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Engineering Science and Education Journal

Popular Articles (June 2016)

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  • 1. Fuel cells

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):7 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1227 KB)

    The advent of fuel cells for the generation of electricity for portable, small and large-scale stationary and automotive purposes portends radical changes in electricity supply over coming decades. The five main types of fuel cell technology are reviewed (alkaline fuel cell, solid polymer fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell, molten-carbonate fuel cell, and solid-oxide fuel cell) along with their ... View full abstract»

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  • 2. The other transistor: early history of the metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):233 - 240
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1368 KB)

    The silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET or MOS transistor) did not become significant commercially until two decades after the 1948 announcement of the invention of the transistor by Bell Laboratories. The underlying concept of the MOSFET-modulation of conductivity in a semiconductor triode structure by a transverse electric field-first appeared in a 1928 patent appli... View full abstract»

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  • 3. Introduction to fuel cells and hydrogen technology

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):205 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1255 KB)

    Whereas the 19th century was the century of the steam engine and the 20th century was the century of the internal combustion engine, it is likely that the 21st century will be the century of the fuel cell. Full cells are now on the verge of being introduced commercially, revolutionising the way we presently produce power. Fuel cells can use hydrogen as a fuel, offering the prospect of supplying th... View full abstract»

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  • 4. Using Rogowski coils for transient current measurements

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):105 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (639 KB)

    The Rogowski-coil method of measuring electric current has developed into a versatile measuring system with many applications throughout industry and in research. The technique possesses many features which offer an advantage over iron-cored current measuring devices and these are well illustrated by considering how it can be used for measuring transient currents. The authors describe the principl... View full abstract»

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  • 5. Auxetic materials: the positive side of being negative

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):148 - 154
    Cited by:  Patents (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)

    An auxetic material is one which gets fatter when it is stretched. Thus, unlike most materials, it has a negative Poisson's ratio. This review looks at examples of auxetic materials, the effect the negative Poisson's ratio has on their mechanical properties and how these fascinating new materials can be used in applications as diverse as smart fasteners, replacement blood vessels and curved car do... View full abstract»

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  • 6. Modified nodal analysis: an essential addition to electrical circuit theory and analysis

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):84 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)

    The known limitations of classical mesh and nodal methods of analysing linear electrical circuits are described before considering an established modification of the nodal approach. The method, known as 'modified nodal analysis', has none of the limitations of the basic nodal technique and is well suited both to symbolic and numeric analysis of complex circuits using modern matrix-based software. ... View full abstract»

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  • 7. Manchester encoding: opposing definitions resolved

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):278 - 280
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    Manchester encoding is widely used to provide clock and data information simultaneously via a single connection. There are two opposing-and incompatible-definitions of Manchester encoding where the rising edge in the centre of the data bit indicates either a logic “1” or alternatively a logic “0”. This paper resolves the differences and identifies the originator of the meth... View full abstract»

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  • 8. Novel aluminium-silicon alloys for electronics packaging

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):195 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2080 KB)

    A novel series of aluminium-silicon alloys has been developed using the Osprey method. These high silicon (50-70 wt%) content alloys have fine, isotropic microstructure. Unlike the conventional silicon-carbide-containing metal matrix composites (MMCs), the new alloys are readily machinable using conventional carbide tools and are easily platable with nickel, copper, silver and gold. The electropla... View full abstract»

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  • 9. Ionising radiation effects: a vital issue for semiconductor electronics

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):123 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)

    Many modern electronic systems are required to survive harsh radiation environments, such as those naturally present in space or those which may be artificially created by machines or nuclear devices. Semiconductor devices are innately susceptible to ionising radiation effects due to intrinsic features of their design. Certain specific radiation effects mechanisms may be identified as limiting the... View full abstract»

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  • 10. An introduction to mixed-signal IC test and measurement [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 200
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB)

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  • 11. New developments and future trends in high-efficiency lighting

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):207 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1524 KB)

    There have been several developments in lamp technology and remote lighting systems that promise savings in electrical power consumption and improved quality of the lighting space. This article reviews the developments in fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, electrodeless lamps, sulphur lamps, LED lamps, electronic ballasts, and lighting fixtures. Remote lighting systems using hollow light-guide... View full abstract»

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  • 12. Microstereolithography and other fabrication techniques for 3D MEMS [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 65
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)

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  • 13. The impact of environmental issues on the UK printed circuit board industry

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):221 - 226
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB)

