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IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics

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  • 1. A Formal Basis for the Heuristic Determination of Minimum Cost Paths

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):100 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (1754)  |  Patents (53)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2391 KB)

    Although the problem of determining the minimum cost path through a graph arises naturally in a number of interesting applications, there has been no underlying theory to guide the development of efficient search procedures. Moreover, there is no adequate conceptual framework within which the various ad hoc search strategies proposed to date can be compared. This paper describes how heuristic info... View full abstract»

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  • 2. Information Value Theory

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):22 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (179)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB)

    The information theory developed by Shannon was designed to place a quantitative measure on the amount of information involved in any communication. The early developers stressed that the information measure was dependent only on the probabilistic structure of the communication process. For example, if losing all your assets in the stock market and having whale steak for supper have the same proba... View full abstract»

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  • 3. On How Often the Supervisor Should Sample

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):140 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1025 KB)

    A procedure is presented for specifying how long a supervisor or monitor of a process should wait between input samples to maximize a given value or payoff function, assuming he resets the controls with each sample as a function of the best information he has. The procedure is based upon Bayesian preposterior information analysis. View full abstract»

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  • 4. A Tutorial Introduction to Decision Theory

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):200 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2303 KB)

    Decision theory provides a rational framework for choosing between alternative courses of action when the consequences resulting from this choice are imperfectly known. Two streams of thought serve as the foundations: utility theory and the inductive use of probability theory. The intent of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to this increasingly important area of systems science. The... View full abstract»

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  • 5. Prior Probabilities

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):227 - 241
    Cited by:  Papers (633)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3452 KB)

    In decision theory, mathematical analysis shows that once the sampling distribution, loss function, and sample are specified, the only remaining basis for a choice among different admissible decisions lies in the prior probabilities. Therefore, the logical foundations of decision theory cannot be put in fully satisfactory form until the old problem of arbitrariness (sometimes called "subjectivenes... View full abstract»

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  • 6. Feature Extraction on Binary Patterns

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):273 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1359 KB)

    The objects and methods of automatic feature extraction on binary patterns are briefly reviewed. An intuitive interpretation for geometric features is suggested whereby such a feature is conceived of as a cluster of component vectors in pattern space. A modified version of the Isodata or K-means clustering algorithm is applied to a set of patterns originally proposed by Block, Nilsson, and Duda, a... View full abstract»

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  • 7. Sequential Algorithm for the Design of Piecewise Linear Classifiers

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):166 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (742 KB)

    A sequential algorithm for designing piecewise linear classification functions without a priori knowledge of pattern class distributions is described. The algorithm combines adaptive error correcting linear classifier design procedures and clustering techniques under control of a performance criterion. The classification function structure is constrained to minimize design calculations and increas... View full abstract»

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  • 8. Three-Dimensional Morphology of Systems Engineering

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):156 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2044 KB)

    A study of the structure and form of systems engineering using the technique of morphological analysis is presented. The result is a model of the field of systems engineering that may be rich in applications. Three uses given for illustration are in taxonomy, discovery of new sets of activities, and systems science curriculum design. View full abstract»

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  • 9. The Foundations of Decision Analysis

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):211 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (86)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1955 KB)

    Decision analysis has emerged from theory to practice to form a discipline for balancing the many factors that bear upon a decision. Unusual features of the discipline are the treatment of uncertainty through subjective probability and of attitude toward risk through utility theory. Capturing the structure of problem relationships occupies a central position; the process can be visualized in a gra... View full abstract»

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  • 10. The Use of Bayesian Inference in the Design of an Endpoint Control System for the Basic Oxygen Steel Furnace

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):339 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1565 KB)

    A digital simulation of the basic oxygen steel furnace was previously developed, and its output was compared with the available data taken from the literature. The output concentrations were within 10 percent of the literature data, while the simulated temperature was within 0.5 percent. The simulation is used as an off-line model of the process to design an endpoint control system which makes use... View full abstract»

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  • 11. Recognition of Handprinted Numerals by Two-Stage Feature Extraction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):153 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB)

    An optical character recognition system for handprinted numerals of noisy and low-resolution measurement is proposed. The system consists of the two-stage feature extraction process. In the first stage a set of primary features insensitive to the quality and format of a black-white bit pattern are extracted. In the second stage, a set of properties capable of discriminating the character classes i... View full abstract»

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  • 12. Bayesian Decision Models for System Engineering

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):36 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1263 KB)

