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IEE Proceedings A - Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education - Reviews

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  • The story of IFF (Identification Friend or Foe)

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):435 - 437
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB)

    At the beginning of the Second World War, the need for a system for identifying friendly aircraft became very apparent. The system which was developed was known as IFF: identification friend or foe. The development of IFF, from the beginning, and its various forms are described in the paper. The collaboration between the British and Americans later on in the war, to manufacture the Mark V sets, is... View full abstract»

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  • Whitney forms: a class of finite elements for three-dimensional computations in electromagnetism

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):493 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (136)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB)

    It has been recognised that numerical computations of magnetic fields by the finite-element method may require new types of elements, whose degrees of freedom are not field values at mesh nodes, but other field-related quantities like, e.g. circulations along edges of the mesh. A rationale for the use of these special 'mixed' elements can be obtained if one expresses basic equations in terms of di... View full abstract»

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  • Integral formulation for 3D eddy-current computation using edge elements

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):457 - 462
    Cited by:  Papers (70)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB)

    An integral formulation for eddy-current problems in nonmagnetic structures is presented. The solenoidality of the current density is assured by introducing a current vector potential T. This potential possesses only two scalar components, as the gauge chosen to ensure its uniqueness is T.u=0, where u is a prescribed vector field. The discrete analogue of this gauge and the boundary conditions are... View full abstract»

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  • A clinical microwave thermography system

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):193 - 200
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)

    Microwave thermography is the technique of observing the natural thermal radiation from the tissues of the body at centimetric wavelengths to obtain information about internal body temperature patterns. The ability of the technique to relatively directly obtain a measurement of body internal temperatures is the result of the relative transparency of body tissues to microwave radiation at the lower... View full abstract»

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  • Unified approach to problems in electromagnetism

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):55 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (723 KB)

    The development of a structure linking the various potentials and field vectors of the electric and magnetic fields is presented. The approach shows that it is usually possible to find alternative formulations, for a given problem, in a relatively simple manner. These alternative formulations, when correctly chosen, pose problems in dual or complementary form such that bounded solutions are possib... View full abstract»

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  • Influence of electric fields on flying insects

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):390 - 392
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (365 KB)

    The paper describes experiments on blowflies and fruitflies in electrostatic fields. At a high enough field strength, yet not so high as to cause flashover, the insect becomes paralysed; however, if the field is quickly removed the insect eventually regains control and can fly away apparently unharmed. This occurs whether the insect is originally in contact with one of the electrodes or in flight ... View full abstract»

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  • Industrial, scientific, medical and domestic applications of microwaves

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):467 - 503
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5353 KB)

    A comprehensive, critical review of applications of microwaves in industry, science, medicine and consumer services is given. A concise description of basic physical principles utilised in industrial, scientific, medical and domestic (ISM & D) applications of microwaves precedes an outline of characteristics of building blocks of circuitry employed. Numerous high-power and low-power applicatio... View full abstract»

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  • Solar photovoltaic and wind power in Greece

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):457 - 463
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)

    The high energy cost for power supply to the Greek islands, as well as the favourable solar and wind conditions, led to the utilisation of these local energy sources for power generation. On the island of Kythnos, the first wind park of a capacity of 100 kW was installed as well as a 100 kWp solar photovoltaic plant with storage facility. Both plants are grid-connected for parallel operation with ... View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic suspension and levitation

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):549 - 581
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5289 KB)

    The phenomenon of levitation has attracted attention from philosophers and scientists in the past. Recent advances, notably in power electronics and magnetic materials, have focused this attention within the last decade on the application of electromagnetic suspension and levitation techniques to advanced ground transportation. Regardless of the fact that there is, in effect, a separate technology... View full abstract»

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  • Large-scale electrical energy storage

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):345 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5801 KB)

    The review has been prepared by staff of the CEGB who are actively studying different aspects of large-scale electrical energy storage. Some areas, such as pumped storage, have been studied in considerable depth, since this technique has been exploited commercially for many years in many parts of the world. Other topics, such as superconducting magnetic storage, are at a much less advanced stage o... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic control of blood pressure by drug infusion