    The need for environmentally responsible manufacturing is forcing industry to change the way it produces its products and offers its services. This is evident in the electronics industry and especially so in the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing sector. PCB manufacture requires numerous chemical processes and materials, many of which contain chemicals that can be difficult to dispose of an... View full abstract»

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  • 14. Properties Of Silicon Carbide

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 212
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)

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  • 15. Electrical power engineering systems: an assessment of their impact on global climatic change

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):113 - 121
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2748 KB)

    Energy expenditure, energy utilization, fossil fuel reserves and reservoir depletion rates collectively disguise and distract attention from the impact of engineering practice on potential climate change. These diversions are further compounded by the attention paid to strategic economic policies which may be microfocused or, alternatively, may be on a wider scale encompassing gross domestic produ... View full abstract»

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  • 16. A large-scale Web-based virtual oscilloscope laboratory experiment

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):69 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (740 KB)

    VLAB, a pilot Web-based virtual laboratory on an oscilloscope experiment, has been developed and launched for over 1000 first year undergraduate engineering students in the Faculty of Engineering at the National University of Singapore (NUS). Rather than simulating the oscilloscope display on the client as is often done in other virtual laboratories, the system uses real-time video capture of the ... View full abstract»

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  • 17. The beginnings of electric street lighting in the City of London

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):81 - 88
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)

    From the time of the first experimental arc lamps on Holborn Viaduct in 1878 to the first permanent electric street lamps in 1891, the denizens of the City of London were subjected to many forms of lighting in which, at one time, electricity played no part and the Viaduct itself reverted to gas lamps on one side and oil on the other. Amongst the many proposals for electric lighting was one from th... View full abstract»

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  • 18. Alexander Bain, a most ingenious and meritorious inventor

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):85 - 93
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1261 KB)

    The achievements of Alexander Bain are relatively unknown. Bain was born and died in near poverty; yet in the early 1850s telegraph lines exploiting his electric telegraph patent were in operation in the United States in competition with those of Morse. Besides inventions in the field of electric telegraphy Bain was the first person to construct an electromagnetic clock and to devise a facsimile t... View full abstract»

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  • 19. Lamps and lighting

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):196 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)

    There is now a wide demand for the provision of high-quality visual environments and consequently lighting engineers need to examine closely the numerous interacting aspects of human activities. This paper reviews the characteristics of the human visual system and how these affect visual performance under different lighting conditions. The way in which the techniques that are used to convert elect... View full abstract»

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  • 20. Active control systems for large segmented optical mirrors

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):139 - 144
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB)

    A new generation of optical telescopes is on the drawing board. These will be true giants with primary mirrors having a diameter of up to 100 metres. The technology that will enable this revolution to take place was developed at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, where the world's largest segmented mirrors are in daily use. This article looks at how the W. M. Keck Observatory proved the mirror ... View full abstract»

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  • 21. The optophone: an electronic blind aid

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):137 - 143
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)

    This article presents a short but detailed description of the optophone-its origins as a reading device for the blind, the various stages of its development, and the possibility of its use as a mobility aid for the blind. Research into the use of stereo vision is described as an aid to information reduction, in the hope of remedying the problems of information overload that commonly plague electro... View full abstract»

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  • 22. Approximate boundary conditions in electromagnetics [book review]

    Publication Year: 1996
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (104 KB)

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  • 23. The genesis of the Wheatstone bridge

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):37 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    In the paper in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in which Wheatstone described the DC bridge that now bears his name, he attributes the idea of the bridge to S.H. Christie. French and German translations published the following year and possibly prepared from a preprint of the paper do not carry this attribution and this may explain why the bridge does not bear Christie's name. ... View full abstract»

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  • 24. Graduates into industry-the transitional years

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):60 - 64
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB)

    Graduate engineers are an expensive and valuable investment, and the transitional years between academe and industry must be carefully managed by employers. The author gives a personal view on the need for appropriate training and retention strategies to ensure that organisations attract and keep the right kind of staff-especially engineers-in the 1990s.<> View full abstract»

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  • 25. Global climate change and hydroelectric resources

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):29 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)

    Hydroelectric power is one of the most widely exploited forms of renewable energy and, in areas where global climate change (GCC) causes precipitation characteristics to change significantly, or more importantly, where run off is reduced, existing hydroelectric installations may require replacement with alternative sources of power. As economic appraisals of new hydroelectric projects are normally... View full abstract»

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  • 26. NAMAS and European co-operation

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):187 - 191
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (394 KB)

