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  • 1. Computer-integrated manufacturing information system for VCR testing

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):173 - 179
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB)

    An information system in the form of a local area network (LAN) was designed for a video cassette recorder (VCR) manufacturing environment. This system uses the Ethernet approach with hardware components satisfying IEEE Standard 802.3. The database component can produce reports, graphs and statistical quality control charts. The network communications component allows message sending screen captur... View full abstract»

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  • 2. Functional requirements and conceptual design of the feature-based modelling system

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):9 - 15
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)

    The databases of contemporary CAD systems cannot be used to drive most CAE and CAM systems in an automated manner since CAD systems do not produce a complete product definition. The information that is supported is in the form of low-level details, from which higher-level information such as form features cannot be obtained easily. This paper describes the functional requirements of a system that ... View full abstract»

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  • 3. Knowledge-based systems for industrial control

    Publication Year: 1987
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2734 KB)

    Artificial intelligence can assist in industrial control in many ways, but this paper concentrates on the role of knowledge-based systems in the areas of control, detection and diagnosis of faults, scheduling and planning. The paper argues that the application of knowledge-based techniques can provide a unification of these and other activities, and outlines the requirements of knowledge represent... View full abstract»

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  • 4. Artificial intelligence in process planning

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):153 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)

    Both the changing demands of the market and keen competition among manufacturers call for a more flexible approach to manufacturing. Adopting conventional computing methods is not adequate to meet the sophisticated needs of the modern manufacturing industry. The authors describe the approach of applying artificial intelligence techniques to process planning. An analogy between artificial intellige... View full abstract»

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  • 5. ROBOSIM: a CAD-based off-line programming and analysis system for robotic manipulators

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):141 - 148
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB)

    In order for a robotic manipulator to perform useful work, it must be programmed to accomplish the desired task or motion cycle. There are many methods available for interfacing the human user with the industrial robot. This article concentrates on the off-line programming, analysis and interactive computer simulation of a general five-axis revolute robotic manipulator. An off-line programming sys... View full abstract»

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  • 6. Product innovation and mechanical CAD: a strategic proposal for engineering manufacture

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):153 - 158
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB)

    This paper gives an appraisal of how current mechanical computer-aided design (CAD) technology may be best used within the product innovation strategies that have been identified and recorded. In this connection, the paper focuses on and reviews the implications of CAD with respect to the interdependent issues of new product strategy, the product design spectrum, and product lifecycles. On the bas... View full abstract»

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  • 7. Engineering analysis for design optimisation of differential transformers

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):51 - 53
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB)

    Design optimisation is a primary objective in computer-aided engineering. In the paper the optimisation of a linear variable differential transformer is used as an example. The study shows two typical features of computer-aided engineering: first that analysis techniques can be used to give measurements of system parameters that could not be achieved in a practical experiment; secondly that the de... View full abstract»

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  • 8. Generative feature-based design-by-constraints as a means of integration within the manufacturing industry

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):261 - 267
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB)

    The article examines the development of computer aids within manufacturing industry and proposes an alternative approach to the way we design and the designer's role within manufacturing. A feature-based generative design-by-constraints approach is applied, which requires the designer to specify solutions in terms of manufacturing data, which is captured by means of an interactive simulation of ma... View full abstract»

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  • 9. Combining inductive and deductive reasoning

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):24 - 28
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1274 KB)

    Work in artificial intelligence has shown that rule induction is a useful aid to knowledge acquisition but that its general applicability is limited. In particular, induced rules can be difficult to understand and hard to modify. This paper describes a computer program to generate knowledge bases from examples in a form which can be interpreted either as a set of rules or as an inference network. ... View full abstract»

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  • 10. Finite-element analysis

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):66 - 69
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB)

    The finite-element method is a powerful tool for computer analysis of the characteristics of complex structures and components. This paper presents the fundamental principles of finite-element analysis together with the reasons for its use, and makes a case for introducing finite-element analysis techniques more often and earlier in the design of engineered parts. View full abstract»

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  • 11. Design of an expert system for generating optimal assembly sequences

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):255 - 259
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (407 KB)

    Basically, an assembly process is a sequence of positioning and fixing in position between the parts of the system to be assembled. However, finding this sequence automatically remains a very complex procedure because of the combinational aspect of the problem. The conventional programming methods of generating the ordered sequence cannot satisfy the modern factory requirements. The new approach, ... View full abstract»

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  • 12. Selecting and evaluating cost-effective CADCAM

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):33 - 38
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)

    Investment appraisal is an essential, and integral, part of the process of specifying a CADCAM system. This paper shows how the problems of evaluation can be overcome, and lists of the main areas of costs and savings are provided so that companies can identify their own requirements. The effect of expanding CAD into CADCAM is discussed, and it is suggested that CAD and CAM have to be dealt with se... View full abstract»

