By Topic

IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Resolved Motion Rate Control of Manipulators and Human Prostheses

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (696)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB)

    The kinematics of remote manipulators and human prostheses is analyzed for the purpose of deriving resolved motion rate control. That is, the operator is enabled to call for the desired hand motion directly along axes relevant to the task environment. The approach suggests solutions to problems of coordination, motion under task constraints, and appreciation of forces encountered by the controlled... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • AI in CAI: An Artificial-Intelligence Approach to Computer-Assisted Instruction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):190 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (226)  |  Patents (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3282 KB)

    The main purpose of the research reported here is to show that a new and more powerful type of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), based on extensive application of artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques, is feasible, and to demonstrate some of its major capabilities. A set of computer programs was written and given the name SCHOLAR. Due to its complexity, only the conception and educational asp... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optical-to-Tactile Image Conversion for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (126)  |  Patents (143)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5232 KB)

    This paper describes two optical-to-tactile imageconversion systems being developed for the blind. The first is a reading aid in which an area on the printed page about the size of a letterspace is translated into a corresponding vibratory tactile image. The tactile image is produced by a 24-by-6 array of pins driven by piezoelectric bimorphs. The array of 144 pins fits on the distal and a portion... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Kinesthetic Sensing for the EMG Controlled "Boston Arm"

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):110 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2882 KB)

    The contribution of a novel cutaneous display of elbow angle to an amputee's ability to position an EMG-controlled externally powered elbow prosthesis was objectively evaluated. Comparisons were made between the amputee's positional control of his conventional mechanical cable-operated elbow and the EMG "Boston Arm"l elbow, with and without angle feedback, in REACHING tasks with vision occluded in... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB)

    The possibility that the mechanical characteristics of skin and tissues may influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of tactile sensitivity is considered. A survey of selected literature indicating how certain mechanical characteristics of skin and tissue vary as a function of changes in variables known to influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of the tactile system... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Aiding the Decision Maker - A Decision Process Model

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):204 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2344 KB)

    Despite an increasing capability for automating various tasks there continues to be a requirement for man to serve as the decision element in many complex systems. The complexity and far-reaching consequences of many decisions impels a concern for improving decision-making perforrnance in man-machine systems. In this paper current knowledge regarding human decision behaviour and methods for aiding... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Information Transmission by Phantom Sensations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (83)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1628 KB)

    A sensory-aids display system that transmits information to its user through the location of a vibratory sensation on the skin has been developed. The sensation location is controlled by use of the phantom-sensation phenomenon. The development of the display included the determination of sensory and mechanical characteristics of the skin. The system was evaluated as a kinesthetic feedback display ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Model for Human Controller Remnant

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):101 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2038 KB)

    A model for human controller remnant is postulated in which remnant is considered to arise from an equivalent observation noise vector whose components are linearly independent white noise processes. Extensive analysis of data obtained from simple manual control systems verifies that this model structure holds over a wide range of input amplitudes and bandwidths, vehicle dynamics, and display loca... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Relatively High-Resolution Reading Aid for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3911 KB)

    Many direct-translation reading aids for the blind have been built in the past, employing an auditory output consisting of a combination of tones indicating the black regions in a vertical slice through a letter space, or a tactile output consisting of a raised or vibrating image of the letter shapes. Maximum reading rates obtained by the majority of subjects with these reading aids have been less... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Tactile Television - Mechanical and Electrical Image Projection

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (65)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2768 KB)

    The feasibility of communicating pictorial information through the skin has been demonstrated. A tactile television system has permitted blind subjects to determine the position, size, shape, and orientation of visible objects and to track moving targets. The system comprises 1) a vidicon camera utilizing a zoom lens, 2) a digital switching matrix to sequentially connect each element of the photoc... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Electrotactile Display

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB)

    An explorable electrotactile display has been constructed and tested. A thus far neglected sensation was identified and has been shown to be more useful than the more common electrotactile sensations. Exploration of the surface of the electrotactile display elicits a sensation describable as texture. Experiments have indicated that the intensity of this texture sensation is due primarily to the pe... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Theory of Manual Vehicular Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):257 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5486 KB)

    The analytical basis of manual vehicular control theory is a combination of feedback systems analysis and mathematical models for human operators engaged in control tasks. Simplified representations for the operator-system combination are provided by the 'crossover model', which is described in detail. The system dynamics and average performance of the crossover model system are developed. With th... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Polarity Coincidence Correlation Technique - A Useful Tool in the Analysis of Human-Operator Dynamics

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):34 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2700 KB)

    The paper describes a special correlation technique. It is shown that a two-state characterization of a random process leads to a simple correlation procedure, called the "polarity coincidence correlation method." The utility of the method in dynamics studies of man-machine systems, its limitations, its assumptions, and, finally, the accuracy due to a finite time of observation are discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Perceptual Findings with the Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):54 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3947 KB)

    The initial evaluation of a system for converting an optical image into a tactile display is reported. A 400-tactor array has proved capable of providing blind and sighted subjects with useful information about the disposition of objects in three dimensions. External localization of percepts was greatly facilitated by giving observers control of the sensing and imaging device, a television camera.... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Evaluation of a Pilot Model Based on Kalman Filtering and Optimal Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):108 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1929 KB)