    The standards set by the National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS) and its laboratories are followed worldwide. The use of NAMAS experience to develop other countries' accreditation systems is extensive and shows no sign of abating. The article gives a background to NAMAS, its role in the National Measurement System (NMS) and its approach to the accreditation of calibration and testing la... View full abstract»

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  • 27. Electric lamps, past and present

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):161 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1027 KB)

    The article traces the story of the electric lamp, which began when, in 1810, Davy demonstrated the now legendary 'bright carbon arc' that led, in 1850, to the production of practical arc lamps. Because of the 'powerful' intensity of the arc lamp, there was a demand for 'the subdivision of light' and this culminated, in 1879, in the invention of the incandescent filament lamp. Gaseous and vapour d... View full abstract»

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  • 28. Sound science, education and technology

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):37 - 47
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (735 KB)

    The author addresses a small fraction of the activities being pursued to understand and exploit acoustic phenomena. Advantages of acoustic techniques including types of wave motion; wavelength and propagation speed; and interaction with propagating media are discussed. Generation and reception of sound is looked at and applications of piezoelectric polymers are also described.<> View full abstract»

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  • 29. The training of postgraduates

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):245 - 248
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)

    The research and management skills required for gaining a PhD differ greatly from those associated with other graduate courses. A training programme for doctoral students should teach the skills needed to conduct research and help prepare students for subsequent careers in industry or academia. When developing the Graduate Support Programme (GRASP) to provide this training at UMIST, it emerged tha... View full abstract»

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  • 30. The Alexanderson alternator

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):37 - 42
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1840 KB)

    The Alexanderson alternator was a rotary mechanical generator of radio carrier-waves at frequencies up to 100 kHz and beyond, developed in the early 1900s. In spite of the many technical problems involved in constructing machines of this sort they proved to be very successful, particularly for military work. One fully operational installation still exists today in southern Sweden View full abstract»

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  • 31. Learning our lessons: the future of education and training in Britain

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):3 - 18
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1815 KB)

    Britain has no acceptable future other than as a successful manufacturing nation; its position within the European Community of nations does not alter that fact. The extent of its success will be determined by the quality of the workforce, and that will depend upon education and training. The author reviews how the social and educational history of Britain has divided the nation and led to the pre... View full abstract»

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  • 32. Getting at deep learning: a problem-based approach

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):234 - 240
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    The use of aims and objectives in the design of an engineering education are reviewed, together with the approaches to learning adopted by students. Characteristics of degree courses which inhibit students achieving these aims and objectives are described. The mismatch between the aims in teaching and the reality of what students learn is then addressed. A problem-based learning course is describe... View full abstract»

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  • 33. Properties of crystalline silicon [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s): 178
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB)

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  • 34. Modified nodal analysis and the incorporation of multiphase, coupled networks

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):254 - 256
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB)

    As a note to an original presentation ("Modified nodal analysis: an essential addition to electrical circuit theory and analysis", see ibid., vol.11, no.3, p.84-92, 2002), this paper adds a further, final comment on the efficacy of modified nodal analysis (MNA) in handling multi-phase, coupled impedance networks typical of which are multi-conductor transmission lines and cables in which the electr... View full abstract»

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  • 35. Validity of calibration and test data: application of ISO/IEC Guide 25 (EN 45001) or the ISO 9000 series

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):211 - 215
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)

    An indiscriminate insistence upon compliance with the ISO 9000 series standards on quality systems has gained such momentum that some organisations have convinced themselves mistakenly that certification to ISO 9002, in particular, is sufficient for the effective operation of a calibration or test laboratory and will ensure that the calibration or test data it generates is valid. This article expl... View full abstract»

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  • 36. Properties, growth and applications of diamond [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s): 56
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB)

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  • 37. Science, engineering, management and competitiveness

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):149 - 152
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB)

    The central theme of the recent Government White Paper 'Realising our potential' is that national prosperity requires better alignment of government-funded science and engineering research in the universities with the needs of industry. The author argues that it would be more immediately rewarding to align the university education of engineers with the product design needs of industry rather than ... View full abstract»

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  • 38. Green energy?

