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IEE Proceedings A - Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education - Reviews

Popular Articles (July 2016)

Browse the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • 1. Some aspects of transformer core loss

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):113 - 121
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB)

    The question of total and local measurement of loss in transformer core iron, on load and open circuit, is discussed. Local loss measurement methods are reviewed and one used to find loss levels due to flux normal to the laminations. A mechanism for the generation of such flux is hypothesised and experimental evidence of its existence is presented. Experimental results are given for a test butt-la... View full abstract»

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  • 2. Electromagnetic suspension and levitation

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):549 - 581
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5289 KB)

    The phenomenon of levitation has attracted attention from philosophers and scientists in the past. Recent advances, notably in power electronics and magnetic materials, have focused this attention within the last decade on the application of electromagnetic suspension and levitation techniques to advanced ground transportation. Regardless of the fact that there is, in effect, a separate technology... View full abstract»

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  • 3. Prediction of surge propagation influenced by corona and skin effect

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):264 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1078 KB)

    The propagation equations with transient parameters are the only time-domain equations able to represent, without approximations, the skin effect in the line and in the earth. These equations were completed with a nonlinear term taking into account a simplified model of the impulsive corona effect, based on previous laboratory studies. A computer program for numerical integration of the new equati... View full abstract»

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  • 4. Review of high-voltage gas breakdown and insulators in compressed gas

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):303 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1771 KB)

    In the past ten years there have been significant advances in the theoretical and experimental analysis of high-voltage gas breakdown and surface flashover of insulators in compressed gases. This has probably been fostered by the recent growth in the design and application of gas-insulated high-voltage equipment. The review describes the characteristics of compressed-gas breakdown, including the e... View full abstract»

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  • 5. Research co-operatives: experiences with a small-scale approach

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):539 - 540
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB)

    Small research groups, jointly sponsored by several industrial companies, have been used to address common technological problems at the precompetitive stage. The paper discusses experiences in forming and operating the groups View full abstract»

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  • 6. General crosstalk equations between two braided coaxial cables in free space

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):306 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (766 KB)

    Earlier theoretical studies consider current dominant coupling only as being responsible for crosstalk between two coaxial cables and ignore coupling due to electric field parameters. In the paper, general crosstalk equations between two similar braided coaxial cables are derived by including both electric and magnetic coupling parameters in the analysis. The numerical studies based on the derived... View full abstract»

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  • 7. Calculation of 3-dimensional eddy currents at power frequencies

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):46 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB)

    The forseeable increase in the speed of digital computers over the next few years is, alone, unlikely to increase significantly the range of 3-dimensional eddy current problems amenable to numerical solution. Thus greater use of suitable approximations and highly efficient numerical methods are required to attack the general 3-dimensional problem. The paper reviews the current techniques and appro... View full abstract»

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  • 8. Large-scale electrical energy storage

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):345 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5801 KB)

    The review has been prepared by staff of the CEGB who are actively studying different aspects of large-scale electrical energy storage. Some areas, such as pumped storage, have been studied in considerable depth, since this technique has been exploited commercially for many years in many parts of the world. Other topics, such as superconducting magnetic storage, are at a much less advanced stage o... View full abstract»

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  • 9. New considerations on the threshold of ventricular fibrillation for a.c.shocks at 50-60 Hz

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):103 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (917 KB)

    The most common cause of death in electric shock is thought to be ventricular fibrillation, a condition in which the circulation is arrested and death ensues very rapidly. A.C. shocks at 50-60 Hz are the most frequent cause of electrical accidents and therefore a careful analysis of available data must be the basis of protective measures. During the last few years valuable new results concerning t... View full abstract»

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  • 10. Objectives of medical imaging

    Publication Year: 1987
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB)

    Central to the western model of medicine is the concept of specific identifiable diseases, and their identification is an essential prerequisite to treatment to secure the best prognosis. Modern radiological methods are powerful tools in assisting the clinician in his diagnostic endeavours, but, more than this, they provide vital information on the extent of spread of disease which guide the appli... View full abstract»

