By Topic

Popular Articles (December 2014)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. Cloud Networks: Enhancing Performance and Resiliency

    Page(s): 82 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1121 KB)  

    New and ever more sophisticated cloud applications pose key challenges for improving cloud network performance and resiliency. View full abstract»

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  • 2. A spiral model of software development and enhancement

    Page(s): 61 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB)  

    A short description is given of software process models and the issues they address. An outline is given of the process steps involved in the spiral model, an evolving risk-driven approach that provides a framework for guiding the software process, and its application to a software project is shown. A summary is given of the primary advantages and implications involved in using the spiral model and the primary difficulties in using it at its current incomplete level of elaboration.<> View full abstract»

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  • 3. Social Networking

    Page(s): 97 - 100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the context of today's electronic media, social networking has come to mean individuals using the Internet and Web applications to communicate in previously impossible ways. This is largely the result of a culture-wide paradigm shift in the uses and possibilities of the Internet itself. The current Web is a much different entity than the Web of a decade ago. This new focus creates a riper breeding ground for social networking and collaboration. In an abstract sense, social networking is about everyone. The mass adoption of social-networking Websites points to an evolution in human social interaction. View full abstract»

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  • 4. Artificial neural networks: a tutorial

    Page(s): 31 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3136 KB)  

    Artificial neural nets (ANNs) are massively parallel systems with large numbers of interconnected simple processors. The article discusses the motivations behind the development of ANNs and describes the basic biological neuron and the artificial computational model. It outlines network architectures and learning processes, and presents some of the most commonly used ANN models. It concludes with character recognition, a successful ANN application View full abstract»

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  • 5. Privacy and Big Data

    Page(s): 7 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1140 KB)  

    Big data's explosive growth has prompted the US government to release new reports that address the issues--particularly related to privacy--resulting from this growth. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/j49eoe5g8-c is an audio recording from the Computing and the Law column, in which authors Brian M. Gaff, Heather Egan Sussman, and Jennifer Geetter discuss how big data's explosive growth has prompted the US government to release new reports that address the issues--particularly related to privacy--resulting from this growth. View full abstract»

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  • 6. SDN and OpenFlow Evolution: A Standards Perspective

    Page(s): 22 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1082 KB)  

    The Open Networking Foundation's Extensibility Working Group is standardizing OpenFlow, the main software-defined networking (SDN) protocol. To address the requirements of a wide range of network devices and to accommodate its all-volunteer membership, the group has made the specification process highly dynamic and similar to that of open source projects. View full abstract»

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  • 7. Big Data's Big Unintended Consequences

    Page(s): 46 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Businesses and governments exploit big data without regard for issues of legality, data quality, disparate data meanings, and process quality. This often results in poor decisions, with individuals bearing the greatest risk. The threats harbored by big data extend far beyond the individual, however, and call for new legal structures, business processes, and concepts such as a Private Data Commons. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/TvXoQhrrGzg is a video in which author Marcus Wigan expands on his article "Big Data's Big Unintended Consequences" and discusses how businesses and governments exploit big data without regard for issues of legality, data quality, disparate data meanings, and process quality. This often results in poor decisions, with individuals bearing the greatest risk. The threats harbored by big data extend far beyond the individual, however, and call for new legal structures, business processes, and concepts such as a Private Data Commons. View full abstract»

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  • 8. Securing the Internet of Things

    Page(s): 51 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2131 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents security of Internet of things. In the Internet of Things vision, every physical object has a virtual component that can produce and consume services Such extreme interconnection will bring unprecedented convenience and economy, but it will also require novel approaches to ensure its safe and ethical use. The Internet and its users are already under continual attack, and a growing economy-replete with business models that undermine the Internet's ethical use-is fully focused on exploiting the current version's foundational weaknesses. View full abstract»

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  • 9. Hot topics-ubiquitous computing

    Page(s): 71 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    The author suggests that, due to the trends of unobtrusive technology and more intrusive information, the next phase of computing technology will develop nonlinearly. He states that, in the long run, the personal computer and the workstation will become practically obsolete because computing access will be everywhere: in the walls, on your wrist, and in `scrap' computers (i.e., like scrap paper) lying about to be used as needed. The current research on ubiquitous computing is reviewed View full abstract»

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  • 10. Agile software development: the business of innovation

