patrol. After reviewing the traditional allocation method, a patrol travel time model and a preventive patr... View full abstract»

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  • A Theory of Visual Pattern Perception

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):349 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2553 KB)

    A theory of visual pattern perception is proposed, which is intended to explain first how patterns are learned or committed to memory, second how these patterns are recognized when subsequently encountered, and third how the patterns are recognized under unfavorable real-world conditions, for example, when they are distorted, enlarged, or rotated, or are viewed along with other patterns in a clutt... View full abstract»

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  • On the Quantization of Line-Drawing Data

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):70 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3249 KB)

    This paper describes the development of a criterion for the quantization of line-drawing data. The criterion provides a guide for selecting the quantization fineness required to assure that the significant features of given line-drawing data will be preserved in the quantization process. The criterion is based on viewing a line drawing as an elastic beam under flexure and selecting a quantization ... View full abstract»

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  • A Model of Vision Employing Optical Mode Patterns for Color Discrimination

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):173 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1901 KB)

    An evaluation is given of the postulate that color discrimination is achieved by the sensing of optical mode patterns excited in the retinal cones. Results are presented from analyses of the patterns and spectral responses of the optical modes. It is shown that these modes qualitatively have the proper characteristics required to satisfy the color discrimination properties of human vision. This po... View full abstract»

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  • An approach to structure adaptation in pattern recognition

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):73 - 80
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1713 KB)

    Viewing pattern recognition as a problem in statistical classification wherein an n-dimensional hypercube is partitioned into category regions with decision boundaries, this paper focuses on a class of nonlinear boundary forms and describes a variable-structure system which is capable of evolving these boundaries adaptively. Most of the present adaptive recognition systems have a priori fixed stru... View full abstract»

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  • The Development of a Corporate Risk Policy for Capital Investment Decisions

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):279 - 300
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4030 KB)

    A corporate utility function plays a key role in the application of decision theory. This paper describes how such a utility function was evolved as a risk policy for capital investment decisions. First, 36 corporate executives were interviewed and their risk attitudes were quantified. From the responses of the interviewees, a mathematical function was developed that could reflect each interviewee... View full abstract»

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  • Studies in Postural Control Systems Part I: Torque Disturbance Input

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):116 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (941 KB)

    The postural control system in normal humans is studied by applying a mechanical torque disturbance to the system. It is shown that the response of the system can be approximated by a second-order differential equation where the parameters depend on the state of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Some New Approaches to Machine Learning

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):173 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2741 KB)

    Five different but interrelated models of learning have been established within a complex computer program. These models incorporate mechanisms that optimize response patterns on algorithmic and heuristic bases; make abstractions at different levels; produce value judgements; recognize, modify, store, and retrieve geometrical patterns; and exhibit, in general, many aspects of intelligent behavior.... View full abstract»

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  • Learning Applied to Successive Approximation Algorithms

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):97 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1142 KB)

    A linear reinforcement learning technique is proposed to provide a memory and thus accelerate the convergence of successive approximation algorithms. The learning scheme is used to update weighting coefficients applied to the components of the correction terms of the algorithm. A direction of the search approaching the direction of a "ridge" will result in a gradient peak-seeking method which acce... View full abstract»

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  • A Minimum Variance, Time Optimal, Control System Model of Human Lens Accommodation

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):290 - 299
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2311 KB)

    Experimental data relating ciliary nerve stimulation and lens motion are used to identify the open-loop plant dynamics of the lens accommodation system via a parameter identication variation of the Kalman filter equations. Using the resultant minimum variance plant model, experimental closed-loop responses of the human accommodative system are predicted by synthesizing the system closed-loop contr... View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Automata Games

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):145 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)

    The collective behavior of finite state stochastic automata is considered, which is of interest in view of the possibility of modeling group behavior of subjects in terms of these automata. The natural language for considering the collective behavior is that of game theory. After a brief introduction to a class of deterministic automata, the stochastic automaton is formulated and a nonlinear reinf... View full abstract»

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  • Recursive Bayesian Method for Estimating States of Nonlinear System from Sequential Indirect Observations

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):101 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)