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  • 11. Life expectancy and failure mechanisms of lapped synthetic tape impregnated with supercritical helium

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):328 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (673 KB)

    Investigations into the life expectancy and failure mechanisms of cable models comprising layers of wrapped polymer tape impregnated with supercritical helium are described. Over the limited times of the tests the life law Ertt = constant is seen to apply, and, for the materials comprehensively tested, i.e high-density polythene, Valeron, polypropylene and polysulphone, n was found to be in the ra... View full abstract»

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  • 12. Properties and failure modes of incandescent tungsten filaments

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):134 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1364 KB)

    The behaviour of doped tungsten filaments is discussed with particular reference to the life-controlling processes in incandescent lamps. Since lamp failure is a complex phenomenon depending on many conditions, it appears that there is no single mechanism of universal validity by which the finite life of the tungsten filaments can be explained satisfactorily in all cases. It is suggested that, in ... View full abstract»

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  • 13. Risks associated with wind-turbine blade failures

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):574 - 586
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1716 KB)

    The CEGB is investigating the potential of large wind turbines for generating electricity. The paper considers the risk to people and property, in the unlikely event of a serious structural failure of the main rotor. The greatest risks are found very close to the machine, typically within one blade diameter of the tower base. Outside this area, the overall probability of being struck by a blade is... View full abstract»

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  • 14. Modelling and control of a wind-driven induction generator for water storage heating

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):596 - 603
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (761 KB)

    The paper discusses the concept of using a self-excited induction generator, driven by a wind turbine for water storage heating. An accurate mathematical model of the generator is used to establish, as functions of angular velocity, the particular variations of excitation capacitance and load resistance, which simultaneously cause the turbine to run at optimum tip-speed ratio and maximise the gene... View full abstract»

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  • 15. Energy analysis of wave and tidal power

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):274 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB)

    Energy requirements for building wave and tidal-power systems have been estimated. For wave-power systems, the relationship between energy requirements and extraction efficiency is examined. It is found that a point of maximum net output is reached, beyond which further increases in extraction efficiency result in decreased net energy. Energy analysis thus identifies a limit on the energy which co... View full abstract»

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  • 16. Whitney forms: a class of finite elements for three-dimensional computations in electromagnetism

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):493 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (911 KB)

    It has been recognised that numerical computations of magnetic fields by the finite-element method may require new types of elements, whose degrees of freedom are not field values at mesh nodes, but other field-related quantities like e.g. circulations along edges of the mesh. A rationale for the use of these special `mixed¿¿ elements can be obtained if one cxpresses basic equations in terms of di... View full abstract»

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  • 17. Whitney forms: a class of finite elements for three-dimensional computations in electromagnetism

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):493 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (133)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB)

    It has been recognised that numerical computations of magnetic fields by the finite-element method may require new types of elements, whose degrees of freedom are not field values at mesh nodes, but other field-related quantities like, e.g. circulations along edges of the mesh. A rationale for the use of these special 'mixed' elements can be obtained if one expresses basic equations in terms of di... View full abstract»

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  • 18. Calculation of self and mutual impedances for coils on ferromagnetic cores

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):470 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB)

    By means of integral transform techniques, the paper establishes a new set of self- and mutual-impedance formulas relating to coils on ferromagnetic cores of circular cross-section. If the core is straight and infinitely long, the formulas are expressed in terms of convergent integrals that may be evaluated numerically. In the case of closed cores, e.g. toroidal cores, the formulas formally reduce... View full abstract»

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  • 19. Wind energy conversion¿an introduction

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):506 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2280 KB)

    The global wind-energy resource is very large and widely distributed; and, within Europe, wind energy has the potential to provide an energy output equal to about three times the present electricity consumption. Although the wind is not very reliable as a source of power from day to day, it is a reliable source of energy year by year, and the main role for future wind-energy systems will be operat... View full abstract»

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  • 20. Effective 3-dimensional electric field calculation by surface charge simulation method

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):77 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (751 KB)