    Page(s): 120 - 127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    The rise and fall of the dotcom-driven Internet economy shouldn't distract us from seeing that the business environment continues to change at a dramatically increasing pace. To thrive in this turbulent environment, we must confront the business need for relentless innovation and forge the future workforce culture. Agile software development approaches, such as extreme programming, Crystal methods, lean development, Scrum, adaptive software development (ASD) and others, view change from a perspective that mirrors today's turbulent business and technology environment View full abstract»

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  • 11. Smarter Cities and Their Innovation Challenges

    Page(s): 32 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (15692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transformation to smarter cities will require innovation in planning, management, and operations. Several ongoing projects around the world illustrate the opportunities and challenges of this transformation. Cities must get smarter to address an array of emerging urbanization challenges, and as the projects highlighted in this article show, several distinct paths are available. The number of cities worldwide pursuing smarter transformation is growing rapidly. However, these efforts face many political, socioeconomic, and technical hurdles. Changing the status quo is always difficult for city administrators, and smarter city initiatives often require extensive coordination, sponsorship, and support across multiple functional silos. The need to visibly demonstrate a continuous return on investment also presents a challenge. The technical obstacles will center on achieving system interoperability, ensuring security and privacy, accommodating a proliferation of sensors and devices, and adopting a new closed-loop human-computer interaction paradigm. View full abstract»

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  • 12. Brain-Computer Interfaces: Beyond Medical Applications

    Page(s): 26 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3068 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Brain-computer interaction has already moved from assistive care to applications such as gaming. Improvements in usability, hardware, signal processing, and system integration should yield applications in other nonmedical areas. View full abstract»

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  • 13. Software-Defined Networks: Incremental Deployment with Panopticon

    Page(s): 56 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)  

    Practically speaking, most enterprises migrating to a software-defined network (SDN) must do so incrementally. Panopticon offers an approach for designing and operating an interim hybrid network that combines both traditional and SDN switches by exposing a logical SDN abstraction. View full abstract»

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  • 14. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Page(s): 31 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1993 KB)  

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is rapidly evolving to support prolonged exposure (PE) therapy, a proven treatment for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Building on the successful 2007 Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan VRET system, a team of behavioral scientists, software engineers, and virtual artists has created Bravemind, a flexible VR system that offers significantly enhanced PE treatment possibilities. The first Web extra at http://youtu.be/EiYg-kMNMtQ is a video demonstration of an original early virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) prototype that shows a small section of an Iraqi city with a landing helicopter (2004). The second Web extra at http://youtu.be/_cS-ynWZmeQ is a video demonstration of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) that simulates driving a Humvee in a rural part of Iraq, showcasing several encounters, including IED and road-side attacks (2007). The third Web extra at http://youtu.be/78QXX_F4mc8 is a video demonstration of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) that simulates an overview of several Iraqi city areas (2007). The fourth Web extra at http://youtu.be/_AnixslkVLU is a video demonstration of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) that simulates a patrol entering interior buildings in Iraq (2007). The fifth Web extra at http://youtu.be/S22aQ-DqKKU is a video demonstration of an original virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) tablet interface that allows the clinician to change virtual reality settings and trigger encounters (2007). The sixth Web extra at http://youtu.be/C-fspuLo4vw is a video demonstration of the Bravemind virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) prototype showing a variety of driving and dismounted scenarios with encounters in Iraq and Afghanistan (2013). The sixth Web extra at http://youtu.be/HSPDomDAigg is a video collection of Iraqi and Afghanistan virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) scenarios within the Bravemind prototype (2013). View full abstract»

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  • 15. China's Smart City Pilots: A Progress Report

    Page(s): 72 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4872 KB)  

    To sustain its largely urban population, China has invested heavily in making its digital cities smart, and with more than 200 pilot smart cities, has the opportunity to explore technology, apply lessons to future development, and refine conceptions of what such cities require. View full abstract»

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  • 16. Virtualization of Home Network Gateways

    Page(s): 62 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB)  

    To reduce the burden on home network gateways, a proposed virtual gateway combines software-defined networking with virtualization to more flexibly handle the increasing demand for device connection and innovative home services. View full abstract»

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  • 17. RootGuard: Protecting Rooted Android Phones

    Page(s): 32 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1089 KB)  