    A pilot model based on Kalman filtering and optimal control is given which, because of its structure, provides for estimation of the plant state variables, the forcing functions, the time delay, and the neuromuscular lag. The inverse filter and control problem is considered where the noise and cost function parameters yield a frequency response which is in close agreement with that found experimen... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Subjective Magnitude Functions for Vibrotaction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB)

    An investigation of the subjective magnitude of vibrotaction was undertaken in order to 1) determine the growth of sensation as a function of intensity at a number of different frequencies; 2) establish contours of equal subjective intensity for vibrotaction; and 3) compare the psychophysical methods of direct scaling and intensity matching for a wide range of intensity and frequency. The results ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Human Information Processing Rates during Certain Multiaxis Tracking Tasks with a Concurrent Auditory Task

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):129 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2624 KB)

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the information processing rates of several subjects performing one- and two-axis compensatory tracking tasks with a secondary auditory task. The experimental variables were the order of controlled element dynamics, the forcing function, and the addition of a secondary task. Human information processing rates decreased slightly on each tracking ch... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Identification of Sampling Intervals in Sampled-Data Models of Human Operators

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):138 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1083 KB)

    The synthesis of sampled-data models of human controllers has been hampered by the lack of systematic procedures for estimating the sampling frequency to be used in the model. This paper presents two methods (programmed search and gradient search) for the determination of an unknown sampling frequency in closed-loop sampled-data systems. Both methods are based on, a priori knowledge of the structu... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Manual Control Using the Matched Manipulator Control Technique

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):56 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1007 KB)

    A manual control technique is described in which the force and position cues experienced by the operator from his control stick provide information relevant to the control problem. By constructing the operator's control stick in the form of a mechanical analog of the system being controlled, the apparent complexity of the control task is decreased and control performance is improved. Experimental ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Queueing Model of Visual Sampling Experimental Validation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):82 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2072 KB)

    Carbonell [1] recently proposed an economic model of a pilot's visual sampling behavior based on queueing theory. The results of a validation study of this model have been completed. This validation was based on instrument data and eye-movement data taken during mission flights using a Link trainer. The results of the simulation using the queueing model are shown to correlate well with eye-movemen... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On Adaptive Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):292 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9006 KB)

    Experimental studies and control descriptions of the human operator in recent years have extended the knowledge of adaptive behaviour in manual control from vague generalities about his versatility to quantitative descriptions. Considerable data have been gathered on the ability of the human to adapt to changes in input spectra, controlled element gain, polarity and dynamics, display modality, and... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Variable Perception Time in Car Following and Its Effect on Model Stability

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):149 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1981 KB)

    The functional variation of perception time T in car following is studied for the purpose of introducing a variable time delay into a previously proposed nonlinear model. The basic hypothesis is that the ratio of a just noticeable difference in visual angle (Δθ) to the visual angle (θ) is a constant. This hypothesis leads to a model in which perception time T is proportiona... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Stretch Receptor Models I - Single-Efferent Single-Afferent Innervation

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):17 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2237 KB)

    Two lumped parameter models of muscle stretch receptors are described quantitatively on the basis of experimental data from crustacean, amphibian, and mammalian muscle spindles. These models have single-efferent (input) and single-afferent (output) innervation. It is shown that these simple mechanical models can account for many of the behavioral characteristics exhibited by muscle spindle, but ar... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Human Operator Decision-Making in Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):41 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1470 KB)

    To decide whether or not to attempt a given maneuver, an operator must consider the likelihood of his success as well as the costs or values of the possible outcomes. Detecting the future success of a maneuver from the physical circumstances that make it more or less difficult to achieve and from past experience is formally like detecting signals in noise. Two experiments are described, which indi... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Archetypes in Man-Computer Problem Solving

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):219 - 241
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4180 KB)

    Information systems applied to operational environments have meaning only in what they do for humans performing tasks, whether clerical, technical or managerial. Each person's job-position entails interaction with a limited set of categories of variable data. By 'limited' is meant less than several thousand, and more likely several hundred, categories. A category set associated with a collection o... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Braille, the Language, Its Machine Translation and Display

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):96 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2276 KB)

    The manufacture of Braille textbooks has, in the past, been accomplished in two ways. The first is the large-scale production, utilizing zinc plate embossing presses. The second is hand production, done by a large number of dedicated volunteers. This paper outlines the trend in the last few years toward automatic Braille production and describes the development of a low-cost Braille translation an... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Neurophysiological Basis of a Tactile Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):108 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1239 KB)

    The instrumentation produced and the results obtained with the tactile vision-substitution system (TVSS) developed in our laboratories have been described by Collins [1] and White [2]. With the TVSS, the information from a TV camera is carried to the brain by means of the tactile receptors in the skin of the back and their neural pathways. Such information produces subjective impressions in blind ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Rea-Time Display System of Response Characteristics of Manual Tracking Systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):211 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2447 KB)

    A new method is proposed that can identify a linear system with a random input signal in a short time for application to the identification of manual tracking systems whose response characteristics vary slowly with time. Making use of this method of identification, a display system including an on-line computer is constructed, which displays the slowly varying response characteristics of manual tr... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.