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IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems

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  • Resolved Motion Rate Control of Manipulators and Human Prostheses

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (694)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB)

    The kinematics of remote manipulators and human prostheses is analyzed for the purpose of deriving resolved motion rate control. That is, the operator is enabled to call for the desired hand motion directly along axes relevant to the task environment. The approach suggests solutions to problems of coordination, motion under task constraints, and appreciation of forces encountered by the controlled... View full abstract»

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  • AI in CAI: An Artificial-Intelligence Approach to Computer-Assisted Instruction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):190 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (225)  |  Patents (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3282 KB)

    The main purpose of the research reported here is to show that a new and more powerful type of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), based on extensive application of artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques, is feasible, and to demonstrate some of its major capabilities. A set of computer programs was written and given the name SCHOLAR. Due to its complexity, only the conception and educational asp... View full abstract»

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  • An Electrotactile Display

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB)

    An explorable electrotactile display has been constructed and tested. A thus far neglected sensation was identified and has been shown to be more useful than the more common electrotactile sensations. Exploration of the surface of the electrotactile display elicits a sensation describable as texture. Experiments have indicated that the intensity of this texture sensation is due primarily to the pe... View full abstract»

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  • Information Transmission by Phantom Sensations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (80)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1628 KB)

    A sensory-aids display system that transmits information to its user through the location of a vibratory sensation on the skin has been developed. The sensation location is controlled by use of the phantom-sensation phenomenon. The development of the display included the determination of sensory and mechanical characteristics of the skin. The system was evaluated as a kinesthetic feedback display ... View full abstract»

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  • Kinesthetic Sensing for the EMG Controlled "Boston Arm"

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):110 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2882 KB)

    The contribution of a novel cutaneous display of elbow angle to an amputee's ability to position an EMG-controlled externally powered elbow prosthesis was objectively evaluated. Comparisons were made between the amputee's positional control of his conventional mechanical cable-operated elbow and the EMG "Boston Arm"l elbow, with and without angle feedback, in REACHING tasks with vision occluded in... View full abstract»

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  • A Describing Function Analysis of Tracking Performance Using Two Tactile Displays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):92 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4785 KB)

    A display consisting of two vibrators attached to the body was tested using three different error signal-to-vibration amplitude transformations. In addition, a novel ripple display consisting of seven sequentially activated air-jet stimulators was tested on a compensatory tracking task. For both displays the range of gains and body locations were determined by both describing-function and error-po... View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB)

    The possibility that the mechanical characteristics of skin and tissues may influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of tactile sensitivity is considered. A survey of selected literature indicating how certain mechanical characteristics of skin and tissue vary as a function of changes in variables known to influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of the tactile system... View full abstract»

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  • A Neuromuscular Actuation System Model

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):61 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (63)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2150 KB)

    Recently, both high quality physiological data and human-operator-describing function data of low variability and large dynamic range have become available. These data lead to control engineering descriptions for neuromuscular actuation systems that are compatible with the available data and that provide insight into the overall human control structure (e.g., the types of feedback systems used for... View full abstract»

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  • Some Comparisons between Touch and Hearing

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):28 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1939 KB)

    The skin can be used for sound localization with accuracy nearly as good as that for hearing. However, auditory sound localization is based on the utilization of both intensive-difference and temporal-difference cues while cutaneous sound localization is based almost entirely on the utilization of only intensive-difference cues. Furthermore, the time interval necessary for resolving two temporally... View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Manual Vehicular Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):257 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5486 KB)

    The analytical basis of manual vehicular control theory is a combination of feedback systems analysis and mathematical models for human operators engaged in control tasks. Simplified representations for the operator-system combination are provided by the 'crossover model', which is described in detail. The system dynamics and average performance of the crossover model system are developed. With th... View full abstract»

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  • Optical-to-Tactile Image Conversion for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (125)  |  Patents (143)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5232 KB)