    Though popular for achieving full operation functionality, rooting Android phones opens these devices to significant security threats. RootGuard offers protection from malware with root privileges while providing user flexibility and control. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/-KMMfxOoCjg is a video demonstration of how RootGuard manages root privileges of Android apps in a flexible and robust manner. First, we use the popular root-required app Root Explorer to show the configuration and effectiveness of RootGuard policies. Then, we use DKFBootkit, a real-world malicious app that leverages root access to do evil, to show how malware attacks performed with root privileges are mitigated by RootGuard. View full abstract»

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  • 18. From visual simulation to virtual reality to games

    Page(s): 25 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the past decades, the virtual reality community has based its development on a synthesis of earlier work in interactive 3D graphics, user interfaces, and visual simulation. Currently, the VR field is transitioning into work influenced by video games. Because much of the research and development being conducted in the games community parallels the VR community's efforts, it has the potential to affect a greater audience. Given these trends, VR researchers who want their work to remain relevant must realign to focus on game research and development. Leveraging technology from the visual simulation and virtual reality communities, serious games provide a delivery system for organizational video game instruction and training. View full abstract»

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  • 19. When Open Source Meets Network Control Planes

    Page(s): 46 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1460 KB)  

    Software-defined networking opens up new possibilities for architectures based on open source components, promising improved orchestration and agility, lower operational costs, and--most important--a wave of innovation. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/pdG2btcyyK8 is a video in which authors Christian Esteve Rothenberg, Roy Chua, and Thomas Nadeau present a slideshow and discuss how software-defined networking opens up new possibilities for architectures based on open-source components, promising improved orchestration and agility, lower operational costs, and a new wave of innovation. View full abstract»

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  • 20. The Current State of Business Intelligence

    Page(s): 96 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (775 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Business intelligence (BI) is now widely used, especially in the world of practice, to describe analytic applications. BI is currently the top-most priority of many chief information officers. BI has become a strategic initiative and is now recognized by CIOs and business leaders as instrumental in driving business effectiveness and innovation. BI is a process that includes two primary activities: getting data in and getting data out. Getting data in, traditionally referred to as data warehousing, involves moving data from a set of source systems into an integrated data warehouse. Getting data in delivers limited value to an enterprise; only when users and applications access the data and use it to make decisions does the organization realize the full value from its data warehouse. Thus, getting data out receives most attention from organizations. This second activity, which is commonly referred to as BI, consists of business users and applications accessing data from the data warehouse to perform enterprise reporting, OLAP, querying, and predictive analytics. View full abstract»

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  • 21. Genetic algorithms: a survey

    Page(s): 17 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1178 KB)  

    Genetic algorithms provide an alternative to traditional optimization techniques by using directed random searches to locate optimal solutions in complex landscapes. We introduce the art and science of genetic algorithms and survey current issues in GA theory and practice. We do not present a detailed study, instead, we offer a quick guide into the labyrinth of GA research. First, we draw the analogy between genetic algorithms and the search processes in nature. Then we describe the genetic algorithm that Holland introduced in 1975 and the workings of GAs. After a survey of techniques proposed as improvements to Holland's GA and of some radically different approaches, we survey the advances in GA theory related to modeling, dynamics, and deception.<> View full abstract»

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  • 22. Service Function Chaining: Creating a Service Plane via Network Service Headers

    Page(s): 38 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1406 KB)  

    As service chaining matures, interoperability is a must. Network service headers provide the required data-plane information needed to construct topologically independent service paths as well as to pass opaque metadata between classification and service functions. View full abstract»

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  • 23. Corporate Governance of Big Data: Perspectives on Value, Risk, and Cost

    Page(s): 32 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1311 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Finding data governance practices that maintain a balance between value creation and risk exposure is the new organizational imperative for unlocking competitive advantage and maximizing value from the application of big data. The first Web extra at http://youtu.be/B2RlkoNjrzA is a video in which author Paul Tallon expands on his article "Corporate Governance of Big Data: Perspectives on Value, Risk, and Cost" and discusses how finding data governance practices that maintain a balance between value creation and risk exposure is the new organizational imperative for unlocking competitive advantage and maximizing value from the application of big data. The second Web extra at http://youtu.be/g0RFa4swaf4 is a video in which author Paul Tallon discusses the supplementary material to his article "Corporate Governance of Big Data: Perspectives on Value, Risk, and Cost" and how projection models can help individuals responsible for data handling plan for and understand big data storage issues. View full abstract»

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  • 24. Defensive Biometrics

    Page(s): 66 - 69
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1314 KB)  

    Biometric and biographic exploits can help criminals avoid detection and thwart identification systems, as well as identify potential targets in social networks for commercial purposes. View full abstract»