    Recursive Bayesian equations are given for estimating the states of a system, given the sequence of inputs, outputs, and the probabilistic interdependences from one time to the next. Equations are derived for the case of a nonlinear system with normal error densities and linear deviations for small errors. These equations reduce to the Kalman filter for the strictly linear case. When the equations... View full abstract»

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  • Duality and Decomposition in Mathematical Programming

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):86 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3384 KB)

    The problem considered is that of obtaining solutions to large nonlinear mathematical programs by coordinated solution of smaller subproblems. If all functions in the original problem are additively separable, this can be done by finding a saddle point for the associated Lagrangian function. Coordination is then accomplished by shadow prices, with these prices chosen to solve a dual program. Chara... View full abstract»

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  • Bayesian Autoregressive Time Series Analysis

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):317 - 324
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1384 KB)

    Two Bayesian autoregressive time series models for partially observable dynamic processes are presented. In the first model, a general inference procedure is developed for the situation in which k previous values of the time series plus a change error determine the next value. This general model is specialized to an example in which the observational and change errors follow a normal probability l... View full abstract»

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  • Convex Programming and Duality in Normed Space

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):182 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1392 KB)

    This paper describes some extensions of classical convex programming to problems formulated on an abstract normed space. The utility of the normed-space formulation is illustrated by some simple applications. View full abstract»

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  • Systems Analysis as a Tool for Urban Planning

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):258 - 265
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1834 KB)

    New ways are becoming available for analyzing our social systems. These permit the design of revised policies to improve the behavior of the systems within which we live. Industrial dynamics relates system structure to behavior. Industrial dynamics belongs to the same general subject area as feedback systems, servomechanisms theory, and cybernetics. Industrial dynamics is the study of how the feed... View full abstract»

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  • Visual Target Tracking with Active Head Rotation

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):103 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3771 KB)

    Visual target tracking during active head movements is investigated. Transient response and frequency response both indicate that the eye tracking behavior relative to the target is independent of head movement. The explanation of this phenomenon is pursued. It seems most likely that the vestibulo-ocular reflex, the eye movements elicited by head rotation, plays an essential role. Compensation for... View full abstract»

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  • Polynomial Representation of Finite-State Machines

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):94 - 96
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Automatic Analysis of Sleep Electroencephalograms by Hybrid Computation

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):278 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1489 KB)

    An automated sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) analyzer has been designed and tested in an effort to eliminate tedious and variable human interpretation of experimental EEG data. Data is presented to a hybrid computer from EEG tapes recorded during experimental studies in a human sleep laboratory. Special analog filters are used to identify specific transient waveforms in the EEG. Bandpass filters ... View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive visual signal preprocessor with a finite number of states

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):96 - 101
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1490 KB)

    A mathematical model representing certain aspects of how the eye processes pictures is given. The emphasis in modeling is on how the eye adapts to changes in signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, and bandwidth. A few comparisons are made between the computed results of the model and of the psychophysical measurements to assess the limitations of artificial pattern recognition systems. View full abstract»

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  • Handwritten character recognition employing topology, cross correlation, and decision theory

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):86 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2438 KB)

    This paper describes a pattern recognition method in which a nonlinear comparison is made between the topological and shape properties of an unknown character and standards determined in a learning phase. Each character is expressed as a vector. The dimensions of the vectors are the points defining the character in the order they are encountered. The coordinates are the complex coordinates of the ... View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of Systems Science Education

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):26 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1618 KB)

    Systems science means many things to many people. This paper surveys various aspects of education labelled systems science. It reviews the literature in the field and reviews sample course and program offerings. Examination of this material indicates a lack of agreement among practitioners of systems science education and indeed casts doubt upon whether systems science is a unique science at all. ... View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistic Information Processing Systems: Design and Evaluation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):248 - 265
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4699 KB)

    A Probabilistic Information Processing System (PIP) uses men and machines in a novel way to perform diagnostic information processing. Men estimate likelihood ratios for each datum and each pair of hypotheses under consideration or a sufficient subset of these pairs. A computer aggregates these estimates by means of Bayes' theorem of probability theory into a posterior distribution that reflects t... View full abstract»

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