    Details concerning fast and accurate electrostatic field calculation techniques based on the 3-dimensional surface charge simulation method by means of Fourier-type charges are presented. The techniques range over (a) the direct potential and field coefficient formulas, (b) a computation of Legendre function of the second kind with half integer degree¿¿toroidal function Qm¿¿¿¿(x), (c) a high-speed... View full abstract»

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  • 21. Integral formulation for 3D eddy-current computation using edge elements

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):457 - 462
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB)

    An integral formulation for eddy-current problems in nomagnetic structures is presented. The solenoidality of the current density is assured by introducing a current vector potential T. This potential possesses only two scalar components, as the gauge chosen to ensure its uniqueness is T. u = 0, where u is a prescribed vector field. The discrete analogue of this gauge and the boundary conditions a... View full abstract»

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  • 22. Use of potentials in calculation of electromagnetic fields

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):106 - 112
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB)

    Electromagnetic fields are generally calculated with the help of auxiliary functions which are called potentials. These potentials can be defined in a variety of ways, some of which lead to economies in computational effort. The paper examines various possibilities in choosing the potentials, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages. Particular attention is paid to the second-order magnetic ... View full abstract»

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  • 23. Eddy currents in circular, square and rectangular rods

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):112 - 121
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)

    Eddy-current losses due to sinusoidal MMF are computed for square, circular, and rectangular rods using a rectangular B/H curve. for all sections, it is assumed that the induced currents flow on a path parallel to the sides. The results are normalised and given in a table from which many computation steps can be saved. The saturating induction is chosen as the value of B which corresponds to a qua... View full abstract»

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  • 24. The story of IFF (Identification Friend or Foe)

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):435 - 437
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB)

    At the beginning of the Second World War, the need for a system for identifying friendly aircraft became very apparent. The system which was developed was known as IFF: identification friend or foe. The development of IFF, from the beginning, and its various forms are described in the paper. The collaboration between the British and Americans later on in the war, to manufacture the Mark V sets, is... View full abstract»

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  • 25. Finite-element method for calculating power frequency 3-dimensional electromagnetic field distributions

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):233 - 238
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB)

    A finite-element method for calculating power frequency 3-dimensional electromagnetic field distributions is described. The problem region is partitioned into regions which contain no eddy currents, and regions in which eddy currents flow in such a way that the dividing surfaces are the surfaces of the conductors. Magnetic scalar potentials are then used to describe the field in non-eddy regions. ... View full abstract»

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  • 26. Control and instrumentation of large nuclear power stations a review of future trends

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):481 - 515
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5899 KB)

    The basic requirements of control and instrumentation (C & I) for large nuclear power stations are reviewed with special reference to the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) and the pressurised water reactor (PWR), emphasising current developments and trends rather than established techniques. The extensive instrumentation, now provided for condition monitoring, particularly of the chemistry of ... View full abstract»

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  • 27. Theory for calculating approximate values for the propagation constants of an optical rib waveguide by weighting the refractive indices

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):699 - 702
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (431 KB)

    The effective-index method is an approximate way of calculating the propagation constants of a rib waveguide. It is shown that the range of application and the uniformity of approximation can be enhanced by weighting the indices appropriately. The theory is presented and the results compared with accurately known values. View full abstract»

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  • 28. Dielectric heating in industry application of radio frequency and microwaves

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):583 - 588
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (867 KB)

    Heat is generated in a variety of dielectric or electrical insulating materials when subjected to radio and microwave frequencies. This phenomenon has been successfully exploited for over 40 years by industry in a wide range of applications. Radio frequency (RF) is used for about 90% of all dielectric heating applications, but the more recent development of microwave heating is becoming well estab... View full abstract»

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  • 29. Space-charge-limited bipolar current flow between coaxial cylindrical electrodes

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):43 - 45
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB)

    Poisson's equation in cylindrical symmetry is solved numerically assuming that at each electrode there is an unlimited supply of charges of zero energy; positive charges at the positive electrode and negative charges at the negative electrode. A solution is obtained corresponding to zero electric field at each electrode surface; this defines the maximum possible current flow of each charge polarit... View full abstract»

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  • 30. Electrostatic precipitators

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):347 - 361
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1656 KB)