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  • 25. Networks on chips: a new SoC paradigm

    Page(s): 70 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (194 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On-chip micronetworks, designed with a layered methodology, will meet the distinctive challenges of providing functionally correct, reliable operation of interacting system-on-chip components. A system on chip (SoC) can provide an integrated solution to challenging design problems in the telecommunications, multimedia, and consumer electronics domains. Much of the progress in these fields hinges on the designers' ability to conceive complex electronic engines under strong time-to-market pressure. Success will require using appropriate design and process technologies, as well as interconnecting existing components reliably in a plug-and-play fashion. Focusing on using probabilistic metrics such as average values or variance to quantify design objectives such as performance and power will lead to a major change in SoC design methodologies. Overall, these designs will be based on both deterministic and stochastic models. Creating complex SoCs requires a modular, component-based approach to both hardware and software design. Despite numerous challenges, the authors believe that developers will solve the problems of designing SoC networks. At the same time, they believe that a layered micronetwork design methodology will likely be the only path to mastering the complexity of future SoC designs View full abstract»

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  • 26. Virtual machine monitors: current technology and future trends

    Page(s): 39 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Developed more than 30 years ago to address mainframe computing problems, virtual machine monitors have resurfaced on commodity platforms, offering novel solutions to challenges in security, reliability, and administration. Stanford University researchers began to look at the potential of virtual machines to overcome difficulties that hardware and operating system limitations imposed: This time the problems stemmed from massively parallel processing (MPP) machines that were difficult to program and could not run existing operating systems. With virtual machines, researchers found they could make these unwieldy architectures look sufficiently similar to existing platforms to leverage the current operating systems. From this project came the people and ideas that underpinned VMware Inc., the original supplier of VMMs for commodity computing hardware. The implications of having a VMM for commodity platforms intrigued both researchers and entrepreneurs. View full abstract»

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  • 27. Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power

    Page(s): 68 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Off-state leakage is static power, current that leaks through transistors even when they are turned off. The other source of power dissipation in today's microprocessors, dynamic power, arises from the repeated capacitance charge and discharge on the output of the hundreds of millions of gates in today's chips. Until recently, only dynamic power has been a significant source of power consumption, and Moore's law helped control it. However, power consumption has now become a primary microprocessor design constraint; one that researchers in both industry and academia will struggle to overcome in the next few years. Microprocessor design has traditionally focused on dynamic power consumption as a limiting factor in system integration. As feature sizes shrink below 0.1 micron, static power is posing new low-power design challenges. View full abstract»

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  • 29. Crime data mining: a general framework and some examples

    Page(s): 50 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A major challenge facing all law-enforcement and intelligence-gathering organizations is accurately and efficiently analyzing the growing volumes of crime data. Detecting cybercrime can likewise be difficult because busy network traffic and frequent online transactions generate large amounts of data, only a small portion of which relates to illegal activities. Data mining is a powerful tool that enables criminal investigators who may lack extensive training as data analysts to explore large databases quickly and efficiently. We present a general framework for crime data mining that draws on experience gained with the Coplink project, which researchers at the University of Arizona have been conducting in collaboration with the Tucson and Phoenix police departments since 1997. View full abstract»

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  • 30. Intel virtualization technology

    Page(s): 48 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A virtualized system includes a new layer of software, the virtual machine monitor. The VMM's principal role is to arbitrate accesses to the underlying physical host platform's resources so that multiple operating systems (which are guests of the VMM) can share them. The VMM presents to each guest OS a set of virtual platform interfaces that constitute a virtual machine (VM). Once confined to specialized, proprietary, high-end server and mainframe systems, virtualization is now becoming more broadly available and is supported in off-the-shelf systems based on Intel architecture (IA) hardware. This development is due in part to the steady performance improvements of IA-based systems, which mitigates traditional virtualization performance overheads. Intel virtualization technology provides hardware support for processor virtualization, enabling simplifications of virtual machine monitor software. Resulting VMMs can support a wider range of legacy and future operating systems while maintaining high performance. View full abstract»

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  • 31. Using occupancy grids for mobile robot perception and navigation

    Page(s): 46 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1337 KB)  