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):221 - 227
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)

    The UK gets nearly all its energy from the fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas etc.) and nuclear power, approximately 15% being consumed in the form of electricity. It is now well known that the burning of fossil fuels is accompanied by atmospheric pollution in the form of acid rain, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. Renewable energy sources, e.g. wind, solar, tidal, wave, hydroelectric and geot... View full abstract»

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  • 39. From four point probe to impedance imaging

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):245 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2332 KB)

    The need to produce images or representations of inaccessible regions is essential in medicine and industrial processing. Impedance imaging is a developing technique with characteristics which make it a valuable addition to existing methods. The technique has grown from an extension of the principle of the four-point probe measurement of impedance into a range of diverse configurations. Examples o... View full abstract»

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  • 40. Measuring the performance of fabric systems to protect against the thermal effects of electric arcs

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):75 - 80
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)

    During the last few years, there has been much progress in understanding the nature of electric arc accidents and their potential impact on nearby workers. Many thousands of workers are potentially at risk, including those who work in industrial environments such as chemical plants and oil refineries, as well those who work more obviously with electricity in utilities etc. While the removal of ris... View full abstract»

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  • 41. Teaching the principles of electromagnetism: quagmires and stepping-stones

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):220 - 226
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)

    It is acknowledged that electromagnetism is a very difficult subject, but reasons are given why its principles should be taught in all relevant degree and diploma courses. These reasons are based on the unifying influence of the principles and the help they give to professional engineers to change between specialisms during their careers. Maxwell's advice on how to teach the subject is discussed a... View full abstract»

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  • 42. Understanding electromagnetism

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):273 - 280
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB)

    The difficulties of teaching electromagnetic field theory to electrical engineers are well recognised, and are increased by modern course requirements. It is suggested that the 'Maxwell' equations are unnecessary, together with the concepts of flux on which they are founded, and that a fresh look is needed at what is meant by magnetic and electric 'fields'.<> View full abstract»

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  • 43. Electrical light sources: a challenge for the future

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):194 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)

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  • 44. Computer aided circuit analysis and design projects for electronic engineering students

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):23 - 32
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1800 KB)

    The integration of circuit simulation programs into an undergraduate electronics curriculum is discussed. Several projects are presented which combine application of a computer package with corresponding practical experiments in the electronics laboratory. In this way, students learn that electronic circuits are not simply blackboard theory but tangible objects which only given the optimum perform... View full abstract»

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  • 45. Personal and professional skills for engineers: one industry's perspective

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):139 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)

    This paper covers the nontechnical skills required by engineers working in the oil and gas industry and is based on a survey conducted during the first quarter of 1995 which dealt specifically with employers' opinions on the personal and professional skills required by their engineers. The survey also canvassed the views of employers on what additional training in specific areas would benefit rece... View full abstract»

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  • 46. Marie Curie fellowships and European-funded research training

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):93 - 96
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)

    Under the 4th Framework of the European Union (EU), the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR) programme has provided many post-graduate and post-doctoral researchers, now known as Marie Curie Fellows, the opportunity to expand their skills by conducting research in another EU country. Participants in the TMR programme gain international experience and training that should greatly enhance thei... View full abstract»

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  • 47. The destruction of waste and toxic materials using electric discharges

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):171 - 176
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB)

    Arc discharges can be used as a source of high temperature and energy density in the destruction of waste and toxic materials. Glow or corona discharges can also be used for this purpose and provide alternative chemical routes, greater conversion efficiencies and selective chemical transitions. This article outlines some of these processes, which were discussed at an IEE Colloquium in November 199... View full abstract»

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  • 48. Vacuum environments created for engineering applications

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):49 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1581 KB)

    Vacuum today plays an increasing part in the engineering and scientific fields. It is used for many purposes in industry and scientific research, from single vacuum forming of domestic utensils and assisting in applying brakes in cars and trains, to the complex requirements of the semiconductor industry and the reduced molecular density required for nuclear particle accelerators. The pressure rang... View full abstract»

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  • 49. Hydroelectric power in emissions-constrained electricity generation

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):185 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)

    The positioning of generating plant in rank (merit) order has been based traditionally on minimised system economic cost. If regulations were introduced to place a financial penalty on gaseous emissions from fossil-fuelled power stations, the result would be an increased economic burden on such generating plant. This paper examines the effect on merit order of the imposition of a tax on carbon dio... View full abstract»

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  • 50. Computer-aided instruction in wave propagation phenomena

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):215 - 220
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB)

    A `virtual laboratory' which uses computer simulation and visualisation techniques is proposed for the training of high school and college students in the study of wave propagation phenomena. Physical laboratory experiments are replaced by numerical experiments based on a mathematical model and its numerical simulation on a computer. Simple experiments that can be performed in a water tank with si... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Engineering Science and Education Journal was published by the IET between 1992 and 2002.

Full Aims & Scope