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IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems

Popular Articles (June 2016)

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  • 1. Resolved Motion Rate Control of Manipulators and Human Prostheses

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (388)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB)

    The kinematics of remote manipulators and human prostheses is analyzed for the purpose of deriving resolved motion rate control. That is, the operator is enabled to call for the desired hand motion directly along axes relevant to the task environment. The approach suggests solutions to problems of coordination, motion under task constraints, and appreciation of forces encountered by the controlled... View full abstract»

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  • 2. AI in CAI: An Artificial-Intelligence Approach to Computer-Assisted Instruction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):190 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (47)  |  Patents (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3282 KB)

    The main purpose of the research reported here is to show that a new and more powerful type of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), based on extensive application of artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques, is feasible, and to demonstrate some of its major capabilities. A set of computer programs was written and given the name SCHOLAR. Due to its complexity, only the conception and educational asp... View full abstract»

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  • 3. Theory of Manual Vehicular Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):257 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5486 KB)

    The analytical basis of manual vehicular control theory is a combination of feedback systems analysis and mathematical models for human operators engaged in control tasks. Simplified representations for the operator-system combination are provided by the 'crossover model', which is described in detail. The system dynamics and average performance of the crossover model system are developed. With th... View full abstract»

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  • 4. An Electrotactile Display

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB)

    An explorable electrotactile display has been constructed and tested. A thus far neglected sensation was identified and has been shown to be more useful than the more common electrotactile sensations. Exploration of the surface of the electrotactile display elicits a sensation describable as texture. Experiments have indicated that the intensity of this texture sensation is due primarily to the pe... View full abstract»

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  • 5. Information Transmission by Phantom Sensations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1628 KB)

    A sensory-aids display system that transmits information to its user through the location of a vibratory sensation on the skin has been developed. The sensation location is controlled by use of the phantom-sensation phenomenon. The development of the display included the determination of sensory and mechanical characteristics of the skin. The system was evaluated as a kinesthetic feedback display ... View full abstract»

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  • 6. Aiding the Decision Maker - A Decision Process Model

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):204 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2344 KB)

    Despite an increasing capability for automating various tasks there continues to be a requirement for man to serve as the decision element in many complex systems. The complexity and far-reaching consequences of many decisions impels a concern for improving decision-making perforrnance in man-machine systems. In this paper current knowledge regarding human decision behaviour and methods for aiding... View full abstract»

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  • 7. A Neuromuscular Actuation System Model

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):61 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2150 KB)

    Recently, both high quality physiological data and human-operator-describing function data of low variability and large dynamic range have become available. These data lead to control engineering descriptions for neuromuscular actuation systems that are compatible with the available data and that provide insight into the overall human control structure (e.g., the types of feedback systems used for... View full abstract»

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  • 8. Tactile Television - Mechanical and Electrical Image Projection

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2768 KB)

    The feasibility of communicating pictorial information through the skin has been demonstrated. A tactile television system has permitted blind subjects to determine the position, size, shape, and orientation of visible objects and to track moving targets. The system comprises 1) a vidicon camera utilizing a zoom lens, 2) a digital switching matrix to sequentially connect each element of the photoc... View full abstract»

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  • 9. An Analysis of Pilot Adaptation in a Simulated Multiloop VTOL Hovering Task

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):110 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3066 KB)

    Human pilot adaptation in a simulated multiloop VTOL hovering task was investigated with a series-loop-closure model. Using the model equations, the pilot-model adaptable parameters were computed from rms hovering performance data measured in flight simulator experiments for a variety of VTOL aircraft configurations. Variations in the aircraft configurations affected both the aircraft's dynamic ch... View full abstract»

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  • 10. Rotation of Visual Reference Systems and Its Influence on Control Quality

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):129 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB)

    Electronic displays pose large human-engineering possibilities and, at the same time, new problems. One special aspect is the rotation of the display reference system. The human operator is unable to compensate for rotation. This is why tracking errors increase considerably at 90 and 270¿¿ rotation angles. Related experiments are described in detail. A new "action display" indicating the stick sig... View full abstract»

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  • 11. A Queueing Model of Visual Sampling Experimental Validation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):82 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2072 KB)

    Carbonell [1] recently proposed an economic model of a pilot's visual sampling behavior based on queueing theory. The results of a validation study of this model have been completed. This validation was based on instrument data and eye-movement data taken during mission flights using a Link trainer. The results of the simulation using the queueing model are shown to correlate well with eye-movemen... View full abstract»

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  • 12. Character Legibility versus Resolution in Image Processing of Printed Matter

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):66 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2938 KB)

    In order to determine optimum resolution requirements for digital facsimile systems, a legibility study was conducted. The study was designed to measure the quality of output copy as a function of equipment parameters and copy parameters. The experimental equipment permitted systematic variations in horizontal and vertical resolution, scan direction, and simulated transmission noise; the test docu... View full abstract»

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  • 13. A Relatively High-Resolution Reading Aid for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3911 KB)

    Many direct-translation reading aids for the blind have been built in the past, employing an auditory output consisting of a combination of tones indicating the black regions in a vertical slice through a letter space, or a tactile output consisting of a raised or vibrating image of the letter shapes. Maximum reading rates obtained by the majority of subjects with these reading aids have been less... View full abstract»