    An approach to robot perception and world modeling that uses a probabilistic tesselated representation of spatial information called the occupancy grid is reviewed. The occupancy grid is a multidimensional random field that maintains stochastic estimates of the occupancy state of the cells in a spatial lattice. To construct a sensor-derived map of the robot's world, the cell state estimates are obtained by interpreting the incoming range readings using probabilistic sensor models. Bayesian estimation procedures allow the incremental updating of the occupancy grid, using readings taken from several sensors over multiple points of view. The use of occupancy grids from mapping and for navigation is examined. Operations on occupancy grids and extensions of the occupancy grid framework are briefly considered.<> View full abstract»

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  • 32. The vision of autonomic computing

    Page(s): 41 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 2001 IBM manifesto observed that a looming software complexity crisis -caused by applications and environments that number into the tens of millions of lines of code - threatened to halt progress in computing. The manifesto noted the almost impossible difficulty of managing current and planned computing systems, which require integrating several heterogeneous environments into corporate-wide computing systems that extend into the Internet. Autonomic computing, perhaps the most attractive approach to solving this problem, creates systems that can manage themselves when given high-level objectives from administrators. Systems manage themselves according to an administrator's goals. New components integrate as effortlessly as a new cell establishes itself in the human body. These ideas are not science fiction, but elements of the grand challenge to create self-managing computing systems. View full abstract»

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  • 33. Defeating SQL Injection

    Page(s): 69 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The best strategy for combating SQL injection, which has emerged as the most widespread website security risk, calls for integrating defensive coding practices with both vulnerability detection and runtime attack prevention methods. View full abstract»

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  • 34. Get ready for agile methods, with care

    Page(s): 64 - 69
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (114 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although many of their advocates consider the agile and plan-driven software development methods polar opposites, synthesizing the two can provide developers with a comprehensive spectrum of tools and options. Real-world examples argue for and against agile methods. Responding to change has been cited as the critical technical success factor in the Internet browser battle between Microsoft and Netscape. But overresponding to change has been cited as the source of many software disasters, such as the $3 billion overrun of the US Federal Aviation Administration's Advanced Automation System for national air traffic control. The author believes that both agile and plan-driven approaches have a responsible center and overinterpreting radical fringes. Agile and plan-driven methods both form part of the planning spectrum. Thus, while each approach has a home ground within which it performs very well, and much better than the other, a combined approach is feasible and preferable in some circumstances View full abstract»

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  • 35. Social Media for Social Value

    Page(s): 82 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Social media, with their low direct costs and enormous reach, enable nonprofit entities like the American Red Cross and Kiva to better accomplish their missions and improve the lives of millions of people worldwide. View full abstract»

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  • 36. Smart Dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer

    Page(s): 44 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Smart Dust project is probing microfabrication technology's limitations to determine whether an autonomous sensing, computing, and communication system can be packed into a cubic millimeter mote (a small particle or speck) to form the basis of integrated, massively distributed sensor networks. Although we've chosen a somewhat arbitrary size for our sensor systems, exploring microfabrication technology's limitations is our fundamental goal. Because of its discrete size, substantial functionality, connectivity, and anticipated low cost, Smart Dust will facilitate innovative methods of interacting with the environment, providing more information from more places less intrusively View full abstract»

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  • 37. Theory-Guided Data Science for Climate Change

    Page(s): 74 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3109 KB)  

    To adequately address climate change, we need novel data-science methods that account for the spatiotemporal and physical nature of climate phenomena. Only then will we be able to move from statistical analysis to scientific insights. View full abstract»

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  • 38. Consistency Tradeoffs in Modern Distributed Database System Design: CAP is Only Part of the Story

    Page(s): 37 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The CAP theorem's impact on modern distributed database system design is more limited than is often perceived. Another tradeoff-between consistency and latency -has had a more direct influence on several well-known DDBSs. A proposed new formulation, PACELC, unifies this tradeoff with CAP. View full abstract»

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  • 39. Security or Privacy? A Matter of Perspective

    Page(s): 94 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1536 KB)  

    How secure is "secure enough," and how private is "private enough"? At age 25, the Internet offers unprecedented potential for both liberty and protection, but can easily breed lawlessness and oppression-blurring the line between safety and simple prying. View full abstract»

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  • 40. CAP twelve years later: How the "rules" have changed

    Page(s): 23 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5711 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The CAP theorem asserts that any networked shared-data system can have only two of three desirable properties. However, by explicitly handling partitions, designers can optimize consistency and availability, thereby achieving some trade-off of all three. The featured Web extra is a podcast from Software Engineering Radio, in which the host interviews Dwight Merriman about the emerging NoSQL movement, the three types of nonrelational data stores, Brewer's CAP theorem, and much more. View full abstract»