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):639 - 645
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1231 KB)

    Automatic control of arterial blood pressure by infusing the drug sodium nitroprusside is used for the treatment of elevated blood pressure after open-heart surgery at the Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit of the University of Alabama Hospital. Controller design was based on investigations of the dynamics of the physiological responses of patients to nitroprusside infusion. A nonlinear PID digi... View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic emission: its techniques and applications

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):241 - 251
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1842 KB)

    Acoustic emission offers the possibility of inspecting the whole volume of large structures from a limited number of access points. The paper discusses the historical development of the technique and describes the instrumentation and analytical methods used for interpretation. Experience has shown that, contrary to early statements, acoustic emission is not a universal inspection tool and the latt... View full abstract»

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  • Effective 3-dimensional electric field calculation by surface charge simulation method

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):77 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (751 KB)

    Details concerning fast and accurate electrostatic field calculation techniques based on the 3-dimensional surface charge simulation method by means of Fourier-type charges are presented. The techniques range over (a) the direct potential and field coefficient formulas, (b) a computation of Legendre function of the second kind with half integer degree¿¿toroidal function Qm¿¿¿¿(x), (c) a high-speed... View full abstract»

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  • Finite-element analysis of three-dimensional eddy currents in attractive electromagnetic levitation

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):651 - 662
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1139 KB)

    In the design of an attractive electromagnetic levitation system, it is necessary to predict the force on the system. The finite element method is used in the paper to solve the associated electromagnetic field problem involving eddy currents. Two formulations, which are economical when used with this numerical method of solution, are compared, and the peculiarities of the 3-dimensional eddy curre... View full abstract»

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  • Integral formulation for 3D eddy-current computation using edge elements

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):457 - 462
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB)

    An integral formulation for eddy-current problems in nomagnetic structures is presented. The solenoidality of the current density is assured by introducing a current vector potential T. This potential possesses only two scalar components, as the gauge chosen to ensure its uniqueness is T. u = 0, where u is a prescribed vector field. The discrete analogue of this gauge and the boundary conditions a... View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic precipitators

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):347 - 361
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1656 KB)

    The author gives a survey of the significant developments in the science of electrostatic precipitation since 1970, with special reference to electrical characteristics. The review specifically identifies the main physical processes that take place and the relevant fundamental equations and relationships. Reference is made to electric and current fields, voltage-current relationships, collection t... View full abstract»

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  • Design for quality

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):159 - 161
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB)

    The recent UK Government White Paper on `Standards, quality and international competitiveness¿, followed by the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between Government and BSI and the subsequent launching of the National Quality Campaign has emphasised the need for the country to have a strong home market dependent on the correct standards and quality assurance procedures, thus avoiding imp... View full abstract»

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  • Social benefits of electricity

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):291 - 296
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)

    Electricity plays such a vital role in homes, shops, factories and transport that it is difficult to imagine life without it, yet as recently as 50 years ago only half the homes of Britain were connected to the public supply. Practical electric lighting was developed towards the end of the 19th century. By the early years of the 20th century a wide range of domestic electrical appliances were avai... View full abstract»

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  • Double impulse tests of long airgaps. Part 1: Engineering problems and physical processes: the basis of recent tests

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):395 - 409
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1668 KB)

    Collaborative tests have been performed using nonstandard impulses, and employing a wide range of diagnostic techniques. Part 1 of the paper describes the need for such tests, the experimental arrangement and the digital data techniques developed for the tests. Part 2 is an account of the decay of the leader channel in long airgaps and the recovery of dielectric strength. It was found that the lea... View full abstract»

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  • Whitney forms: a class of finite elements for three-dimensional computations in electromagnetism

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):493 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (911 KB)

    It has been recognised that numerical computations of magnetic fields by the finite-element method may require new types of elements, whose degrees of freedom are not field values at mesh nodes, but other field-related quantities like e.g. circulations along edges of the mesh. A rationale for the use of these special `mixed¿¿ elements can be obtained if one cxpresses basic equations in terms of di... View full abstract»

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  • New method for determination of steady-state temperature rises of transformers