    The author gives a survey of the significant developments in the science of electrostatic precipitation since 1970, with special reference to electrical characteristics. The review specifically identifies the main physical processes that take place and the relevant fundamental equations and relationships. Reference is made to electric and current fields, voltage-current relationships, collection t... View full abstract»

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  • 31. Error estimation in sampling digital wattmeters

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):122 - 128
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB)

    The problem of estimating the error due to time discretisation in sampling digital wattmeters is dealt with in the paper; in particular, those instruments based on the simultaneous sampling of the voltage and current waveforms at equally spaced time instants in one or more periods are considered. As the discretisation error is a periodic function with zero mean value of the initial sampling instan... View full abstract»

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  • 32. Comparison of different boundary integral formulations when coupled with finite elements in three dimensions

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):501 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB)

    Several boundary integral formulations are described and compared for calculating the 'outside stiffness matrix' for a hybrid finite-element boundary-integral method in three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic modelling. The methods of single-layer sources and of Green's identity, as well as the Trefftz method, have been analysed when using, respectively, collocation and variational techniques for t... View full abstract»

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  • 33. Energy partitioning in an inductively driven rail gun

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):140 - 144
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB)

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun are analysed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. It is found that only 15% of energy delivered by the inducto... View full abstract»

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  • 34. High-pressure sodium discharge lamps

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):415 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3671 KB)

    The review article deals with the high-pressure sodium (HPS) discharge lamp, characterised by a sodium vapour pressure above 5 kPa and a power density of about 100 Wcm¿3. In its short history ¿ the sodium-resistant translucent alumina used as the discharge tube material was invented only in the late 1950s ¿ continuous research and development has led to a good understanding of the discharge phy... View full abstract»

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  • 35. Dynamics of wind turbines

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):523 - 530
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB)

    Three principal aspects of the dynamics of wind-turbine behaviour are discussed: forced response to deterministic loads, forced response to stochastic loads and stability. In each case, an introduction to the physics of the problem is presented and a means of analysis is described. A simple analytical model is derived to help illustrate some of the analytical techniques commonly employed. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Electronic aids for blind persons: an interdisciplinary subject

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):559 - 576
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3744 KB)

    Aids for the handicapped is an emotive subject; ?electronic aids for the blind? is highly emotive because of the innovation the field has seen over the past 20 years and the controversy over what is best for the user and what is appropriate as a manufactured technology. The subject is reviewed against this background, showing the advances in reading aids to have had a smoother and more successful ... View full abstract»

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  • 37. Switching-impulse strength of the external insulation of three-phase power transformers

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):534 - 542
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (765 KB)

    The switching-impulse strength phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth has been investigated on a power transformer dummy to provide data for the design of its external clearances. The dummy was equipped with 420 kV bushings, but also simulations were used to obtain smaller or larger distances to earth. The clearances were varied between 2 m and 6 m. The influence of rain is included. The report offers ... View full abstract»

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  • 38. Radar receiver burnout by other radars

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):615 - 620
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)

    A radiation hazard perhaps not generally given sufficient attention is that of one high-power radar burning out the receiver of a nearby system as a result of power coupling via their aerials. A review of various receiver peak-power withstands reveals that pulse power of 0dBW is a suitable working figure for such studies, although individual devices exhibit a fairly wide range of withstand levels.... View full abstract»

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  • 39. Teaching innovations in the special engineering programme at brunel university

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):697 - 702
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)

    The paper describes some of the innovative features of project-type courses in the Special Engineering Programme at Brunel University. In accordance with the objective of training engineers for manufacturing industry, the programme aims to develop the problem-solving abilities and decision-making skills of students through their active participation in task or project courses of different kinds. D... View full abstract»

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  • 40. Investigation into temperature variation of equivalent-circuit parameters of AT-cut quartz crystal resonators

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):507 - 510
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)

    Despite the abundance of published information on the variation of resonant frequency with temperature of AT-cut quartz crystals, no work has been reported on the temperature variation of the equivalent-circuit elements. Measurements of the change in motional capacitance with temperature are reported in the paper. Results showed that motional capacitance increased linearly over the temperature ran... View full abstract»