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  • 13. Automating information transfer in manufacturing systems

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):113 - 121
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (971 KB)

    International competition is dictating the need for increased levels of information integration in manufacturing industry, whereby the responsiveness and efficiency of systems can be advanced. This article outlines the relative roles of various standards and initiatives (including MAP/TOP, IGES, PDES/STEP and EDIF) and associated major research programmes aimed at facilitating manufacturing system... View full abstract»

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  • 14. Optimising CAD usage in small manufacturing companies by parametric programming

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):229 - 234
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB)

    Although parametric programming can achieve significant improvements regarding the productivity of a CAD system, small manufacturing companies seldom make adequate use of this facility. This paper discusses some of the terms in common usage in CAD programming and examines the use of parametric programs. The relative merits and costs of programming are discussed, together with a description of a ma... View full abstract»

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  • 15. Tolerance analysis and design of electronic circuits

    Publication Year: 1984
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1509 KB)

    An unwelcome factor in the design of electronic circuits is the variation in component values resulting from the tolerances associated with manufactured components. The corresponding variations in circuit performance can often be great enough to cause the specifications of a circuit to be violated. Although appropriate corrective action is not easy to establish, with suitable software improvements... View full abstract»

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  • 16. Shape models in computer integrated manufacture-a review

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):103 - 112
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1730 KB)

    Existing computer-aided manufacturing systems are based on models of shape tailored to a particular process. Computer integrated manufacture involves many different processes, and hence requires more complete models of components or assemblies. This can be provided by solid modelling techniques extended to include extra data related to manufacture such as form features and tolerances. These develo... View full abstract»

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  • 17. PC software for electronic circuit design in printed circuit form

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):148 - 152
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB)

    The advent of inexpensive, powerful, reliable and easily accessible microcomputers is changing the design of both electronic circuits and electronic systems. It is now well recognised that CAD tools can be used to speed up circuit design in the engineering process. The authors provide an overview of commercially available personal computer based circuit analysis and design packages, and report pro... View full abstract»

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  • 18. Software engineering tools for system development

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):116 - 121
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    With the increasing cost of application system development, the lack of skilled personnel and the growth in the demand for new systems, data processing managers are being forced to consider new approaches to system development. The use of software engineering methods and practices have gone some way towards solving their problems. However, although software engineering methods provide increased qu... View full abstract»

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  • 19. Tools for analysis of control-structure interaction

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):107 - 112
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (490 KB)

    The authors discuss some of the aspects of coupling computer methods in control system analysis with those in structural dynamics. This analysis is often called control-structure interaction (CSI). A strong emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate structural representations and the related issue of reducing the size of the structural model while retaining an accurate dynamic description. These... View full abstract»

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  • 20. Engineering an intelligent voice dialogue controller

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):48 - 55
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2301 KB)

    This paper examines some of the practical difficulties faced by the engineer trying to develop machine intelligence for a commercial system ¿¿ a voice-operated database inquiry system for the public telephone network. The decisions taken during this project are discussed to highlight some advantages and disadvantages of exploiting machine intelligence techniques. View full abstract»

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  • 21. An intelligent knowledge-based system to provide design and manufacturing data for forging

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):56 - 61
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB)

    This paper describes current progress on the combination of finite-element programs for metal flow simulation with die design programs in an IKBS. The principle is that the designer will interrogate the knowledge base to discover whether a component with relevant characteristics has been manufactured before, or falls within the scope of its empirical rules base. If so, the CAD program proceeds dir... View full abstract»

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  • 22. A research programme in CAE

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):79 - 82
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (754 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • 23. Design for testability - converting a graduate into a professional engineer

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):182 - 185
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB)

    Many young graduates enter the electronics industry laden with technical misconceptions. By adopting the viewpoint of such a new graduate, this article aims to show how not to cope with testability, and then offers some advice on the testability topics that should be taught at higher-education level. View full abstract»

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  • 24. BCL-the industrial CNC standard

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):54 - 56
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB)

    In 1983 the Electronics Industries Association published the standard RS-494, commonly referred to as BCL (binary cutter location) data exchange format. BCL is a means of standardising the formats for NC part programs. Its aim is to eliminate the cost and confusion associated with multiple postprocessors and enable the portability of part programs among different machine tools. The article gives a... View full abstract»

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  • 25. Computer-aided engineering of measuring instrument systems

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):117 - 123
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2572 KB)

    Development of a comprehensive computer-aided engineering tool, CAEINST, for assisting the rapid and efficient generation of measuring systems has been taking place for two years. This first report of the work justifies the need, and explains how the system is being structured and what has been learned of the fundamental issues involved in such a task. View full abstract»

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  • 26. CADCAM software portability