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  • 14. Display Design: Principles and Procedures

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):181 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1859 KB)

    The history of research on display design is described briefly and the general problems of real/artificial displays and new/stored information are discussed with particular emphasis on compatibility The main discussion centres on the advantages and limitations of the three general approaches to display design: use of checklists, use of formal procedures and use of behaviour theory. A checklist for... View full abstract»

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  • 15. A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB)

    The possibility that the mechanical characteristics of skin and tissues may influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of tactile sensitivity is considered. A survey of selected literature indicating how certain mechanical characteristics of skin and tissue vary as a function of changes in variables known to influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of the tactile system... View full abstract»

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  • 16. Neurophysiological Basis of a Tactile Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):108 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1239 KB)

    The instrumentation produced and the results obtained with the tactile vision-substitution system (TVSS) developed in our laboratories have been described by Collins [1] and White [2]. With the TVSS, the information from a TV camera is carried to the brain by means of the tactile receptors in the skin of the back and their neural pathways. Such information produces subjective impressions in blind ... View full abstract»

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  • 17. Variable Perception Time in Car Following and Its Effect on Model Stability

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):149 - 156
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1981 KB)

    The functional variation of perception time T in car following is studied for the purpose of introducing a variable time delay into a previously proposed nonlinear model. The basic hypothesis is that the ratio of a just noticeable difference in visual angle (¿¿) to the visual angle (¿) is a constant. This hypothesis leads to a model in which perception time T is proportional to relative spacing... View full abstract»

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  • 18. Subjective Magnitude Functions for Vibrotaction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB)

    An investigation of the subjective magnitude of vibrotaction was undertaken in order to 1) determine the growth of sensation as a function of intensity at a number of different frequencies; 2) establish contours of equal subjective intensity for vibrotaction; and 3) compare the psychophysical methods of direct scaling and intensity matching for a wide range of intensity and frequency. The results ... View full abstract»

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  • 19. Some Comparisons between Touch and Hearing

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):28 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1939 KB)

    The skin can be used for sound localization with accuracy nearly as good as that for hearing. However, auditory sound localization is based on the utilization of both intensive-difference and temporal-difference cues while cutaneous sound localization is based almost entirely on the utilization of only intensive-difference cues. Furthermore, the time interval necessary for resolving two temporally... View full abstract»

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  • 20. The Measurement of Fluctuation in Perceptual and Learning Tasks

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):11 - 19
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2053 KB)

    In psychophysical experiments subjects always produce responses that are not nearly as constant as the stimuli presented in laboratory conditions. In this study the fluctuation of responses is described as originating in the nervous system. This description requires a definition of three quantities: a measure for the total neural activity elicited by the stimulus, the fluctuation of this activity ... View full abstract»

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  • 21. Stochastic Modeling of Human Learning Behavior

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):36 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2580 KB)

    A stochastic model of human learning behavior in a manual control task is described. Regulation of the state of a double integral plant to minimize the integrated absolute error is the operator's task. Subjects given this task were instructed to drive the process from an initial state to the null state using a two-position relay controller and a visual display. A subject is conceptualized in the m... View full abstract»

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  • 22. Braille, the Language, Its Machine Translation and Display

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):96 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2276 KB)

    The manufacture of Braille textbooks has, in the past, been accomplished in two ways. The first is the large-scale production, utilizing zinc plate embossing presses. The second is hand production, done by a large number of dedicated volunteers. This paper outlines the trend in the last few years toward automatic Braille production and describes the development of a low-cost Braille translation an... View full abstract»

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  • 23. Adaptive Finite-State Models of Manual Control Systems

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):15 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)

    A model of human operator behavior is presented based on the following assumptions: that the input and output are quantized into a limited number of states and that data processing is performed on asynchronous samples of this coarsely quantized input, i.e., that the human operator behaves as a finite-state machine. A hybrid element or hybrid actuator is used to achieve a continuous variation of ou... View full abstract»

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  • 24. Optical-to-Tactile Image Conversion for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (60)  |  Patents (141)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5232 KB)

    This paper describes two optical-to-tactile imageconversion systems being developed for the blind. The first is a reading aid in which an area on the printed page about the size of a letterspace is translated into a corresponding vibratory tactile image. The tactile image is produced by a 24-by-6 array of pins driven by piezoelectric bimorphs. The array of 144 pins fits on the distal and a portion... View full abstract»

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  • 25. Human Information Processing Rates during Certain Multiaxis Tracking Tasks with a Concurrent Auditory Task

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):129 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2624 KB)

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the information processing rates of several subjects performing one- and two-axis compensatory tracking tasks with a secondary auditory task. The experimental variables were the order of controlled element dynamics, the forcing function, and the addition of a secondary task. Human information processing rates decreased slightly on each tracking ch... View full abstract»

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  • 26. Human Operator Decision-Making in Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):41 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1470 KB)

    To decide whether or not to attempt a given maneuver, an operator must consider the likelihood of his success as well as the costs or values of the possible outcomes. Detecting the future success of a maneuver from the physical circumstances that make it more or less difficult to achieve and from past experience is formally like detecting signals in noise. Two experiments are described, which indi... View full abstract»

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