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):307 - 311
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB)

    For transformers whose thermal time constant exceeds two hours, unacceptably large systematic errors occur if recommended methods for determination of steady-state temperature rise are used. Therefore a new criterion for heat run duration and a new method for determination of steady-state temperature rise are proposed, which ensure reliable determination of steady-state temperature rise independen... View full abstract»

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  • Representation of soft magnetic materials

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):386 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB)

    Soft magnetic materials have symmetrical B/H characteristics which form closed loops for alternating magnetisation between positive and negative saturation levels of flux density, B. The model suggested here produces these `nesting¿¿ characteristics by making the coercive force proportion to the maximum flux density. The deviations between ascending and descending curves are modelled in a single e... View full abstract»

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  • Review of high-voltage gas breakdown and insulators in compressed gas

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):303 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1771 KB)

    In the past ten years there have been significant advances in the theoretical and experimental analysis of high-voltage gas breakdown and surface flashover of insulators in compressed gases. This has probably been fostered by the recent growth in the design and application of gas-insulated high-voltage equipment. The review describes the characteristics of compressed-gas breakdown, including the e... View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of three-dimensional electromagnetic fields involving laminar eddy currents

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):663 - 671
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1101 KB)

    The formulation of a method to solve steady-state electromagnetic field problems involving laminar eddy currents is described. Iron nonlinearity is included. The formulation is implemented using finite elements and the problems associated with the solution of the resulting nonlinear equations discussed. Experiments with a Newton-Raphson iteration and modifications to it are described and a best al... View full abstract»

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  • A review of physical aspects of X-ray transmission computed tomography

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):126 - 135
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1763 KB)

    The physical aspects of X-ray transmission computed-tomography scanners are reviewed with particular emphasis on X-ray sources and detectors. Physical aspects have been interpreted widely to embrace the choice and specification of imaging geometry and corresponding reconstruction theory. The review pertains to both commercial production machines and special-purpose (generally one-off) developments... View full abstract»

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  • Electricity supply¿problems and possibilities

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):1 - 9
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1207 KB)

    The problem of balancing the supply of electrical energy with demand is one constantly facing power system engineers. In the industrialised countries, the growth of demand has slowed in recent years, but there are still electricity shortages in the developing countries. Electricity is expected to increase its world-wide share of the delivered energy market, and plans to meet future demands with el... View full abstract»

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  • Electrical ionisation and breakdown of gases in a crossed magnetic field

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):221 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2759 KB)

    A unified approach to the subject of electrical ionisation and breakdown of gases in the presence of a crossed magnetic field is presented by invoking the equivalent reduced electric field (e.r.e.f.) concept which is a generalisation of the previously accepted equivalent gas density (pressure) principle. The e.r.e.f. concept is derived from basic electron trajectories in a simplified way using a g... View full abstract»

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  • Chernobyl ¿ ethical and environmental considerations

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):834 - 840
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1027 KB)

    The paper summarises briefly the main facts of the Chernobyl incident, the reactions to it, and the consequences in terms of global atmospheric pollution. Meteorological conditions determined the pattern of fallout, which over the UK for Cs137 varied in the ratio 10: 4000 Bq/m2 (on grass). There has been poor understanding by the media and the public of the quantitative aspects, aggravated by the ... View full abstract»

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  • Effect of a symmetrically placed dielectric tube on the capacitance of a cylindrical cross-capacitor

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):332 - 336
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)

    The change in the cross-capacitance of a cylindrical cross-capacitor of circular cross-section when a dielectric tube is coaxially placed inside it is analysed. It is further shown that the analysis can be adapted to estimate a similar change in the case of a cylindrical cross-capacitor of the Thompson type. View full abstract»

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  • Exchange-rate fluctuations and transaction exposure in the multinational corporation

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):261 - 264
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB)

    Exchange-rate fluctuations can cause variations in the economic value of a firm conducting business in more than one currency. The paper examines the problem in a mean-variance framework. Strategies are derived for the preferred instrument of exchange-rate exposure management and the optimal degree of maintained exposure. View full abstract»

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  • Recent developments in SAW devices

