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Science, Measurement and Technology, IEE Proceedings -

Issue 5 • Date Sep 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Review of modelling techniques and tools for decision making in manufacturing management

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 371 - 377
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    The author reviews methodologies and modelling tools which have been developed for use in manufacturing systems. The strengths and weaknesses of the different tools are discussed, and examples of applications are given. An understanding of general systems theory as identified by Checkland (1981) is assumed. The methodologies and modelling techniques discussed make the common assumption that systems concepts, such as organised interconnectedness and emergent properties, apply in the context of the problem domain. The modelling tools may be used to model business processes including: all the planning and control processes, process technology and management and administrative processes. Following the review of the methodologies and modelling techniques a practical guide in the form of a table is proposed for business processes View full abstract»

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  • Methods and tools for manufacturing enterprise modelling and model enactment

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 378 - 388
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)  

    To design, build and operate contemporary manufacturing enterprises it is necessary to formalise the processes within these life-cycle phases, thereby providing a basis for automated support and the definition of reference solutions. In 1991 a research program entitled `model driven CIM' was funded by the UK Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) to provide support for integrated manufacturing systems engineering. A prime deliverable of the work is a collection of CASE workbenches comprising software tools, models and infrastructural services which support system design and build. The paper provides an overview of the life-cycle engineering methods conceived and developed. It introduces three separate workbenches which, via two different approaches to system build, formalise and realise a link between design models and real-world run-time systems. Each approach provides a means of enacting system models in a way which semi-automates resource-consuming implementation processes. As a result more effective and wider-scope integrated manufacturing systems can be realised for a given engineering investment. The paper also identifies key issues which need to be considered when comparing and combining the two approaches. This consideration is important in respect of classifying potential application areas for each approach and identifying problems which need to be overcome before realising their full potential View full abstract»

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  • Online PCBN tool failure monitoring system based on acoustic emission signatures

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 404 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    The paper describes an online tool failure monitoring system based on acoustic emission (AE) signatures. The system was developed primarily to detect failure of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) inserts in milling high-chromium materials. In face milling of high-chromium materials, almost without exception, PCBN inserts fail due to fracture on the nose or rake face. The change in the root mean square of AE signals (AE ΔRMS) was found to be the best indicator of the tool failure process for the subject tool-work combination. From the experiments, the critical values of AE ΔRMS where the tool fractures, called AE ΔRMSc, were obtained. Regression analysis was performed to fit a model of |ΔRMSc| as a function of feed rate and depth of cut. The regression model was then used to estimate the values of |ΔRMSc| for conditions that were excluded from the experiment. The accuracy of the monitoring system was tested with simulated as well as actual experiments View full abstract»

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  • Contingent approach to the application of concurrent engineering to the product introduction process

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 389 - 394
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)  

    The paper is concerned with the concept that the form of concurrent engineering employed to improve the process of introducing new products is contingent upon external forces acting on the company. A framework is presented which illustrates how the combination of external forces acts to change the form-elements of the product introduction process (PIP). A set of congruent heuristics which relate the PIP forces to the PIP form-elements, and configuration heuristics which relate the form-elements to each other, are described. The combination of the framework and the heuristics supports industrial managers in the activities related to optimising the performance of their PIP View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid method for systems analysis

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 350 - 361
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB)  

    A hybrid method for systems analysis based on three generally available sources of system knowledge is presented. These three sources are a model of the system, human experience or expertise about the system, and recorded data from the system, and the method combines these to accomplish the required systems analysis task. In part, this makes explicit the often implicit combined use of model-based knowledge, expert knowledge, and recorded data. The framework for the method is a system model in the form of a directed graph, where the nodes represent processes and the arcs represent material or information flow. This model automatically identifies system parameters that may be causally related. Expertise is then applied to suggest the form of the relationships between these parameters. Analysis of monitored parameter data, thus directed by the model and the expertise, provides the final system characterisation. After this, the required objective is addressed. A concrete example of the method is given with respect to a simulated rubber seal manufacturing process. An important theme of the method is its automatic, easy to use, and highly visual approach View full abstract»

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  • Multivariable cluster analysis for high-speed industrial machinery

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 417 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)  