    This paper shows how modern developments in statistical decision theory can be applied to a typical systems engineering problem. The problem is how to design an experiment to evaluate a reliability parameter for a device and then make a decision about whether to accept a contract for the development and maintenance of a system of these devices. We introduce the concept of subjective probability di... View full abstract»

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  • 13. Value of Information Lotteries

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):54 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1531 KB)

    The essence of decision-making is understanding the economic impact of uncertainty. In this paper a previous discussion of information value theory is extended to illustrate how the availability of information on the uncertain factors of a problem affects the probability density function of profit, the profit lottery. A bidding problem serves to demonstrate the type of calculations required and th... View full abstract»

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  • 14. Automatic Analysis of Sleep Electroencephalograms by Hybrid Computation

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):278 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1489 KB)

    An automated sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) analyzer has been designed and tested in an effort to eliminate tedious and variable human interpretation of experimental EEG data. Data is presented to a hybrid computer from EEG tapes recorded during experimental studies in a human sleep laboratory. Special analog filters are used to identify specific transient waveforms in the EEG. Bandpass filters ... View full abstract»

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  • 15. A Theory of Visual Pattern Perception

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):349 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2553 KB)

    A theory of visual pattern perception is proposed, which is intended to explain first how patterns are learned or committed to memory, second how these patterns are recognized when subsequently encountered, and third how the patterns are recognized under unfavorable real-world conditions, for example, when they are distorted, enlarged, or rotated, or are viewed along with other patterns in a clutt... View full abstract»

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  • 16. The Information Transfer Required in Regulatory Processes

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):334 - 338
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1220 KB)

    Several fundamental relations between regulation and informational quantities are given. These show that regulation is a phenomenon closely tied to the transinformation between the regulator and the system which might be called its opponent. Two basic types of regulators are distinguished. The first, error-controlled regulators, are shown to be essentially coding devices which operate by taking ad... View full abstract»

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  • 17. AFSCM 375-5 as a Methodology for System Engineering

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):6 - 10
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1147 KB)

    The recently published Air Force Systems Command Manual 375-5 (AFSCM 375-5), System Engineering Management Procedures, prescribes the management policies and procedures to be followed in the establishment of requirements for, and in the design, development, test, operation, and maintenance of future Air Force systems. The life cycle of systems requiring AFSCM 375-5 implementation is described and ... View full abstract»

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  • 18. An Experimental Investigation of Process Identification by Competitive Evolution

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):11 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1002 KB)

    The feasibility of using evolutionary techniques to construct a model for a given process was investigated. Programs were written to synthesize six competing models and to adjust, combine, and eliminate these according to their performance with respect to the actual process. Results show that although the use of evolutionary techniques is promising for identifying processing having nonanalytic pro... View full abstract»

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  • 19. Duality and Decomposition in Mathematical Programming

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):86 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3384 KB)

    The problem considered is that of obtaining solutions to large nonlinear mathematical programs by coordinated solution of smaller subproblems. If all functions in the original problem are additively separable, this can be done by finding a saddle point for the associated Lagrangian function. Coordination is then accomplished by shadow prices, with these prices chosen to solve a dual program. Chara... View full abstract»

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  • 20. The Widget Problem Revisited

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):241 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB)

    The Jaynes "widget problem" is reviewed as an example of an application of the principle of maximum entropy in the making of decisions. The exact solution yields an unusual probability distribution. The problem illustrates why some kinds of decisions can be made intuitively and accurately, but would be difficult to rationalize without the principle of maximum entropy. View full abstract»

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  • 21. Wiener's Nonlinear Expansion Procedure Applied to Cybernetic Problems

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):67 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1890 KB)

    In an earlier paper, the author showed how Wiener's Hermite-Laguerre expansion procedure for synthesizing nonlinear functionals could be used to synthesize decision functions for a broad class of continuous stochastic inputs. Furthermore, self-adaptive or learning properties were noted. In the present paper, the relevance of this procedure to cybernetic problems is discussed. In particular, the pr... View full abstract»

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  • 22. Model for the Basic Oxygen Process in Steel Refining

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):41 - 44
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB)

    The rapid adoption of the basic oxygen steelmaking process by American steelmakers has been accompanied by an increasing desire to improve control of the process. Digital computing equipment is the focal point of most efforts toward improving process control. Because of the notable lack of process feedback instrumentation, development of accurate mathematical process models is vital to the success... View full abstract»

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  • 23. Unsupervised Learning Minimum Risk Pattern Classification for Dependent Hypotheses and Dependent Measurements

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):109 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1432 KB)

