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IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics

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  • Three Models of Preview Control

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):91 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1904 KB)

    This paper discusses a means to describe and eventually to predict the response of a human or artificially intelligent controller which 1) has a constrained preview of the actual input course and which 2) observes the successive target values as being of nonuniform importance. Three examples are: driving an automobile in traffic, a blind pedestrian using a cane or electronic obstacle detector, and... View full abstract»

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  • Remote manipulation with transmission delay

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):24 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (77)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1890 KB)

    The effect on the performance of both simple and complex tasks of inserting transmission delay between the master and slave elements of a remote manipulator was studied. Most operators spontaneously adopted an effective “move-and-wait” strategy to cope with delay. A modification of a method proposed earlier enabled task-completion time to be accurately predicted from data taken when ... View full abstract»

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  • Display-Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):5 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (45)  |  Patents (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9752 KB)

    Tests and analysis to determine the best display- selection techniques for a computer-aided text-manipulation system reveal that the choice does not hinge on the inherent differences in target-selection speed and accuracy between the different selection devices. Of more importance are such factors as the mix of other operations required of the select-operation hand, the ease of getting the hand to... View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent decision-making through a simulation of evolution

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):13 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2291 KB)

    Artificial intelligence can be approached through the fast-time evolution of finite-state machines. Random mutation of an arbitrary machine yields an “offspring.” Both machines are driven by the available history and evaluated in terms of the given goal, and the machine having the higher score is selected to serve as the new parent. Such fast-time mutation and selection is continued ... View full abstract»

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  • The Human Operator as a Monitor and Controller of Multidegree of Freedom Systems

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):2 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (73)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)

    Although most research and theory building on human operator performance has considered the operator to be a continuous single-channel controller, straightforward examination of real situations and real behavior shows him to be a sampleddata, commutated single-channel controller. This arises from the fact that the human operator must distribute his attention sequentially over many information sour... View full abstract»

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  • A ``Critical'' Tracking Task for Manual Control Research

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):138 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1640 KB)

    A ``critical'' tracking task is developed in which a human operator is required to stabilize an increasingly unstable first-order controlled element up to the critical point of loss of control. Servo theory and operator describing function measurements are used to validate the basic assumptions, and an automatically paced critical task mechanization is described. The results show that the task doe... View full abstract»

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  • A Queueing Model of Many-Instrument Visual Sampling

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):157 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1664 KB)

    In the present paper we will discuss the task of a pilot (namely of a high performance jet plane) sampling the information given to him by the instruments on his panel. We will present a model that attempts to explain and match the behavior of pilots under actual flight conditions. This model is based on the concept of the different instruments competing for the attention of the pilot. Some may be... View full abstract»

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  • Predicting Pilot Ratings of Multi-Axis Control Tasks from Single-Axis Data

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):15 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)

    Techniques for predicting pilot ratings for multi-axis control tasks using single-axis rating data are evaluated. A method based on a nonlinear relationship between pilot rating and pilot generated lead time constant obtained from human response studies is shown to give excellent results. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Manipulative Control with Transmission Delay

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):25 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (74)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)

    The nature of remote manipulation is briefly discussed and several manipulator devices are described. The problem of manipulation with delay is considered, and an experiment to determine the effect of delay on completion time for a simple manipulative task is reported. It appears that under certain circumstances the time required with delay can be predictd from performance measures which are indep... View full abstract»

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  • Variable Feedback Experiments Testing a Sampled Data Model for Eye Tracking Movements

    Publication Year: 1963, Page(s):38 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4128 KB)

    A sampled data model is presented to describe the action of the control system for directing human gaze at a moving target. The plausibility of the model is supported by its successful prediction of experimental tracking characteristics under variable effective visual feedback. The feedback is altered by addition of an external signal from measured eye position to target position, and its effects ... View full abstract»

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  • Human Performance in a Cross-Coupled Tracking System

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):210 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1312 KB)

    Human tracking performance in a two-axis system with cross-coupling was evaluated by modeling the human operator with an asymmetric lattice network. A spectral analysis technique was developed to precisely identify each element of the network. Approximate identification is possible by using a less complex model matching technique. View full abstract»

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  • Rotary Dial and Thumbwheel Devices for Manually Entering Sequential Data

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):227 - 231
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2496 KB)

    A rotary telephone dial and a device consisting of ten thumbwheel switches in a single array were compared in terms of user speed, accuracy, and preference. Where a completely different telephone number was used during each trail, the thumbwheel device took 20 to 60 percent longer than the rotary dial and was disliked by nine out of ten subjects. In contrast, where the successive trials involved t... View full abstract»

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  • A sampled-data pursuit tracking model

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):65 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1545 KB)

    A sampled-data pursuit hand-tracking model for the human operator is developed and tested. The model embodies the simplest a priori assumptions about human tracking behavior. The analytical model is presented along with the experimentally determined frequency transfer characteristics of an analog computer built to have the same transfer function as the mathematical model. Generally good agreement ... View full abstract»

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  • A Re-Analysis of the Pilot Eye-Movement Data

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):103 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Mathematical models of human operators in simple two-axis manual control systems

    Publication Year: 1965, Page(s):42 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5805 KB)

    An application of continuous parameter optimization techniques to the synthesis of a model of human tracking behavior in a simple two-axis task is presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on the measurement of performance criteria for estimating the relative difficulty of single-axis and two-axis tasks as well as for evaluation of the validity of mathematical models. It is shown that the modelin... View full abstract»

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  • Pilot Describing Function Measurements in a Multiloop Task

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):113 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2360 KB)

    An experimental program to measure pilot describing functions in a multiloop control task is described. The basic objective of the program was to provide the data essential for refinement of the multiloop pilot model, which has previously been based on a rational extension of single-loop experimental results. The piloting task was tracking a bank-angle command input. The displayed quantities were ... View full abstract»

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  • A Finite State Approach to the Synthesis of Bioengineering Control Systems

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):65 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (60)  |  Patents (35)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB)

    The design of devices capable of duplicating the function of human extremities has become increasingly important in science, industry, and medicine. This paper presents an approach to the synthesis of control systems for such machines which results in extremely simple finite state controllers. The technique proposed rests on the definition of a new type of actuator, called a cybernetic actuator, w... View full abstract»

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  • Accuracy and Consistency in the Revision of Subjective Probabilities

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):29 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2144 KB)

    Using Bayes' theorem as the normative model, four experiments examined the consistency with which subjective probabilities were revised in light of additional data. Consistency was found to be extremely high under all experimental conditions, and it was shown to be independent of the accuracy of Ss' subjective probabilities; Ss apparently apply a revision rule that is similar to Bayes' theorem to ... View full abstract»

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  • Two Applications of a Critical-Instability Task to Secondary Work Load Research

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):279 - 282
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    Secondary (or ``auxiliary,'' or ``subsidiary'') tasks have often been used to load or to stress an operator while he performs a primary manual control task. As discussed in Poulton,[1]the secondary task should measurably stress the operator's parameter being tested, without rendering the primary task behavior meaningless. This problem has given rise to several types of secondary tasks, ... View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental Study of Human Operator Models and Closed-Loop Analysis Methods for High-Speed Automobile Driving

    Publication Year: 1967, Page(s):187 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2008 KB)

    The investigation described in this paper was aimed at obtaining information about the way in which the human being controls an automobile at high speed on a winding road. A dynamic systems approach was taken, and three different classes of models were postulated. The optimal models in these classes were then obtained for data taken from three subjects in a driving simulation which projected a lar... View full abstract»

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