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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Galactic model of element formation

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 259 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1758 KB)  

    A cosmological model is presented that produces He, C, O, D, Li, Be, and B in their observed abundances without a Big Bang. The elements are produced during the 1.5-Gy formation period of a galaxy, with C, O, and other heavy elements produced by stars of M>12 M/sub 3/, He by stars of 6 M/sub s/> View full abstract»

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  • Observable consequences of Langmuir turbulence in active galactic nuclei

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 252 - 258
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)  

    The author discusses in detail the observable consequences of nonlinear microscopic plasma processes in active galactic nuclei. The combination of several elementary momentum-gain (shock acceleration and stochastic acceleration) and momentum-loss processes (synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering) produces an almost monoenergetic distribution function of relativistic electrons, called the pile-up, which excites Langmuir waves. Turbulent wave-wave and wave-particle interactions lead to nonlinear stabilization of the pile-up. The temporal and spatial evolution of the Langmuir waves and the relativistic electrons determines the shape and time scale of the spectral variations. The model is applied to extragalactic nuclei and to the galactic center as well View full abstract»

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  • Velocity relaxation of injected H0 particles into a high-temperature hydrogen plasma

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 330 - 337
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    The velocity relaxation of an H0 beam injected into high-temperature plasma is analyzed by deriving a Fokker-Planck-type equation. The diffusion rate in the velocity space of an H0 particle is directly proportional to the plasma temperature. Thus the effective energy relaxation of the H0 beam in the high-temperature plasma would be expected. It is shown that the Fokker-Planck-type equation satisfies the Boltzmann H theorem in the absence of particle loss. The constant of time decay of the beam density due to ionization with plasma ions, the thermalizing effect, and a method of possible analysis of trapped ions are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • An overview of atomic and molecular processes in critical velocity ionization

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 124 - 134
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    The authors present an overview of the time development of some atomic and molecular processes in critical ionization velocity (CIV). In the preonset stage, metastable states play an important role: they provide an energy pooling mechanism allowing low-energy electrons to participate in the ionization process; they may explain the low energy threshold was well as the fast time scale in the onset of CIV. For a sustaining CIV to occur, Townsend's criterion has to be satisfied. The kinetic energies of the neutrals are transformed to plasma wave energies via beam-plasma instabilities, and the plasma waves that heat the electron result in a tail formation. Excitation of neutrals with subsequent radiation is an important energy loss mechanism. Finite size also limits the instability growth rate. In the propagation of CIV, ion-molecule reactions and molecular dissociative recombination are important View full abstract»

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  • Red shift of spectral lines in the Sun's chromosphere

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 238 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    An unexplained center-to-limb variation (CLV) of solar wavelengths has been known for 75 years. A theory is described which not only explains this variation but also predicts its amplitude without the use of any adjustable parameter. The model considered is based on the fact that the momentum transfer of the solar photons to the electrons of the atoms of the solar atmosphere produces secondary radiation due to bremsstrahlung. The energy of this bremsstrahlung radiation is taken away from the energy of the initial photons and leads to a red shift. No ad hoc parameters are used, and all constants are either fundamental physical constants or well-known solar parameters. The model can explain the variation of the CLV as a function of its position on the disk and near the limb, and even the change in the lineshapes especially near the limb View full abstract»

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  • The pulsed discharge arc resistance and its functional behavior

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 323 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)  

    A generalized comparison of several theoretical and empirical arc-resistance equations was conducted by normalizing the theoretical and experimental arc-resistance values at t=0.5 μs (approximate time of maximum arc current). It was found that the arc-resistance equations considered could be grouped according to their functional form and were either of the inverse integral or inverse exponential form. The accuracies of both are discussed. At pressures approaching one atmosphere, it has been shown that the equations developed by I.V. Demenik et al. (1968), Kushner et al. (1985), Rompe and W. Weizel (1944), and A.E. Vlastos (1972) were equally accurate predictions of arc resistance for 0.1 μs<t<0.5 μs. The equation proposed by Kushner et al. provided the most accurate arc-resistance predictions with a minimum of accumulated error for the pulse types and lengths that were considered in this investigation View full abstract»

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  • Electrodynamics of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 83 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2544 KB)  

    The authors present a coherent picture of fundamental physical processes in three basic elements of the SW-I (solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere) coupling system: (i) the field-aligned potential structure which leads to the formation of auroral arcs; (ii) the magnetosphere coupling which leads to the onset of magnetospheric substorms; and (iii) the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo which supplies the power for driving various magnetospheric processes. The field-aligned potential structure on auroral lines is forced into existence by the loss-cone constriction effect when the upward field-aligned current density exceeds the loss-cone thermal flux limit. The substorm onset occurs when the ionosphere responds fully to the enhanced magnetospheric convection driven by the solar wind. The energy is transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere by a dynamo process primarily on open field lines View full abstract»