    A recursive Bayes optimal solution is found for the problem of sequential multicategory pattern recognition when unsupervised learning is required. An unknown parameter model is developed which, for the pattern classification problem, allows for 1) both constant and time-varying unknown parameters, 2) partially unknown probability laws of the hypotheses and time-varying parameter sequences, 3) dep... View full abstract»

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  • 24. Decoupled Method for Approximation of Signals by Exponentials

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):244 - 246
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)

    This noniterative method for approximating empirical signals over [O, ¿) by a linear combination of exponentials yields suboptimal approximation. Notably, the dependence of the suboptimal exponents ¿i¿ on the fractional integral square error ¿ is such that lim¿¿0 ¿i = ¿i, the optimal exponents. The integral square error in representation is studied for a sin and a square pulse, and a usefu... View full abstract»

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  • 25. Systems Theory from an Operations Research Point of View

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):9 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB)

    Operations Research's interest in systems is confined to normative aspects of systems which are at least partially self-controllable. A mathematical scheme is developed for representing the structure and behavior of such systems. By use of this scheme it is possible to isolate and measure inefficiencies caused by structure, communications, decision making, and by any combination of these. The effe... View full abstract»

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  • 26. Some New Approaches to Machine Learning

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):173 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2741 KB)

    Five different but interrelated models of learning have been established within a complex computer program. These models incorporate mechanisms that optimize response patterns on algorithmic and heuristic bases; make abstractions at different levels; produce value judgements; recognize, modify, store, and retrieve geometrical patterns; and exhibit, in general, many aspects of intelligent behavior.... View full abstract»

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  • 27. Stochastic Automata Games

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):145 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)

    The collective behavior of finite state stochastic automata is considered, which is of interest in view of the possibility of modeling group behavior of subjects in terms of these automata. The natural language for considering the collective behavior is that of game theory. After a brief introduction to a class of deterministic automata, the stochastic automaton is formulated and a nonlinear reinf... View full abstract»

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  • 28. A Simulation Model of Fire Department Operations: Design and Preliminary Results

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):282 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4981 KB)

    A simulation model designed to compare different policies for locating, relocating, and dispatching fire-fighting units is described. Issues treated include: the use of internal measures of performance as proxies for global ones; the use of analytical models for various subproblems to yield policies to be tested; the handling of loss of life and other important but rare events. The SIMSCRIPT 1.5 s... View full abstract»

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  • 29. A Formulation of Fuzzy Automata and Its Application as a Model of Learning Systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):215 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (115)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1592 KB)

    Based on the concept of fuzzy sets defined by Zadeh, a class of fuzzy automata is formulated similar to Mealy's formulation of finite automata. A fuzzy automaton behaves in a deterministic fashion. However, it has many properties similar to that of stochastic automata. Its application as a model of learning systems is discussed. A nonsupervised learning scheme in automatic control and pattern reco... View full abstract»

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  • 30. Learning Applied to Successive Approximation Algorithms

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):97 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1142 KB)

    A linear reinforcement learning technique is proposed to provide a memory and thus accelerate the convergence of successive approximation algorithms. The learning scheme is used to update weighting coefficients applied to the components of the correction terms of the algorithm. A direction of the search approaching the direction of a "ridge" will result in a gradient peak-seeking method which acce... View full abstract»

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  • 31. Optimal Estimation in the Presence of Unknown Parameters

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):38 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1357 KB)

    An adaptive approach is presented for optimal estimation of a sampled stochastic process with finite-state unknown parameters. It is shown that, for processes with an implicit generalized Markov property, the optimal (conditional mean) state estimates can be formed from 1) a set of optimal estimates based on known parameters, and 2) a set of "learning" statistics which are recursively updated. The... View full abstract»

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  • 32. On Expediency and Convergence in Variable-Structure Automata

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):52 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2324 KB)

    A stochastic automaton responds to the penalties from a random environment through a reinforcement scheme by changing its state probability distribution in such a way as to reduce the average penalty received. In this manner the automaton is said to possess a variable structure and the ability to learn. This paper discusses the efficiency of learning for an m-state automaton in terms of expediency... View full abstract»

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  • 33. Objectives of Simulation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):370 - 373
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1254 KB)

    Steps that must be taken to increase the acceptance of the results of simulation in terms of the decision process by the resource manager are discussed. The actions covered are categorized in terms of the technological content of the practice itself and those relating to the process of the practice. Specific work underway to increase responsiveness and accuracy and to reduce costs are related. Sug... View full abstract»