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  • 41. Specific total power loss measurements using an IEC single-sheet tester

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):601 - 604
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB)

    Specific total power loss measurements made on sheets of electrical steel using a single-sheet tester have been compared with those made on strips in the conventional Epstein frame. From the results it has been possible to deduce a single value for the effective magnetic path length for the sheet tester, for a wide range of materials and test conditions. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Electric field measurements in long gap discharge using pockels device

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):139 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1572 KB)

    The optical method using a Pockels device has been used to investigate an electric field distorted by space charges due to discharge development in air. A Pockels device placed in the discharge area has the advantage of directly measuring such a field. This method is successfully applied to the measurement of the electric field in and around the leader column propagating in a rod-plane gap of 1 m ... View full abstract»

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  • 43. Dual finite-element calculations for static electric and magnetic fields

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):105 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB)

    The finite-element method is widely used for the solution of field problems but the method, as generally applied, suffers from the fact that it is not known how close the solution is to the actual value. This uncertainty can be reduced by providing a dual finite-element method which is so arranged that both methods together provide upper and lower bounds to the correct solution. It is found that t... View full abstract»

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  • 44. Electromagnetic levitation of rotating cylinders

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):21 - 27
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (722 KB)

    Stable electromagnetic levitation of spinning conducting cylindrical rotors has been demonstrated theoretically for the first time. General expressions of the quasistationary magnetic vector potential, for a rotating, conducting, cylindrical shell in the proximity of a distribution of parallel straight wires carrying currents, have been obtained by assuming a two-dimensional field. For a practical... View full abstract»

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  • 45. Fast numerical method for calculation of electric and magnetic fields based on potential-flux duality

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):84 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1353 KB)

    By discretising the field into slices and tubes, upper and lower bounds to the energy of a system are obtained. Each slice carries the same flux and each tube has the same potentials at its ends. This makes the best possible use of the input data and avoids the necessity for solving a set of simultaneous equations, which is a characteristic feature of the usual finite-element method. Savings of co... View full abstract»

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  • 46. The economics of innovation

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):213 - 221
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB)

    There are many different kinds of technical innovations, but one of the most important distinctions is between incremental improvements to an existing range of products and processes and the revolutionary transformations brought about by entirely new technologies and production systems. Such deep-going transformations justify the expression `change of paradigm¿¿ because they affect almost all bran... View full abstract»

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  • 47. Calculation of the rod-plane voltage/current characteristics using the saturated current density equation and Warburg's law

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):784 - 788
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB)

    A systematic study is made of the rodplane corona electrical characteristics and of their dependence on the rod diameter, gap length and the applied voltage. The truncation of current density footprint resulting from the proximity of current fields and geometrical factors is also reported. A model to calculate the voltage/current characteristic, based on the saturated current density equation and ... View full abstract»

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  • 48. Prediction of leakage from single braid screened cables

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):144 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (779 KB)

    Theoretical predictions for the surface transfer impedances of braided coaxial cables are compared to measured values. A phenomenon is reported, whereby the measured cable leakage does not vary linearly with frequency. The predictions include manufacturing tolerances of the braid, this leads to the conclusion that at least a maximum leakage is determinable. Furthermore, this prediction technique s... View full abstract»

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  • 49. Ergonomics: designing for the user

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):162 - 166
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB)

    The aim of ergonomics in design is to maximise the human contribution to system performance, and to ensure that users are not overloaded in their activities. The optimum `allocation of functions¿¿ between the users and the rest of the system must be achieved, and the user-system interfce must be compatible with human capabilities and limitations. Task descriptions, and approaches to modelling user... View full abstract»

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  • 50. Electromagnetic field theorems

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):47 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2424 KB)

    The paper reviews most of the general electromagnetic field theorems (i.e. theorems not limited to special geometrical structures) in a compact and unified way. Applications of all the theorems are illustrated by one or more examples. Although the review is aimed primarily at nonspecialists in electromagnetic field theory, it is believed that specialists might also find it useful. Basic knowledge ... View full abstract»

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