    This paper describes two optical-to-tactile imageconversion systems being developed for the blind. The first is a reading aid in which an area on the printed page about the size of a letterspace is translated into a corresponding vibratory tactile image. The tactile image is produced by a 24-by-6 array of pins driven by piezoelectric bimorphs. The array of 144 pins fits on the distal and a portion... View full abstract»

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  • Neurophysiological Basis of a Tactile Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):108 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1239 KB)

    The instrumentation produced and the results obtained with the tactile vision-substitution system (TVSS) developed in our laboratories have been described by Collins [1] and White [2]. With the TVSS, the information from a TV camera is carried to the brain by means of the tactile receptors in the skin of the back and their neural pathways. Such information produces subjective impressions in blind ... View full abstract»

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  • A Queueing Model of Visual Sampling Experimental Validation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):82 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2072 KB)

    Carbonell [1] recently proposed an economic model of a pilot's visual sampling behavior based on queueing theory. The results of a validation study of this model have been completed. This validation was based on instrument data and eye-movement data taken during mission flights using a Link trainer. The results of the simulation using the queueing model are shown to correlate well with eye-movemen... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Pilot Describing Functions from Flight Test Data with an Example from Gemini X

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):49 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB)

    It is well known that there is an error in identifying the pilot describing function from routine flight test records because the pilot's output noise is correlated with the input error signal. This paper shows that this identification error can be reduced in the computer processing by shifting the input signal an amount equivalent to the pilot's time delay. This technique for reducing the identif... View full abstract»

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  • On Adaptive Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):292 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9006 KB)

    Experimental studies and control descriptions of the human operator in recent years have extended the knowledge of adaptive behaviour in manual control from vague generalities about his versatility to quantitative descriptions. Considerable data have been gathered on the ability of the human to adapt to changes in input spectra, controlled element gain, polarity and dynamics, display modality, and... View full abstract»

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  • Braille, the Language, Its Machine Translation and Display

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):96 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2276 KB)

    The manufacture of Braille textbooks has, in the past, been accomplished in two ways. The first is the large-scale production, utilizing zinc plate embossing presses. The second is hand production, done by a large number of dedicated volunteers. This paper outlines the trend in the last few years toward automatic Braille production and describes the development of a low-cost Braille translation an... View full abstract»

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  • Model of the Adaptive Behavior of the Human Operator in Response to a Sudden Change in the Control Situation

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):72 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2076 KB)

    An adaptive model is presented to describe the behavior of the human operator in response to sudden changes in plant dynamics and transient disturbances. The plant simulated for tracking experiments is approximately second-order and has rate and attitude feedback augmentation for increased stability. The failure of the rate sensor and/or the attitude sensor results in a sudden transition in the or... View full abstract»

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  • An Approach to Digital Engineering

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):144 - 145
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1147 KB)

    Study within digital engineering is primarily concerned with the exploitation of mutual characteristics of software and hardware packages. Within the digital information aggregate of each package the alphabet, dictionary, and syntax models permit a basic perspective independent of restraints imposed by particular evolving packages. View full abstract»

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  • An Evaluation of a Pilot Model Based on Kalman Filtering and Optimal Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):108 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1929 KB)

    A pilot model based on Kalman filtering and optimal control is given which, because of its structure, provides for estimation of the plant state variables, the forcing functions, the time delay, and the neuromuscular lag. The inverse filter and control problem is considered where the noise and cost function parameters yield a frequency response which is in close agreement with that found experimen... View full abstract»

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  • Temporal Ordering of Events in Haptic Space

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):25 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1920 KB)

    The most rapid acquisition of skill in the use of complex vibrotactile displays will occur when the capabilities of the organism are most efficiently exploited by the display code. When spatiotemporal patterns are chosen as the coding scheme, the problem of perception of temporal order is of great importance. The present paper describes the effects on the limen for order of two events, of the qual... View full abstract»

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  • Man-Computer Interaction - The Contribution of the Human Sciences

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):149 - 163
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2641 KB)