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):186 - 215
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5056 KB)

    Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) delay lines employing photolithographically fabricated transducers were first described in 1965. Since then there has been a continuous stream of publications on the physics of SAW propagation, and on the applications of these planar acoustic elements as high-frequency electrical components. By 1975 the principles of many potentially useful SAW devices had been describe... View full abstract»

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  • Electric arcs: their electrode processes and engineering applications

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):450 - 480
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5678 KB)

    The paper reviews some of the most significant developments made since 1970 in the understanding, observation and control of the phenomena which occur in the cathode and anode regions of arcs under a number of conditions, and in the engineering applications in which they are used or arise. Even with this limitation to less than 14 years, the literature on arcs is so vast that selectivity has been ... View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of wind turbines

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):523 - 530
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB)

    Three principal aspects of the dynamics of wind-turbine behaviour are discussed: forced response to deterministic loads, forced response to stochastic loads and stability. In each case, an introduction to the physics of the problem is presented and a means of analysis is described. A simple analytical model is derived to help illustrate some of the analytical techniques commonly employed. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric devices

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):285 - 307
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3127 KB)

    The history of the discovery of piezoelectricity and its application in practical devices is traced from the late 19th century. The origin of the piezoelectric effect is outlined in terms of the symmetry of the materials, and Tables are given in which the electroelastic properties are listed for single crystals, ferroelectric ceramics and polymers which show the phenomenon. The applications of bot... View full abstract»

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  • High-pressure sodium discharge lamps

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):415 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3671 KB)

    The review article deals with the high-pressure sodium (HPS) discharge lamp, characterised by a sodium vapour pressure above 5 kPa and a power density of about 100 Wcm¿3. In its short history ¿ the sodium-resistant translucent alumina used as the discharge tube material was invented only in the late 1950s ¿ continuous research and development has led to a good understanding of the discharge phy... View full abstract»

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  • Electron field emission from copper with various thicknesses of oxide film

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):111 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB)

    A new, nondestructive method for electron field emission measurement is presented, which, in principle, completely avoids the need for deleterious multiple sparking of the surface required by previous workers and which allows electron field emission to be measured at its origin; i.e. with only a few electrons leaving the cathodes per second. The results obtained on oxide-covered copper cathodes wi... View full abstract»

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  • Radio-frequency ignition hazards: a review

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):607 - 614
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1579 KB)

    A review is presented of the studies associated with radio-frequency ignition hazards which have been undertaken since the production of the first British Standard (BS 4992) on this subject in 1974. Initially a brief review is given of the major assumptions used in this standard and its draft revision of 1976 and, then, the research and tests carried out between 1977 and 1981 are discussed in deta... View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of self and mutual impedances for coils on ferromagnetic cores

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):470 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (715 KB)

    By means of integral transform techniques, the paper establishes a new set of self- and mutual-impedance formulas relating to coils on ferromagnetic cores of circular cross-section. If the core is straight and infinitely long, the formulas are expressed in terms of convergent integrals that may be evaluated numerically. In the case of closed cores, e.g. toroidal cores, the formulas formally reduce... View full abstract»

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  • Natural and forced-cooling of HV underground cables: UK practice

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):137 - 161
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3972 KB)

    The paper reviews the progress of the various forms of cable cooling systems that have been developed for the UK CEGB's major high-voltage transmission network. The generation and transmission system in the UK prior to the establishment of the 132kV grid is discussed, together with the reasons for building the higher-voltage network. The statutory duties of the CEGB and its transmission responsibi... View full abstract»

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  • Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    Publication Year: 1983
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB)

    Ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) is a novel `alternative¿ energy technology that has created much interest in a number of countries; namely, the USA, Japan, France, Sweden, Holland, India and, most recently, the UK. In particular, the first three of these have had programmes to develop the required technology. However, most interest has been centred in the USA, where the current hiatus in F... View full abstract»

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  • Electroluminescent panel devices

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):196 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)

    There are a number of different forms of electroluminescent panels which can be used for display purposes. The differences between these various constructions are described, and their properties and applications reviewed. Although almost all the electroluminescent devices which are in regular production are of the a.c., e.l. type; d.c., e.l. shows promise for certain types of small dynamic display... View full abstract»