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  • Recent improvements in the numerical scheme of estimating field-aligned current systems from ground magnetometer records

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 158 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB)  

    The capability of ground-based magnetometer data of estimating field-aligned current system is discussed. Starting with some basic equations governing electrodynamic parameters in the ionosphere, the author describes both the advantages and limitations of the algorithms known as magnetogram-inversion techniques. It is pointed out that the proposed numerical scheme has been considerably improved so that simultaneous measurements of electric fields, conductivities, and field-aligned currents by satellites and radars can be incorporated in a consistent manner. One of the advantages of the magnetogram-inversion technique is that, since the technique deduces the global distribution of various electrodynamic quantities in the ionosphere with a time resolution of several minutes, it is possible to compare their spatial distributions with each other, especially for the auroral region. Results on important characteristics of auroral electrojets are presented View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of a collisional, capacitive RF sheath

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 338 - 341
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    A self-consistent solution for the dynamics of a high-voltage, capacitive RF sheath driven by a sinusoidal current source is obtained, under the assumptions of time-independent, collisional ion motion and inertialess electrons. Values of the ion current density, the sheath capacitance per unit area for the fundamental voltage harmonic, and the conductance per unit area for stochastic heating by the oscillating sheath are calculated. The ratio of the DC to the peak value of the oscillating voltage is found to be 0.40, while the second and third voltage harmonics are, respectively, 19.3% and 5.3% of the fundamental View full abstract»

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  • The origin of current chopping in vacuum arcs

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 303 - 310
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    A semiempirical model is presented which relates the phenomenon of current chopping of vacuum arcs to rapid microscopic processes on the cathode surface. First, for a resistive circuit the approximate chopping current as a function of power-current amplitude was calculated using two DC arc lifetime parameters which were obtained experimentally. Secondly, it is shown that spontaneous arc extinction is the result of an accumulation of characteristic arc instabilities, each of which can be described as a randomly occurring transient arc resistance. Qualitatively, the `severity' of these instabilities is demonstrated to depend on arc current, arc length, and circuit parameters. Thirdly, the presence of instabilities seems to be a manifestation of an ion deficiency in the near-anode region. This deficiency may be due to a discontinuity in the ionized mass flow into the plasma, occurring at a failure to initiate a new cathodic emission site in time. Based on these findings, the nature of the current-chopping phenomenon, hitherto explained by a minimum cathode spot operation current, can be coupled to the dynamics of the spot View full abstract»

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  • Global magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the magnetosphere

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 135 - 149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2156 KB)  

    The authors demonstrate the use of a global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations to study the magnetospheric configuration by reviewing some of the results obtained from the Ogino model. The authors start by considering the steady-state configuration of the magnetosphere in the absence of an IMF (interplanetary magnetic field), and then demonstrate how that configuration is changed when a northward or southward IMF is introduced. It is noted that the magnetosphere is very dynamic and since global MHD simulations are intrinsically time-dependent, they offer the possibility of modeling the time-sequence of events in the magnetosphere. Finally results of a calculation in which a magnetospheric substorm is modeled are presented View full abstract»

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  • A new model for auroral breakup during substorms

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 150 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)  

    A model for substorm breakup is developed, based on (1) the relaxation of stretched (closed) dipolar field lines, and (2) the formation of an incipient current wedge within a single arc structure. It is argued that the establishment of a coupled current structure within a single arc leads to a quasistable system, i.e. the prebreakup regime. Perturbation of the prebreakup structure leads to an instability criterion. It is found, consistent with observations, that the narrower auroral arcs at lower L shells undergo the most explosive poleward expansion. According to this model, the precise location at which breakup occurs depends on the O+ density in the plasma sheet, the level of magnetic activity (Kp), and the intensity of the substorm westward electrojet in the ionosphere. An enhancement of any of these features will cause breakup to occur at lower L shells. Comparison of the proposed model with the Heppner-Maynard polar-cap potential model indicates that breakup is restricted to the west of the Harang discontinuity, consistent with observations from the Viking satellite View full abstract»

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  • Axisymmetric particle-in-cell simulations of diamagnetic-cavity formulation in vacuum

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 210 - 219
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    Axisymmetric simulations of the expansion of a hot plasma suddenly introduced into a vacuum containing a weak magnetic field were performed using an electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. Both uniform and gradient fields have been used, with the simulation axis along the principal field direction. The formation of a diamagnetic cavity requires an initial plasma β>1; as the expansion proceeds, β diminishes, and the field eventually recovers. The maximum spatial extent of the cavity and its duration can be obtained from simple dynamical considerations. Field-aligned ion acceleration behind the electron front is observed in all field geometries and strengths. In the case of expansion into a divergent field, the plasma is found to move down the field gradient by ambipolar diffusion. These simulations are relevant to active release experiments in the Earth's magnetosphere, to pellet ablation experiments, and to the naturally occurring diamagnetic bubbles observed at the Earth's foreshock View full abstract»