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):224 - 226
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (482 KB)

    The ability to port CADCAM software easily from one computing environment to another is becoming increasingly important as hardware and operating systems improve. This paper examines the approach taken to the question of portability by Pafec and explores the benefits of portability to the software developer and user. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Integration of computing techniques for plastics extrusion die design

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):37 - 42
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)

    Plastics extrusion is highly cost-effective high-volume manufacturing process with wide-ranging industrial applications. To achieve a high-quality product, it is absolutely essential to have properly designed extrusion dies in order to obtain the correct velocity profile and temperature distribution during extrusion. The article describes an integrated application of CAD/CAM and finite element ana... View full abstract»

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  • 28. A machine learning approach to expert systems for fault diagnosis in communications equipment

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):31 - 38
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2263 KB)

    This paper describes how a machine learning system (MLS), achieved by using adaptive pattern recognition and filter techniques, is applied as an expert system to fault diagnosis and performance optimisation of microwave digital radios. In other applications the MLS may offer a complete solution or may be combined with more conventional expert system techniques. View full abstract»

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  • 29. Computer-aided design of high-frequency circuits

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):113 - 114
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (161 KB)

    A method of using a computer to design high-frequency circuits is described. This method basically involves the generation of a Smith Chart using a personal computer (PC). The usefulness of the computer-generated Smith Chart is demonstrated through the design of a high-frequency transistor amplifier. The measured gain of an amplifier built with design parameters thus obtained compared favourably w... View full abstract»

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  • 30. Computer-aided engineering in electrical machines

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):128 - 132
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (505 KB)

    The design of electrical machines is a complex problem which accounts for magnetic, mechanical and thermal aspects. All these problems may be described using the finite element analysis technique, coupled with CAD techniques, offering a simple and flexible way for introducing the numerous data (machine geometry, grid, material characteristics etc.), and an easy way for interpreting the numerical r... View full abstract»

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  • 31. Knowledge-based engineering training

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):68 - 70
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)

    This article summarises work that is currently taking place on the KBET project. It outlines the roles of the participating collaborators and the hardware/software environment for the KBET system. The requirements for training in engineering are explored in relation to the way new training technologies, such as expert systems and interactive video, offer opportunities for improved training. KBET b... View full abstract»

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  • 32. An expert system for automatic extraction of machining features and tooling selection for Automats

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):99 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB)

    This article reports on the design and implementation of an expert system for automatic identification of machined surfaces on symmetric rotational components manufactured on Automats. The OPS5PLUS expert system shell was used to represent the procedural knowledge to reason and extract both the internal and external part features and their dimensions in order to select form tools for machining. De... View full abstract»

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  • 33. Test education for students and industry at Brunel University

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):176 - 178
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB)

    There are at present very few higher educational establishments that are approaching the teaching of electronics design for testability in any realistic way. However, Brunel University has made efforts to include test topics in undergraduate, postgraduate and industrial courses, and for the future has plans to establish an Institute of Test Engineering. View full abstract»

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  • 34. The role of test in design creativity

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):137 - 139
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1437 KB)

    The evolution of CAE tools in electronics has made possible IC and PCB designs of increasing complexity, but these advances have been accompanied by greater difficulty at the manufacture and test stages. Under these circumstances design engineers need to combine and balance creativity and real-world constraints in an enhanced design-to-test process. View full abstract»

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  • 35. Computer-aided software engineering

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):113 - 120
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (826 KB)

    Addresses software and its development methods and tools, pointing out the special factors that appear to make software different. The paper starts with a discussion of the problems and the solution of treating software development as an engineering activity. Much software development is office work, and general computer aids for the support of office work are described. This leads into a discussi... View full abstract»

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  • 36. Technology transfer in four small companies

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):65 - 68
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB)

    Describes a programme for technology transfer into four small companies. A Teaching Company Scheme, MIDAS, forms the vehicle to enable Associates to transfer or implement computer technology in manufacture in the companies. The companies associated with MIDAS (Manufacturing Industries Development Association in Surrey) are Vestec Ltd., Anthony H. Croucher Ltd., S.H. Muffett Ltd., and Pathtrace Ltd... View full abstract»

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  • 37. Managing CAD in heavy electrical engineering

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):181 - 184
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB)

    This paper draws on work carried out at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), for the Engineering Industry Training Board (EITB) during 1988. This was the culmination of an eight-year programme, of case-study based research, considering the implications of CAD for skills and training in UK engineering. It concluded that, despite investments in sophisticated systems, firms found implementation p... View full abstract»

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  • 38. Artificial intelligence within Austin Rover

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):113 - 116
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1211 KB)

    The use of artificial intelligence techniques promises to be of great benefit to engineering design and manufacture. This article outlines the current perception of artificial intelligence within Austin Rover and gives examples of the present status of work on its application within the company. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Design of engine cover system using FEA