    An introductory survey is presented of the possible contribution of the human sciences to man-computer interaction, based upon a full review of the relevant human factors literature which is to be published. A possible taxonomy for the field is proposed founided on broad divisions of the human sciences problem areas and of the types of computer systems and services. Using the taxonomy as a framewo... View full abstract»

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  • Choice of Stimulator Frequency for Tactile Arrays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):5 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1632 KB)

    An experiment is described that tested subjects' ability to recognize letters presented tactually by an array of airjets in a manner simulating a moving belt. Recognition accuracy was measured as a function of reading rate and stimulator frequency. For constant stimulus pulsewidth, performance increased significantly as stimulator-repetition rate was increased from 20 to 160 pps. A second experime... View full abstract»

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  • An Application of Measurement Methods to Improve the Quantitative Nature of Pilot Rating Scales

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):81 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2668 KB)

    Although various forms of pilot rating scales have been widely used, they have at the same time been criticized increasingly for supposed deficiencies. Thus, contemporary scale problems include wording ambiguity, the dual mission character of some scales, and a lack of information about the quantitative character of the scale continuum. In an attempt to quantize rating scales, a semantic experimen... View full abstract»

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  • Tactile Television - Mechanical and Electrical Image Projection

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2768 KB)

    The feasibility of communicating pictorial information through the skin has been demonstrated. A tactile television system has permitted blind subjects to determine the position, size, shape, and orientation of visible objects and to track moving targets. The system comprises 1) a vidicon camera utilizing a zoom lens, 2) a digital switching matrix to sequentially connect each element of the photoc... View full abstract»

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  • Human Operator Decision-Making in Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):41 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1470 KB)

    To decide whether or not to attempt a given maneuver, an operator must consider the likelihood of his success as well as the costs or values of the possible outcomes. Detecting the future success of a maneuver from the physical circumstances that make it more or less difficult to achieve and from past experience is formally like detecting signals in noise. Two experiments are described, which indi... View full abstract»

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  • Variable Perception Time in Car Following and Its Effect on Model Stability

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):149 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1981 KB)

    The functional variation of perception time T in car following is studied for the purpose of introducing a variable time delay into a previously proposed nonlinear model. The basic hypothesis is that the ratio of a just noticeable difference in visual angle (Δθ) to the visual angle (θ) is a constant. This hypothesis leads to a model in which perception time T is proportiona... View full abstract»

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  • A Relatively High-Resolution Reading Aid for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3911 KB)

    Many direct-translation reading aids for the blind have been built in the past, employing an auditory output consisting of a combination of tones indicating the black regions in a vertical slice through a letter space, or a tactile output consisting of a raised or vibrating image of the letter shapes. Maximum reading rates obtained by the majority of subjects with these reading aids have been less... View full abstract»

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  • Instant Modular 3-D Mockup for Configuring Control and Display Equipment

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):72 - 81
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5258 KB)

    A modular 3-D mockup technique was developed as a method for economizing and facilitating the design of control and display equipment. The integral parts of the mockup include modular easy-to-assemble console bays and panels (dimensioned after standard sizes and increments thereof for flexibility), simulated magnetic backed 3-D controls and displays of actual size, various writing shelf configurat... View full abstract»

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  • The Surge Model of the Well-Trained Human Operator in Simple Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):2 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1910 KB)

    A new model of the human operator, termed the surge model, is developed. It is dual mode, containing a linearized constant coefficient model and an optimum second-order controller model. The equations describing its performance are written in the time domain. When the absolute values of the system error and of the first error derivative are less than certain specified bounds, the linear constant c... View full abstract»

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  • The Human as an Optimal Controller and Information Processor

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):9 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2245 KB)

    A mathematical model of the instrument-monitoring behavior of the human operator is developed. The model is based on the assumption that the operator behaves as an optimal controller and information processor, subject to his inherent physical limitations. The resulting model depends explicitly on the control task and the control actions. Provision is made for the ability to obtain information from... View full abstract»

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