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Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Crowd monitoring using image processing

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):37 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (76)  |  Patents (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)

    The understanding of crowd behaviour in semi-confined spaces is an important part of the design of new pedestrian facilities, for major layout modifications to existing areas and for the daily management of sites-subject to crowd traffic. Conventional manual measurement techniques are not suitable for comprehensive data collection of patterns of site occupation and movement. Real-time monitoring i... View full abstract»

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  • Hidden antennas for vehicles

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):253 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (839 KB)

    The introduction of new telematics and broadcast systems into vehicles has led to a requirement for multiple antennas that can be hidden from view. This paper commences by presenting the results of simulations to identify the components of a car's structure that influence the radiation pattern of a printed VHF antenna on the rear windscreen. Two dual-band antenna designs are then presented for ope... View full abstract»

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  • Wavelet transforms: an introduction

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):175 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)

    Wavelets and wavelet transforms are a relatively new topic in signal processing. Their development and, in particular, their application remains an active area of research. This paper presents a tutorial introduction to the theory, implementation and interpretation of the wavelet transform. The paper concentrates on the application of the wavelet transform to the time-scale (time-frequency) analys... View full abstract»

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  • Self-phasing antenna array techniques for mobile communications applications

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):279 - 286
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)

    This paper provides a summary of the basic concepts of retrodirective antenna arrays. Originally this class of antenna was developed in the 1960s for direct satellite-to-ground transmission of high-power microwave energy. The explosive growth of mobile communications has, in the authors' opinion, reopened the debate for alternative applications of retrodirective array techniques. Advances in micro... View full abstract»

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  • Characterisation of propagation in 60 GHz radio channels

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):73 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (61)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    Narrowband as well as wideband measurements have been performed in various indoor and outdoor environments in order to enable the development of reliable prediction models for 60 GHz radio channels. In addition, results of deterministic modelling on the basis of geometric ray-tracing have been compared with measurement results, showing that simple ray-tracing can be used to estimate both the narro... View full abstract»

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  • New ideas in FM radar

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):185 - 194
    Cited by:  Papers (45)  |  Patents (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (881 KB)

    FM radars represent one of the oldest and simplest-yet at the same time one of the most versatile types of radar. The author presents a tutorial review of the basic principles of FM radars and introduces a number of new ideas, including digital generation of wideband linear FM waveforms, and aperture synthesis with FM radar.<> View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations for adaptive active phased-array 'multifunction' radars

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):277 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1528 KB)

    Adaptive active phased-array radars are seen as the vehicle to address the current requirements for a true 'multifunction' radar system. Their ability to adapt to the environment and schedule their tasks in real time allows them to operate with performance levels well above those that can be achieved from conventional radar designs in addressing the current and future threats. Their ability to mak... View full abstract»

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  • Smart antennas for mobile communication systems: benefits and challenges

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):84 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (57)  |  Patents (39)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)

    Spatial filtering using adaptive or smart antennas has emerged as a promising technique to improve the performance of cellular mobile systems. This paper presents an overview of smart antennas in terms of key characteristics, options, challenges and benefits, in the context of current, but also with a view towards future, generation personal communication systems View full abstract»

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  • Propagation modelling for indoor wireless communication

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):221 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)

    It is important to characterise the indoor radio propagation channel to ensure satisfactory performance of a wireless communication system. Site measurements can be costly; propagation models have been developed as a suitable low-cost alternative. The existing models can be classified into two major classes: statistical models and site-specific propagation models. Statistical models rely on measur... View full abstract»

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  • Current-feedback operational amplifiers and applications

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):176 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2648 KB)

    The current-feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) is a relatively new arrival in the analogue designer's tool kit. The first monolithic device was produced by Elantec Inc. in 1987 and since then it has intrigued and puzzled many. Is it really better than the conventional and well known voltage-feedback operational amplifier (VOA)? How does the CFOA differ in design? What are the applications where... View full abstract»

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  • The active control of sound

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):127 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (835 KB)