    The overall operation and internal complexity of a particular production machinery can be depicted in terms of clusters of multidimensional points which describe the process states, the value in each point dimension representing a measured variable from the machinery. The paper describes a new cluster analysis technique for use with manufacturing processes, to illustrate how machine behaviour can be categorised and how regions of good and poor machine behaviour can be identified. The cluster algorithm presented is the novel mean-tracking algorithm, capable of locating N-dimensional clusters in a large data space in which a considerable amount of noise is present. Implementation of the algorithm on a real-world high-speed machinery application is described, with clusters being formed from machinery data to indicate machinery error regions and error-free regions. This analysis is seen to provide a promising step ahead in the field of multivariable control of manufacturing systems View full abstract»

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  • Structured methodology for the selection and effective implementation of manufacturing control systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 411 - 416
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    All manufacturing companies, irrespective of their size, make use of appropriate manufacturing planning and control systems. Very often such systems are computer-based, involving considerable effort and the expenditure of large amounts of money. Yet the whole process of selecting the type of manufacturing control system which should be implemented in a given environment remains unstructured. The paper describes a structured and industrially validated methodology for the selection and implementation of manufacturing control systems. A reference model, based on complexity, uncertainty, flexibility and company culture characteristics, is used to assess the need for and the difficulties associated with the implementation of particular types of manufacturing control systems in a given environment. A gap analysis approach is used to assess the disparities between the prerequisites for the effective implementation of a given type of manufacturing control system and what actually exists in a given environment. The structured-help system shows how to overcome the problems identified at the gap analysis stage. The complete methodology and the associated knowledge bases have been implemented in a computer-based system View full abstract»

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  • Business process re-engineering an electronic products supply chain

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 395 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    The re-design of supply chains for smoother, faster response has been the subject of much research and debate since the classic contribution by Jay Forrester (1961) over 30 years ago. Many of his ideas have since been subsumed within business process re-engineering (BPR) but this involves the `how' as well as the `why' of supply-chain management. The authors use a real-world electronic products supply chain as a case study in which it has proved feasible to model and simulate a number of BPR driven strategies undertaken to improve supply chain performance. The modelling and simulation techniques essentially follow a classical industrial dynamics format, although a greater than usual contribution was made via people contact and written documentation methods coupled with the exploitation of inhouse software. The improved demand amplification patterns predicted from the simulation model can be used for benchmarking purposes and for prioritising future improvement programmes by other supply chains View full abstract»

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  • Scheduling and optimisation for heating of steel soaking pits: case study for hybrid systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 362 - 370
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    A heat scheduling and optimisation problem, which consists of the decisions on the optimal number of soaking pits to be used, the optimal soaking time, and the optimal temperature set-points of individual soaking pits for a practical soaking pit/rolling mill complex, is addressed. First, a hybrid system model based on extended coloured Petri nets for the soaking pit process is given. Then, the optimal temperature set-points for a soaking pit for different soaking times are obtained by a simulation-based offline heuristic optimisation strategy. Algorithms to determine the optimal number of soaking pits to be used and the optimal soaking time have also been developed for the desired optimal rolling rate, which can be obtained via simulation. Thus, the overall heat scheduling and optimisation problem of soaking pits can be divided into three subproblems: determine the optimal number of soaking pits, determine the optimal soaking time, and determine the optimal temperature set-points for the soaking pits. Finally, a practical example is given to illustrate the method developed in the paper View full abstract»

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  • Design support based on projection of information across the product-development life cycle by means of case-based reasoning

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 345 - 349
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    Information that originates during the late stages of the product development life cycle can provide important advice in subsequent designs regarding potential `good' and `poor' outcomes during product development and manufacturing activities. It is possible to provide information system solutions that project such information into the product design phase. Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a method that has been found to provide design support during the product prototyping stages. CBR methods are based on the ability to characterise cases so that a degree of similarity can be found between the problem case and the potential advice cases. Similar cases can then be used to influence the problem case thus drawing on experience. The CBR system reported is used to support the design of a product with a high probability of being fit for its purpose. The reasoning is therefore based on the customer requirement specification as well as design data and historically observed functional characteristics of standard assemblies, parts and form features. The system was tested and evaluated in an automotive manufacturing enterprise with positive results View full abstract»

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  • Design of the new product introduction process to achieve world class benchmarks

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 338 - 344
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    Management of innovation in new products and services is fundamental and essential for survival in the competitive global marketplace. The author discusses the tools, techniques and skills which must be harnessed to support this process View full abstract»

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