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  • 34. Systems Engineering in the Glass Industry

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):300 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3379 KB)

    A survey of current trends of systems engineering in the glass industry is presented. The central theme is that systems engineering is the technique through which the process of our time¿the information revolution exemplified by the digital computer¿is exerting its impact on the industry. Systems engineering is examined and basic concepts reviewed, and the production system is defined as a pyram... View full abstract»

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  • 35. Economic models for rail systems

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):128 - 134
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1459 KB)

    The economic justification of prospective railroad development is an example of a complex systems analysis problem. Many important aspects of the system economics cannot be assessed by examination of the vehicle alone; such factors as average train length and daily utilization are typical examples of extravehicular factors which must be accounted for. Consideration has, therefore, been given to th... View full abstract»

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  • 36. Constraint Theory, Part I: Fundamentals

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):48 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2166 KB)

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic foundation for the determination of whether a mathematical model and its desired computations are "well-posed" in order to help alleviate the software problems associated with the simulation of complex large-scale systems by heterogeneous mathematical models involving several hundred dimensions. The problem is approached by providing a rigorous b... View full abstract»

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  • 37. Subsystem Optimization Effectiveness Improvement by the Option Tradeoff Analysis Process

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):133 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1299 KB)

    An approach for optimum effectiveness improvement of subsystem equipment by the option tradeoff analysis process is discussed. The objective is to generate more effectiveness ideas in furthering tradeoff procedures for subsystem design improvement. Two hypothetical spacecraft subsystems are used to illustrate the results. A sequence of block diagrams, tabulations, and graphs is presented to reflec... View full abstract»

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  • 38. Systems Engineering from an Engineering Viewpoint

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1359 KB)

    This paper considers various ways of defining systems engineering and surveys the systems engineering process. Part of the process is then applied to the problem of the Systems Science Committee. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Fundamental Structure of Input-Output Stability for Feedback Systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):92 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1097 KB)

    An approach to the input-output stability of feedback systems is discussed. This approach incorporates the natural inverse operator model to describe these systems. Using this operator, the input-output stability problem is decomposed into five subproblems. One of these subproblems involves the causality of the input-output operator, a property not recognized in previous feedback system stability ... View full abstract»

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  • 40. Recursive Bayesian Method for Estimating States of Nonlinear System from Sequential Indirect Observations

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):101 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)

    Recursive Bayesian equations are given for estimating the states of a system, given the sequence of inputs, outputs, and the probabilistic interdependences from one time to the next. Equations are derived for the case of a nonlinear system with normal error densities and linear deviations for small errors. These equations reduce to the Kalman filter for the strictly linear case. When the equations... View full abstract»

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  • 41. Parametric Optimization by Primal Method in Multilevel Systems

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):155 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1456 KB)

    This paper deals with optimal control in multilevel systems. The decomposition of a system into N subsystems is presented as a problem of formulating the performance index P(m) as a function of N components P(P1, P2,..., PN) and of transforming the system constraint m¿R into a set of constraints m1¿IR1(v), m2¿R2(v),..., v¿Rv, where v is the coordination variable. Ways of achieving this goal as... View full abstract»

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  • 42. A Stochastic Differential Game with Controllable Statistical Parameters

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):17 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    A differential game is described where the opponents are a missile and a radar. The problem is formulated so that linear theory can be used in finding the optimal strategies of both opponents. The missile uses a mixed strategy by adding white noise into its controller. The statistics of this noise (the covariance completely describes the noise) can be controlled. In finding the optimal strategy fo... View full abstract»

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  • 43. On the Inverse of Linear Dynamical Systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):43 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1003 KB)

    The problem considered is that of determining the inverse of a linear time-invariant dynamical system characterized by a first-order vector differential equation. This problem has application to various problems in control and estimation, where a state space representation is utilized. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for the existence of an inverse system and an algorithm is develope... View full abstract»

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  • 44. A Recognition Algorithm for Handprinted Arabic Numerals

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):246 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1018 KB)

    A recognition algorithm for handprinted Arabic numerals is proposed. The algorithm is applied to a set of test samples and the test results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • 45. Nonlinear Smoothing Theory

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):63 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1775 KB)

    Differential equations are developed for the smoothing density function and for the smoothed expectation of an arbitrary function of the state. The exact equations developed herein are difficult to solve except in trivially simple cases. Approximations to these equations are developed for the smoothed expectation of the state and the smoothing covariance matrix. For linear systems these equations ... View full abstract»

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