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  • Wind energy conversion¿an introduction

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):506 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2280 KB)

    The global wind-energy resource is very large and widely distributed; and, within Europe, wind energy has the potential to provide an energy output equal to about three times the present electricity consumption. Although the wind is not very reliable as a source of power from day to day, it is a reliable source of energy year by year, and the main role for future wind-energy systems will be operat... View full abstract»

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  • Double impulse tests of long airgaps. Part 4: Effects of pre-existing space charge on positive discharge development

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):469 - 483
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1553 KB)

    The paper describes one of the three major studies with double impulses performed during the fifth test period of the Les Renardiÿres Group. In the third experiment a negative impulse (Tcr=45 ¿s) was used to create an extensive space charge in a 6 m rod-rod gap. The voltage level selected was ~0.8U50¿. Thereafter the effect of this pre-existing space charge on the development of a subsequent po... View full abstract»

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  • Imaging by numerical analysis of wave scattering in the time domain using transmission-line modelling, signal processing and optimisation

    Publication Year: 1982, Page(s):190 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1151 KB)

    A new technique for imaging by observation of scattered waves is introduced. Wave propagation and scattering are numerically modelled in the time domain, and full waveform information is used. Spatial variation of the objects' physical properties is parameterised, and the parameters are determined by reiterating the modelling with parameter changes given by optimisation techniques. In the paper th... View full abstract»

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  • Electrical impedance imaging

    Publication Year: 1987, Page(s):201 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1715 KB)

    Electrical impedance imaging is introduced on a descriptive and historical basis. The physical situation to which it applies is identified, and its representation as mathematical equations is stated. Emphasis is made of the assumptions in the derivation and solution of the equations. Techniques for synthesising data are outlined and the practical problems of measuring data are covered. Methods of ... View full abstract»

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  • Double impulse tests of long airgaps. Part 3: Voltage front perturbation effects

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):438 - 468
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2674 KB)

    Withstand voltage ratings for air insulation are partly based on test data obtained with standard biexponential impulses. The importance of the time parameters of the test impulse, with the distinction between lightning (LI) and switching (SI) standard impulses, is well established. The paper (Part 3) describes tests on a 6 m rod-plane gap with stresses which depart substantially from the biexpone... View full abstract»

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  • Applications of radio-frequency power to the drying of timber

    Publication Year: 1980, Page(s):394 - 398
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB)

    Experiments and theoretical calculations have been performed to determine the conditions necessary to obtain moisture levelling in the drying of beech squares from the green state using radio-frequency heating. The problems investigated include the scatter in final moisture contents owing to anisotropy of the dielectric properties of the wood, inverse moisture content distribution owing to incorre... View full abstract»

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  • Ignition of flammable gas mixtures by X-band microwave discharges

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):103 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB)

    Mixtures of hydrogen, ethylene, propane and methane with air at NTP were ignited by sparks striking between electrodes in a cavity tuned to resonance at 9.4 GHz. The cavity was formed from a section of waveguide sealed by dielectric windows, and fed by a pulsed radar transmitter. The envelope of the radar pulse waveform reflected from the cavity was monitored using a detector and a transient data ... View full abstract»

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  • Double impulse tests of long airgaps. Part 2: Leader decay and reactivation

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):410 - 437
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2451 KB)

    The behaviour of large air-insulated structures subjected to complex multiple-peak surge overvoltages is influenced by the presence of already established leader overvoltages in influenced by the presence of already established leader development in the space. The decay processes of a positive leader channel following current interruption appear not to have been studied in detail, and Part 2 provi... View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear circuit mode analysis

    Publication Year: 1983, Page(s):69 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2264 KB)

    An exposition is given of recent advances in the theoretical analysis of circuits comprising sets of intercoupled nonlinear oscillators. Motivation for this work Motivation for this work has come from mathematical modelling of biomedical systems, particularly for the electrical activity of the gastrointestinal digestive tract. Over the past few years a matrix linearisation method has been develope... View full abstract»

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