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):98 - 102
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)

    This article describes the effective use of CAD/CAE in the design and analysis of a rocker arm cover system. Non-linear finite-element analysis (FEA) is used to predict the behaviour of the rocker arm cover and the associated sealing system under applied load. The geometry of the cover, which is relatively complicated, is generated with state-of-the-art commercial software and then transferred to ... View full abstract»

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  • 40. Organisation, people and technology: advanced manufacturing in the 1990s

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):149 - 153
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB)

    This article addresses the issue of organisation and people in advanced manufacturing. It is argued that market demands for greater flexibility, improved quality and reduced costs can not be met by technology alone. There is a need to abandon the technology-led approach and to adopt a balanced method based on organisation, people and technology. The need is to develop manufacturing strategies base... View full abstract»

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  • 41. A general purpose accelerator for digital system design

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):99 - 103
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB)

    With the growing acceptance of simulation tools for the analysis and verification of digital circuits, and the ever increasing complexity of digital system designs involving multiple ASICs and complex commercial VLSI components, designers are demanding increased performance from the design tools. This paper outlines the problems associated with accelerating design verification tools focused for sy... View full abstract»

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  • 42. Netlist compiler for ASIC design on a personal computer

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):200 - 204
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)

    Presents the design and implementation of a personal computer PC-based netlist compiler for application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design. The netlist compiler system is an ASIC front-end design software tool, developed using the Turbo C programming language. This software tool enhances the design automation for ASIC design in the Philips Personal Design Station (PPDS) environment. It conv... View full abstract»

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  • 43. Software models and engineering practice

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):237 - 240
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB)

    The effects of the 'computerisation of engineering' are nowhere more far-reaching than in the area of software models of engineering systems. The author reviews the history of such modelling systems from their beginnings as simple subroutine libraries, through to their current highly interactive and visual nature. There are implications both for the kind of engineer that will be most likely to be ... View full abstract»

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  • 44. A feature-based design for manufacture: CADCAM package

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):215 - 220
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB)

    Describes a method by which manufacturing constraints can be incorporated into the detailed design stage of a part through using CADCAM software. The method has been implemented in a software package which brings certain manufacturing constraints to the attention of a detail designer as a part is created on a CADCAM screen. By making the designer aware of these constraints, the part being designed... View full abstract»

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  • 45. Robot simulation and off-line programming

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):157 - 162
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (647 KB)

    Robot simulation and off-line programming seem likely to have an increasingly important role in the evolution of CIM facilities. The authors consider the capabilities and shortcomings of the current generation of off-line programming and graphical simulation systems. Methods of overcoming problems associated with calibration, lack of 'user friendliness' and integration within manufacturing systems... View full abstract»

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  • 46. A knowledge-based approach to foundation design

    Publication Year: 1990, Page(s):165 - 172
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (591 KB)

    The feasibility of integrating heuristic knowledge with numerical tools using the 'KBASE' knowledge-base expert system shell to automate the selection and the design of foundation for land-based structure is reviewed. The approach and the methodology of organising knowledge in the development of a knowledge-based program is discussed. An expert system SOFT, which is based on these principles, is b... View full abstract»

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  • 47. Assuring confident re-use of production drawing information by the NC programming activity

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):159 - 163
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1767 KB)

    In the heavy/medium manufacturing environment, the generation of NC part programs is a prolific and productive element of CAM. With the increasing use of computer-aided drafting a more effective and automatic method for the generation and transcription of manufacturing instructions and information has become available. The creation and maintenance of a computer graphics database, containing master... View full abstract»

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  • 48. The relationship between CAD and software development support-a database perspective

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):226 - 232
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB)

    Much attention is currently being given to the development of environments of tools to help throughout the software development life cycle, with data shared through a central database. Similarly, CAD systems are promoted within VLSI chip design, architectural design and related areas as providing equivalent advantages. This paper provides a detailed comparison of these fields from a data modelling... View full abstract»

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  • 49. Flexible CAD for hybrid circuits

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):45 - 50
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1155 KB)

    The demand for automated design tools for the design of thick-film and hybrid circuits has grown dramatically over the last few years. The article describes the requirements for hybrid CAD and the main features of the Visula hybrid design system, and also includes a description of hybrid circuits and how they are manufactured.<> View full abstract»

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  • 50. Network management in electrical distribution

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):202 - 206
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)

    Electrical utilities constitute both an essential service and a very large business sector, with annual billings in excess of Pounds 11 billion in the UK alone. The article reviews the computers applications that are being installed to operate the vast geographically spread networks in a safe and efficient manner. Network operations seem to be an ideal candidate for an integrated information syste... View full abstract»

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