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  • 41. Clouds for Scalable Big Data Analytics

    Page(s): 98 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (845 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Extracting useful knowledge from huge digital datasets requires smart and scalable analytics services, programming tools, and applications. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Avoiding Cyberspace Catastrophes through Smarter Testing

    Page(s): 102 - 106
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    The Heartbleed bug highlighted a critical problem in the software industry: inadequately tested software results in serious security vulnerabilities. Available testing technologies, combined with emerging standards, can help tech companies meet increasing consumer demand for greater Internet security. View full abstract»

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  • 43. Lessons from Stuxnet

    Page(s): 91 - 93
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    The article mentions that the malware such as Stuxnet can affect critical physical infrastructures that are controlled by software, which implies that threats might extend to real lives. Stuxnet differs from past malware in several ways. First, most malware tries to infect as many computers as possible, whereas Stuxnet appears to target industrial control systems and delivers its pay load under very specific conditions. Second, Stuxnet is larger and more complex than other malware. It cotains exploits for four vulnerabilities. View full abstract»

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  • 44. CAP and Cloud Data Management

    Page(s): 43 - 49
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    Novel systems that scale out on demand, relying on replicated data and massively distributed architectures with clusters of thousands of machines, particularly those designed for real-time data serving and update workloads, amply illustrate the realities of the CAP theorem. The featured Web extra is a video interview with Yahoo's Raghu Ramakrishnan about CAP and the cloud. View full abstract»

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  • 45. Toward Social Life Networks

    Page(s): 86 - 88
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    Computer and information scientists have been focused on cyberspace, but physical space and time are critical in many emerging societal problems. Social life networks consider these factors by returning to fundamental cybernetic principles. View full abstract»

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  • 46. GPS: location-tracking technology

    Page(s): 92 - 94
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    Increasing commercial use of the Global Positioning System will soon make it possible to locate anything, anywhere, anytime. The Global Positioning System can provide extremely accurate location information for mobile objects and people which is far superior to earlier tracking techniques. The challenge today is integrating the necessary components into older systems and improving GPS accuracy in areas with numerous obstructions. As more devices become GPS enabled, accuracy will increase and the system's scale and global reach will benefit everyone. Wireless technology promises to be a key element in any long-term solution View full abstract»

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  • 47. Aligning Technology and Market Drivers in an Open Source Standards Testing Program

    Page(s): 30 - 36
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    In creating the Open Networking Foundation's conformance testing program for the OpenFlow networking specification, economic, technological, and market drivers must be harmonized, allowing for the simultaneous development of consumer confidence, industry competition, and trustworthy product validation. View full abstract»

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  • 48. Challenges and Opportunities for Data-Intensive Computing in the Cloud

    Page(s): 82 - 85
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    Now running mostly on high-performance computers, data-intensive applications pose several important challenges as they move toward cloud deployment. View full abstract»

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  • 49. Matrix Factorization Techniques for Recommender Systems

    Page(s): 30 - 37
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    As the Netflix Prize competition has demonstrated, matrix factorization models are superior to classic nearest neighbor techniques for producing product recommendations, allowing the incorporation of additional information such as implicit feedback, temporal effects, and confidence levels. View full abstract»

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  • 50. Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen

    Page(s): 26 - 34
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    Steganography is the art of hiding information in ways that prevent the detection of hidden messages. It includes a vast array of secret communications methods that conceal the message's very existence. These methods include invisible inks, microdots, character arrangement, digital signatures, covert channels, and spread spectrum communications. Steganography and cryptography are cousins in the spycraft family: cryptography scrambles a message so it cannot be understood while steganography hides the message so it cannot be seen. In this article the authors discuss image files and how to hide information in them, and discuss results obtained from evaluating available steganographic software. They argue that steganography by itself does not ensure secrecy, but neither does simple encryption. If these methods are combined, however, stronger encryption methods result. If an encrypted message is intercepted, the interceptor knows the text is an encrypted message. But with steganography, the interceptor may not know that a hidden message even exists. For a brief look at how steganography evolved, there is included a sidebar titled "Steganography: Some History." View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes highly acclaimed peer-reviewed articles written for and by professionals representing the full spectrum of computing technology from hardware to software and from current research to new applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ron Vetter
University of North Carolina
Wilmington