    Active control of sound results from destructive interference between the sound field of an original acoustic source and that from a controllable array of 'secondary' acoustic sources. For this destructive interference to occur over an appreciable region of space the sound field of the secondary sources must match that from the primary source in both time and space. The spatial matching requiremen... View full abstract»

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  • Passive intermodulation interference in communication systems

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):109 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    In multifrequency communications environments, such as land mobile radio sites, satellite earth stations, ships and surveillance aircraft, passive intermodulation products (PIMP) generated by nonlinear materials and metallic contacts can cause serious radio interference. This problem is well known and a wide range of coaxial cables, connectors and materials have been investigated. The paper gives ... View full abstract»

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  • Digital-to-analogue conversion using pulse width modulation

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):339 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1013 KB)

    Pulse width modulation (PWM) has found application in various situations where efficient delivery of high power is required. In this paper its use in the conversion of signals from digital to analogue representations is addressed, i.e. as a digital-to-analogue converter (DAC), and it is shown that there are many advantages in using PWM over conventional DAC methods and that high resolution and acc... View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to space-time adaptive processing

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):5 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)

    The detection of slowly moving targets by air- and spaceborne MTI radar is heavily degraded by the motion-induced Doppler spread of clutter returns. Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) can achieve optimum clutter rejection via implicit platform motion compensation. The fundamentals and properties of STAP applied to air- and spaceborne MTI radar are summarised. View full abstract»

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  • Pseudo noise sequences for engineers

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):79 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (6)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB)

    Pseudo random binary sequences (PRBSs), also known as pseudo noise (PN), linear feedback shift register (LFSR) sequences or maximal length binary sequences (m-sequences) are widely used in digital communications and the theory involved has been treated extensively in the literature. However, a practising engineer is interested in the fundamentals and the applications of PN sequences, and the metho... View full abstract»

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  • PCB design techniques for lowest-cost EMC compliance .1

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):185 - 194
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB)

    Application of good EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) practices to the design of printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually helps to achieve the EMC performance required of equipment and systems at much lower cost than alternative EMC measures at higher levels of integration, such as whole-product shielding. EMC design is a complex topic, but the proven best EMC practices for generalised PCB layout c... View full abstract»

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  • Secure mobile commerce

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):228 - 238
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (10)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1182 KB)

    M-commerce, or mobile commerce, is a major application domain for mobile devices, enabling users to perform commercial transactions wherever they go. However, these applications require a high level of security. In this paper, the special characteristics of m-commerce are identified and some important security issues considered. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and design of microwave filters [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s): 220
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)

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  • High-altitude platforms for wireless communications

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):127 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (111)  |  Patents (17)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2744 KB)

    The demand for high-capacity wireless services is bringing increasing challenges, especially for delivery of the “last mile”. Terrestrially, the need for line-of-sight propagation paths represents a constraint unless very large numbers of base-station masts are deployed, while satellite systems have capacity limitations. An emerging solution is offered by high-altitude platforms (HAPs)... View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-optical antennas for radiometric remote-sensing

    Publication Year: 1996
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3169 KB)

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  • The SILEX optical interorbit link experiment

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):273 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1022 KB)

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has instigated an in-orbit demonstration project known as SILEX (semiconductor laser intersatellite link experiment) using a pre-operational link between the French SPOT-4 low earth orbit satellite and the ESA Advanced Relay and Technology Mission Satellite (ARTEMIS). Such an optical communication system brings some new and challenging requirements. In particular, t... View full abstract»

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  • SIP-based VoIP network and its interworking with the PSTN

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):273 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (917 KB)

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is considered to be a future powerful alternative to the H.323 standard as the signalling system for the dominant Voice over IP (VoIP) communications. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of SIP by describing the SIP protocol stack, summarising the main features of the protocol, and illustrating its architecture, message and operation. The paper also expla... View full abstract»

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  • Self-phasing antenna arrays [Book Reveiws]

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s): 85
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB)

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  • Digital radio frequency memory

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):147 - 153
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (766 KB)

    Digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) is a technique in which high-speed sampling and digital memory is used to store radio frequency and microwave signals. It is becoming a popular technique for the implementation of false-target ECM systems. The author discusses the principles of DRFM and the advantages of alternative system architectures.<> View full abstract»

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  • An introduction to mixed-signal IC test and measurement [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s): 236
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)

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  • Block versus trellis: an introduction to coded modulation

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):240 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB)

    Coded modulation has had a very significant impact on the communications scene in the decade or so since its introduction, finding practical applications from voice-band modems for telephone lines to deep-space communications. The paper introduces the principles of coded modulation and describes the two main schemes: block coded modulation (BCM) and trellis coded modulation (TCM). In particular it... View full abstract»

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  • Surface-penetrating radar

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):165 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (73)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3392 KB)

    Surface-penetrating radar is a nondestructive testing technique which uses electromagnetic waves to investigate the composition of nonconducting materials either when searching for buried objects or when measuring their internal structure. A typical surface-penetrating radar transmits a short pulse of electromagnetic energy of 1 ns (10-9 s) time duration from a transmit antenna into th... View full abstract»

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  • Optical intersatellite links

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):280 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (891 KB)

    Direct communication links between spacecraft will be an important element in the future space communication infrastructure. Optical intersatellite links (OISLs) offer the major advantages over conventional microwave links of low mass, power consumption, size and real estate, and flight-qualified transceivers are now feasible. There are, however, formidable problems in achieving pointing accuracy ... View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the cost of Bluetooth systems

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):204 - 208
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB)

    The BluetoothTM industry has set itself an ambitious goal of just $5 for the implementation of a complete receiver/transmitter, including its DSP-based subsystem and associated ROM and RAM. Although this is unlikely to be realised until Bluetooth wireless technology has achieved considerable market penetration and gained economy of scale through very high volume production, some manufac... View full abstract»

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  • Bluetooth wireless technology in the home

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):195 - 203
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2027 KB)

    The BluetoothTM wireless technology is a cable replacement technology that exploits the wireless interconnectivity that is possible with radio. Bluetooth chips are already available and early applications include cordless connections from mobile phones to laptop computers and wireless headsets. Even if only 10% of mobile phones and computers were to incorporate Bluetooth chips, then the... View full abstract»

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  • Simplified matched filter receiver designs for spread spectrum communications applications

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):59 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB)

    The design of receiver architectures for use in direct sequence spread spectrum systems is reviewed. As it is difficult to construct the long matched filters for these systems, the authors propose a programmable receiver architecture which achieves the required high processing gain while, at the same time, simplifying the filter hardware requirements. Results are presented for a prototype receiver... View full abstract»

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  • Space-time adaptive processing: principles and applications [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s): 172
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB)

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  • Modern inertial navigation technology and its application

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):49 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3064 KB)

    Inertial navigation technology is used widely for the guidance of aircraft, ships and land vehicles, as well as in an increasing number of civil applications such as robotics, surveying underground well bores and the control of drilling operations. This article describes the techniques and the sensors used in modern systems and outlines a number of applications in which inertial system technology ... View full abstract»

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  • Image compression using wavelets and JPEG2000: a tutorial

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):112 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    The demand for higher and higher quality images transmitted quickly over the Internet has led to a strong need to develop better algorithms for the filtering and coding of such images. The introduction of the JPEG2000 compression standard has meant that for the first time the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is to be used for the decomposition and reconstruction of images together with an efficien... View full abstract»

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  • Opportunities in radar-2002

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):263 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1289 KB)

    This paper addresses some of the potential opportunities for achieving advances in radar systems and technology. It is not a summary of current interests in radar, nor is it a forecast of what 'will be', but is speculation about what 'could be' based on the limited experiences and personal biases of the writer. Included are the replacement of existing radars that have been in use for some time, 'o... View full abstract»

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  • Microwave multiplexers for space applications

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):29 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4984 KB)

    The channel performance of a satellite payload is largely determined by the frequency response of its input and output multiplexers. This paper provides an insight into some of the requirements for these multiplexers and how they are met. An example of a simplified 12/14 GHz payload with key specification parameters for the multiplexers is given. The electrical design of the multiplexers is descri... View full abstract»