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  • Plasma suppression of synchrotron emission from radio-quiet infrared quasars

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 245 - 251
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    The authors calculate the synchrotron emission from a power-law distribution of relativistic electrons in a large-scale random magnetic field of strength B embedded in the thermal plasma of density ne. Due to the presence of the plasma, two major modifications of the classical vacuum theory of synchrotron emission are established: (1) synchrotron sources can be optically thick only in a rather small frequency range around the Razin-Tsytovich frequency v R=20 (new/cm-3) (B /G)-1 Hz, whereas at smaller and higher frequencies the sources are optically thin; (2) at frequencies beyond vR the synchrotron intensity in a plasma behaves exactly the same way as in the vacuum case, whereas at frequencies below vR the emitted intensity is exponentially reduced. It is argued that the established low-frequency cutoff at vR due to the plasma suppression may be responsible for the measured sharp cutoff in the far infrared of 23 northern sky radio-quiet IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite) infrared quasars. The cutoffs in the spectra of these radio-quiet quasars may be due to the exponential suppression at frequencies ⩽2×1012 Hz ( ne/108 cm-3) (B/10 -3 G)-1 View full abstract»

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  • Stockholm, August 1956, Revisited [plasma astrophysics]

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 69 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    The author believes that the modern-day foundations of the plasma universe can be traced to a significant degree to the International Astronomical Union Symposium number 6 held in August, 1956, in Stockholm. He offers a few observations on the subjects and presentations at the Symposium which interest him most and the developments over the last three decades which have been closest to his own work View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic-field fluctuations from 0 to 26 Hz observed from a polar-orbiting satellite

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 196 - 200
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    Data from the Viking magnetic-field experiment are described which demonstrate the diverse types of magnetic fluctuations which may be observed from a polar-orbiting satellite. The Viking observations provide an opportunity to observe Pc 1 waves at middle-latitudes above the ionosphere and to determine the spectral structure and polarization of the waves. ULF/ELF broadband noise represents a second type of magnetic fluctuation measured by Viking. This type of magnetic fluctuation was observed at high latitudes near the polar cusp and may be useful in the identification of polar-cusp boundaries. Thirdly, electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves have also been observed in the polar-cusp region. These waves occur only during an unusually high level of magnetic activity and appear toe be generated locally View full abstract»

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  • Quantization effects in the plasma universe

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 270 - 281
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB)  

    It is suggested that a unification of the morphology of the solar system, anomalous intrinsic red shifts of quasars and galaxies, the structure of the hydrogen atom, the Einstein equations of general relativity, and Maxwell's equations can be accomplished by a basic consideration of the minimum-action states of cosmic and/or virtual vacuum field plasmas. A formalism of planetary formation theory leads naturally to a generalization which describes relativistic gravitational field theory in terms of a `pregeometry'. A virtual plasma associated with the vacuum state is postulated. It is demonstrated that the relaxed state of the virtual plasma underlies Einstein's field equation and predicts the proper form for the effective gravitational potential generated by the Schwarzschild solution of those equations. A further extension of the theory demonstrates that it also predicts the structure of the hydrogen atom described in terms of the Schrodinger equation of quantum mechanics. These concepts are applied in an attempt to explain the quantized anomalous red shifts in related galaxies as observed by H. Arp and J.H. Sulentic (1985). A possible unified field theory is suggested based on the above-mentioned concepts View full abstract»

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  • Field-aligned currents and convection patterns in the southern polar cap during stable northward, southward, and azimuthal IMF

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 167 - 173
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    Equivalent ionospheric current patterns are derived from ground-based geomagnetic observations for events on 11-12 November 1979 (Bz≫0), 24 November 1981 (Bz≪0), 10-11 January 1980 (By ≫0) and 25-26 November 1979 (By ≪0), when the corresponding IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) conditions remained stable. The `radar scanning' technique was used to scan the southern polar cap with a chain of unmanned magnetometer stations placed from the cap border to the corrected geomagnetic pole approximately along geomagnetic meridian 110°. During a stable southward IMF a result was obtained, a reversal of antisunward convection flow is identified, and an NBZ-like FAC (field-aligned current) system is restored in the central part of the southern polar cap. It is concluded that there may be an additional NBZ-like system poleward of -85°, which is independent of the IMF and is generated by the quasiviscous interaction between solar-wind plasma and high-latitude lobes of the magnetospheric tail View full abstract»

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  • Anode spot plasma torch

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 342 - 343
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  

    With acetone as a catalyst in an argon discharge plasma, it is observed that localized high-density anode spots can be formed at sharp edges in the plasma. By placing the sharp edge on top of a small permanent magnet, the current which is attracted to the spot can locally burn a piece of metal beneath the sharp edge. It is believed that the practical significance of these results may have wide implications for plasma processing or plasma burning applications View full abstract»

