IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • AI in CAI: An Artificial-Intelligence Approach to Computer-Assisted Instruction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):190 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (238)  |  Patents (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3282 KB)

    The main purpose of the research reported here is to show that a new and more powerful type of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), based on extensive application of artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques, is feasible, and to demonstrate some of its major capabilities. A set of computer programs was written and given the name SCHOLAR. Due to its complexity, only the conception and educational asp... View full abstract»

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  • Resolved Motion Rate Control of Manipulators and Human Prostheses

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (760)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB)

    The kinematics of remote manipulators and human prostheses is analyzed for the purpose of deriving resolved motion rate control. That is, the operator is enabled to call for the desired hand motion directly along axes relevant to the task environment. The approach suggests solutions to problems of coordination, motion under task constraints, and appreciation of forces encountered by the controlled... View full abstract»

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  • An Electrotactile Display

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB)

    An explorable electrotactile display has been constructed and tested. A thus far neglected sensation was identified and has been shown to be more useful than the more common electrotactile sensations. Exploration of the surface of the electrotactile display elicits a sensation describable as texture. Experiments have indicated that the intensity of this texture sensation is due primarily to the pe... View full abstract»

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  • Information Transmission by Phantom Sensations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (85)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1628 KB)

    A sensory-aids display system that transmits information to its user through the location of a vibratory sensation on the skin has been developed. The sensation location is controlled by use of the phantom-sensation phenomenon. The development of the display included the determination of sensory and mechanical characteristics of the skin. The system was evaluated as a kinesthetic feedback display ... View full abstract»

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  • Optical-to-Tactile Image Conversion for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (133)  |  Patents (144)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5232 KB)

    This paper describes two optical-to-tactile imageconversion systems being developed for the blind. The first is a reading aid in which an area on the printed page about the size of a letterspace is translated into a corresponding vibratory tactile image. The tactile image is produced by a 24-by-6 array of pins driven by piezoelectric bimorphs. The array of 144 pins fits on the distal and a portion... View full abstract»

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  • Braille, the Language, Its Machine Translation and Display

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):96 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2276 KB)

    The manufacture of Braille textbooks has, in the past, been accomplished in two ways. The first is the large-scale production, utilizing zinc plate embossing presses. The second is hand production, done by a large number of dedicated volunteers. This paper outlines the trend in the last few years toward automatic Braille production and describes the development of a low-cost Braille translation an... View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of the Mechanical Characteristics of Skin and Tissue in Response to Vibratory Stimulation

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB)

    The possibility that the mechanical characteristics of skin and tissues may influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of tactile sensitivity is considered. A survey of selected literature indicating how certain mechanical characteristics of skin and tissue vary as a function of changes in variables known to influence physiological and psychophysical measurements of the tactile system... View full abstract»

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  • Character Legibility versus Resolution in Image Processing of Printed Matter

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):66 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2938 KB)

    In order to determine optimum resolution requirements for digital facsimile systems, a legibility study was conducted. The study was designed to measure the quality of output copy as a function of equipment parameters and copy parameters. The experimental equipment permitted systematic variations in horizontal and vertical resolution, scan direction, and simulated transmission noise; the test docu... View full abstract»

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  • Choice of Stimulator Frequency for Tactile Arrays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):5 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1632 KB)

    An experiment is described that tested subjects' ability to recognize letters presented tactually by an array of airjets in a manner simulating a moving belt. Recognition accuracy was measured as a function of reading rate and stimulator frequency. For constant stimulus pulsewidth, performance increased significantly as stimulator-repetition rate was increased from 20 to 160 pps. A second experime... View full abstract»

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  • A Neuromuscular Actuation System Model

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):61 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2150 KB)

    Recently, both high quality physiological data and human-operator-describing function data of low variability and large dynamic range have become available. These data lead to control engineering descriptions for neuromuscular actuation systems that are compatible with the available data and that provide insight into the overall human control structure (e.g., the types of feedback systems used for... View full abstract»

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  • On Adaptive Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):292 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9006 KB)