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  • Esd in Silicon Integrated Circuits [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s): 208
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB)

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  • Obstacle detection radar for cars

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):232 - 240
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)

    Work on radar systems for cars has been going on since the 1950s, but that earlier work did not lead to practical products. The paper reviews some of that earlier work, and shows how recent technological advances have now made automotive radar practical. It also shows some results obtained from current work in this field View full abstract»

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  • GPS and GIS technology trends

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):292 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (190 KB)

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  • Mode S: an introduction and overview (secondary surveillance radar)

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):53 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (6)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (846 KB)

    The author presents a brief review of the historical developments which have resulted in the emergence of secondary surveillance radar (SSR) and, most recently, of Mode S as the principal radar sensor worldwide for civil air traffic control. The essential technical characteristics of both SSR and of Mode S are described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Optically interconnected electronic chips: a tutorial and review of the technology

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):221 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3306 KB)

    Optoelectronic interconnects between VLSI chips have been identified by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) Roadmap as one of the few solutions to overcoming the communication bandwidth bottleneck between VLSI chips. Large-scale demonstrators based on optical interconnects, when fully operational, can exhibit today the same aggregate bandwidth as that foreseen by the Roadmap for the year ... View full abstract»

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  • The COFDM modulation system: the heart of digital audio broadcasting

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):127 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (60)  |  Patents (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)

    Digital audio broadcasting offers the potential to give every radio in Europe the sound quality of a compact disc. To accomplish this, it requires a rugged method of transmission. The coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COFDM) modulation system was developed to meet this need. The paper describes the reasons why a new modulation process was needed, and explains how the COFDM system h... View full abstract»

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  • Space-time processing for multichannel synthetic aperture radar

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):29 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (103)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides high-resolution images of a non-moving ground scene, but fails to indicate the presence and position of moving objects. As in airborne MTI (moving-target indication) systems the solution to this problem is to use an array of antennas or subapertures and several receiving channels (`MSAR', or multichannel SAR), and to apply multichannel clutter suppression. O... View full abstract»

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  • Modern data encryption

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):271 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (10)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (850 KB)

    Communications security is increasing in importance as a result of the use of electronic communications in more and more business activities. Cryptography is the only practical means to provide security services in many applications. Research into cryptography was exploded in the last 18 years and a variety of cryptographic algorithms and techniques have emerged. Cryptographic algorithms may be cl... View full abstract»

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  • An introduction to chaos

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):115 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (855 KB)

    Chaos, apparently disordered behaviour which is nonetheless deterministic, is a universal phenomenon which occurs in many systems in all areas of science. For it to take place, the equations describing the situation must be nonlinear and, therefore, they are rarely solvable in closed form. Since the advent of fast digital computers, the theory of nonlinear systems has become much more accessible t... View full abstract»

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  • Synthetic aperture radar

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):159 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1118 KB)

    A short introduction to the background and theory of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging is given. Some of the key issues in SAR design are discussed and possible future developments involving SAR operation with phased arrays are suggested.<> View full abstract»

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  • Microwave horns and feeds [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 1996
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)

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  • Tracking And Kalman Filtering Made Easy [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):238 - 239
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)

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  • Phased arrays in radar

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):45 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (689 KB)

    Modern microwave phased arrays with electronic beam-steering allow surveillance and tracking with variable data rates in a multifunction radar. The author reviews system options and discusses the engineering of active arrays, using as an example, the Siemens Plessey Radar/ARE MESAR, which is now undergoing trials and which is the first modular active array radar in the UK. Future applications, the... View full abstract»

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  • Survey of EMC measurement techniques

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):61 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1227 KB)

    Proposals for a European directive on electromagnetic compatibility are focusing attention on the techniques for measurement of noise and unwanted signal emissions from a wide variety of equipment. Assessment of the immunity of sensitive electronic equipment to electromagnetic disturbances, such as electrostatic discharges and RF transmissions, is equally important. The author includes an outline ... View full abstract»

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