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  • Surface waves in laser-produced plasma double layers

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 290 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)  

    The surface-tension pressure for a charged double layer is calculated. This result is used to derive the dispersion relation for surface waves. The stability criterion defines stable surface waves with wavelength λsw<8πλDD is the Debye length) which can be obtained at the critical surface of a laser-plasma interaction system. These ripples cannot increase above the stability criterion without introducing instability turbulence View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic field-aligned plasma expansion in critical ionization velocity space experiments

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 116 - 123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    The temporal evolution of a plasma cloud released in an ambient plasma is studied. Time-dependent Vlasov equations for both electrons and ions, as well as the self-consistent electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, are solved. The initial cloud is considered to consist of cold, warm, and hot electrons with temperatures of approximately 0.2 eV, 2 eV, and 10 eV, respectively. It is found that the minor hot electrons escape the cloud; their velocity distribution function shows the typical time-of-flight dispersion feature, i.e. the average drift velocity of the escaping electrons is proportional to the distance from the cloud. The major warm electrons expand along the magnetic field lines with the corresponding ion-acoustic speed. The combined effect of the escaping hot electrons and the expanding warm ones sets up an electric potential structure that accelerates the ambient electrons into the cloud. Thus, the energy loss due to the electron escape is partly replenished. The electric field distribution in the potential structure depends on the stage of the evolution; before the rarefaction waves propagating from the edges of the cloud reach its center, the electric fields point into the cloud. After this stage the cloud divides into two subclouds, each having its own bipolar electric field. The effects of collisions on the evolution of plasma clouds are also discussed. The relevance of the results seen from the calculations are discussed in the context of space experiments on critical ionization velocity View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility of local power losses determination in the TJ-II heliac using movable bolometers

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 316 - 322
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    A method to fully diagnose energy losses in plasma devices with a reduced experimental setup is presented. This technique is based on the use of single movable detectors instead of full detector arrays, and it is especially suitable for devices with large toroidal and/or poloidal asymmetries, such as the TJ-II flexible heliac, that would require a large number of measurements at different positions. Local distributions of the plasma losses are deduced from the bolometer signals by using general tomography algorithms. The number of lines of sight is only limited by the sensitivity of the detector and the number of reproducible shots in the device, and, as a consequence, the possibility of obtaining a well-defined mapping of the plasma energy losses can be even better than in the standard case based on the use of detector arrays with a fixed number of detectors. The method has been tested in the TJ-I tokamak and the results obtained are presented, together with a simulation of its application to the TJ-II heliac View full abstract»

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  • A heat-driven monochromatic light source

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 295 - 302
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    The efficiency with which heat may be converted into resonance radiation in a cesium thermionic diode is investigated theoretically. An analytical model of a thermionic converter is used which combines the coupled effects of line radiation transport, excited-state kinetics, and plasma diffusion. Operating regimes are established for various degrees of optical density in the plasma. The results indicate that monochromatic radiation can be produced with efficiencies on the order of 30% provided there is an adequate voltage drop across the plasma. A drop of one volt was used since it can be maintained without any electrical power input to the device. It is found that high efficiencies are due to the higher interelectrode distances which the solutions will accommodate, and that radiation can be generated efficiently, even with optically dense gases View full abstract»

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  • Spacecraft charging potential during electron-beam injections into space plasmas

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 205 - 209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    Injections of nonrelativistic electron beams from an infinite conductor have been simulated by using a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code to study the spacecraft charging potential. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential at the end of simulations does not vary with the beam density when the beam density exceeds four times the ambient density. The reflection coefficient, which determines a percentage of incident electrons reflected by the conductor, increases the charging potential. To charge the conductor to the beam energy, the reflection coefficient needs to be about 0.5. The results are applied to explain the spacecraft charging potential measured during the SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) experiments from Spacelab 1 View full abstract»

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  • The dynamics of charged particles in the near wake of a very negatively charged body-laboratory experiment and numerical simulation

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 220 - 227
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    A numerical simulation that is cylindrical in configuration space and 3-D (vx, vy, vz) in velocity space has been initiated to test a model for the near-wake dynamics of a very negatively charged body, with reference to the plasma environment around spacecraft. The simulation parameters were closely matched to those of a laboratory experiment so that the results may be compared directly. It was found from the laboratory study that the electrons and ions can display different temporal features in the filling-in of the wake; and that they both can be found in the very near-wake region (within one body diameter) of an object with a highly negative body potential. It was also found that the temperature of the electrons in the very near wake could be somewhat colder than the ambient value, suggesting the possibility of a filtering mechanism being operative there. The simulation results to date largely corroborate the density findings in terms of the presence of an enhancement for both ions and electrons and in its location View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
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Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
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