    Experimental studies and control descriptions of the human operator in recent years have extended the knowledge of adaptive behaviour in manual control from vague generalities about his versatility to quantitative descriptions. Considerable data have been gathered on the ability of the human to adapt to changes in input spectra, controlled element gain, polarity and dynamics, display modality, and... View full abstract»

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  • Motion Cues in Man-Vehicle Control Effects of Roll-Motion Cues on Human Operator's Behavior in Compensatory Systems with Disturbance Inputs

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):121 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1584 KB)

    The human operator's use of roll-motion cues is investigated for man-vehicle control in a compensatory tracking task with a disturbance input. Extensive data for the human operator's describing function are taken for a wide range of vehicle dynamics under conditions of visual cues only, roll-motion cues only, and simultaneous visual and roll-motion cues. Addition of roll-motion cues to visual cues... View full abstract»

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  • Some Comparisons between Touch and Hearing

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):28 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1939 KB)

    The skin can be used for sound localization with accuracy nearly as good as that for hearing. However, auditory sound localization is based on the utilization of both intensive-difference and temporal-difference cues while cutaneous sound localization is based almost entirely on the utilization of only intensive-difference cues. Furthermore, the time interval necessary for resolving two temporally... View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Manual Vehicular Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):257 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5486 KB)

    The analytical basis of manual vehicular control theory is a combination of feedback systems analysis and mathematical models for human operators engaged in control tasks. Simplified representations for the operator-system combination are provided by the 'crossover model', which is described in detail. The system dynamics and average performance of the crossover model system are developed. With th... View full abstract»

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  • Subjective Probabilities in Medical Diagnosis

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):61 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1712 KB)

    The extensive research on computer-based medical diagnosis has not had much impact on medical practice because of conflicting results and the apparently high cost of operational systems. The heart of these problems appears to be the unavailability of large amounts of easily retrievable actuarial data needed for the probability estimates about symptom-disease relationships. This paper proposes that... View full abstract»

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  • Kinesthetic Sensing for the EMG Controlled "Boston Arm"

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):110 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2882 KB)

    The contribution of a novel cutaneous display of elbow angle to an amputee's ability to position an EMG-controlled externally powered elbow prosthesis was objectively evaluated. Comparisons were made between the amputee's positional control of his conventional mechanical cable-operated elbow and the EMG "Boston Arm"l elbow, with and without angle feedback, in REACHING tasks with vision occluded in... View full abstract»

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  • Tactile Television - Mechanical and Electrical Image Projection

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (71)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2768 KB)

    The feasibility of communicating pictorial information through the skin has been demonstrated. A tactile television system has permitted blind subjects to determine the position, size, shape, and orientation of visible objects and to track moving targets. The system comprises 1) a vidicon camera utilizing a zoom lens, 2) a digital switching matrix to sequentially connect each element of the photoc... View full abstract»

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  • The Surge Model of the Well-Trained Human Operator in Simple Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):2 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1910 KB)

    A new model of the human operator, termed the surge model, is developed. It is dual mode, containing a linearized constant coefficient model and an optimum second-order controller model. The equations describing its performance are written in the time domain. When the absolute values of the system error and of the first error derivative are less than certain specified bounds, the linear constant c... View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Modeling of Human Learning Behavior

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):36 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2580 KB)

    A stochastic model of human learning behavior in a manual control task is described. Regulation of the state of a double integral plant to minimize the integrated absolute error is the operator's task. Subjects given this task were instructed to drive the process from an initial state to the null state using a two-position relay controller and a visual display. A subject is conceptualized in the m... View full abstract»

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  • A Relatively High-Resolution Reading Aid for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3911 KB)

    Many direct-translation reading aids for the blind have been built in the past, employing an auditory output consisting of a combination of tones indicating the black regions in a vertical slice through a letter space, or a tactile output consisting of a raised or vibrating image of the letter shapes. Maximum reading rates obtained by the majority of subjects with these reading aids have been less... View full abstract»

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  • Display Design: Principles and Procedures

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):181 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1859 KB)

    The history of research on display design is described briefly and the general problems of real/artificial displays and new/stored information are discussed with particular emphasis on compatibility The main discussion centres on the advantages and limitations of the three general approaches to display design: use of checklists, use of formal procedures and use of behaviour theory. A checklist for... View full abstract»

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