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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sep 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Photonic wideband array antennas

    Page(s): 966 - 982
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    Presents an introduction to the optical control of array antennas by using fiber optic links for remote control and a photonic time shift network for wide instantaneous bandwidth. An overview of the development of a wideband conformal array designed for airborne surveillance radars is given. The paper covers the system design and the performance of an L-band (850-1400 MHz) M-element array controlled by photonics. Packaging techniques of the photonic components and the array aperture are discussed. The wideband performance of the system is highlighted. A nano-second impulse response has been measured to demonstrate a 50% instantaneous bandwidth (550 MHz, 30 cm range resolution) for target ID and imaging. A built-in signal injection technique based on time-domain impulse measurement was used to calibrate the wideband components in the time-shift beamforming network View full abstract»

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  • A low cost multichip packaging technology for monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Page(s): 992 - 997
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    This paper describes a multichip module technology based on highly impermeable liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) to interconnect and package monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Because of the low moisture permeability of the LCPs, the packages can be made hermetic without heavy expensive housings can be two to four times lighter and one-fifth the cost of conventional ceramic based transmit/receive (T/R) modules. The LCP material has a low dielectric constant (2.65) and low-loss tangent and is manufacturable using high volume, large-area processing methods that provide very reliable high-performance circuits at low cost. Using flip-chip bonded MMICs attached to a high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion substrate, this innovative technology can meet a variety of commercial, military, and NASA requirements View full abstract»

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  • Active phased array technology using coplanar packaging technology

    Page(s): 949 - 952
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    Until the present time, active phased array antennas have utilized individually packaged transmit/receive (T/R) modules which provide both transmitter and receiver functions on λ/2 wavelength centers. Such modules usually contain five to seven individual GaAs circuits which provide the following functions: transmit amplifier; phase shifter; variable attenuator; T/R switch; and low noise amplifier. This paper describes some recent efforts to eliminate the fabrication of individual modules and to incorporate other functions to multiply fabricated T/R cell paths including: circulator; radiating element; and signal manifolding. Efforts to date have centered on the 2-20 GHz portion of the spectrum and at Ka-band. An experimental test of a 16-element subarray is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic design aspects of packages for monolithic microwave integrated circuit-based arrays with integrated antenna elements

    Page(s): 927 - 931
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    Reliable and cost-effective packaging of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) is an important aspect of the design of phased array systems. At millimeter wavelengths, where small dimensions make machining and assembly a complex matter, the interconnections between the modules housing the MMIC components and the antenna elements are a source of unreliability as well as a potential problem in terms of electromagnetic losses. One solution involves the integration of antenna elements onto the MMIC chips. The paper addresses the issues involved in packaging and housing MMIC chips with integrated antenna elements and presents some insights into the electromagnetic design of such packages View full abstract»

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  • Integrated uniplanar transition for linearly tapered slot antenna

    Page(s): 998 - 1002
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    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and numerical modeling of two new uniplanar microstrip-to-coplanar strip (CPS) line transitions and a new variant of the linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA). This new variant with an integrated uniplanar microstrip-to-coplanar strip line feed is called a V-LTSA. The advantages of these transitions in packaging and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) integration are listed. The two transitions and the feed are modeled using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The overall agreement between the measured and modeled return-loss and insertion-loss characteristics of two back-to-back transitions is good. The resonance frequencies predicted by the FDTD method are within a few percentage points of the measurements. Furthermore, the V-LTSA with the feed is experimentally shown to have a wide return loss (⩽-10 dB) bandwidth, good radiation patterns, and low cross-polarization. The gain of the V-LTSA is 9 dB at the design frequency of 10 GHz. A proof-of-concept package to house the feed is experimentally evaluated and shown to have negligible effect on the antenna characteristics. This type of antenna readily integrates with MMIC packages in an array having a brick architecture. The V-LTSA has potential applications in phased arrays View full abstract»

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  • Packaging design of wide-angle phased-array antenna for frequencies above 20 GHz

    Page(s): 915 - 920
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    Mechanical aspects of a new phased-array antenna design with a scan angle of ±70 degrees are presented. New packaging concepts were needed to accomplish, an industry first, the fabrication of a 91-element 44-GHz transmit array. The array architecture uses one hybrid module per channel. The RF signal is radiatively coupled to the modules, eliminating RF connectors. Multilayer boards are used to distribute control signals and DC which are connected to each module with space-efficient elastomeric connectors. All connections are made during the assembly of the array without need for permanent bonding. The array is designed for a low conductive thermal impedance from the monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) chips to the back of the array, where the heat is removed by convection View full abstract»

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  • The evolution of packages for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave circuits

    Page(s): 983 - 991
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    The maturing of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology has spawned a variety of new military and commercial applications. As-a result, there is an increased emphasis on the packaging of MMIC chips and MMIC-based components. Currently, the industry is applying a number of new assembly and packaging technologies to RF components and subsystems driven by the forces of performance, size and weight, and cost. This paper outlines the current evolution in microwave and millimeter-wave packaging using examples drawn from the area of active array antennas View full abstract»

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  • Impedance-matched optical link for C-band satellite applications

    Page(s): 960 - 965
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    Optical transmitter and receiver modules with passive impedance-matching circuits have been designed, constructed, and tested. A direct current modulated InGaAs DFB laser, operating at 1.3 micron, and an InGaAs PIN photodiode were matched to 50 ohms with passive, mixed lumped and distributed element, matching circuits. A link-insertion loss of 21 dB with a 3 dB bandwidth of 900 MHz has been demonstrated. Through the use of higher-order matching circuits, link-insertion loss variations across the satellite downlink frequency band (3.6-4.2 GHz) have been kept below ±0.5 dB View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid tile approach for Ka band subarray modules

    Page(s): 953 - 959
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    A “thin” array construction using tile module architecture is presented in this paper. Several transmit-only tile modules operating at 30 GHz have been fabricated. The tile module involves a layered construction that contributes to reduced array thickness, weight, and cost. In such layered construction, the radiating aperture, active devices, and signal distribution functions are placed in different layers and involve vertical interconnections. The subarray module described involves a hybrid construction in which conventional wire bonding is utilized for interconnecting devices to the signal distribution layers. As in conventional modules, the devices are mounted on the carrier plates and fully tested before insertion in the module. The radiating elements which are integral to the module housing are connected to the devices through electromagnetic coupling. This hybrid construction is a first step towards a fully batch-processed tile module architecture. The construction approach and the performance results at the module and array level are presented View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical modeling of cavity-backed patch antennas using a hybrid technique

    Page(s): 1003 - 1013
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    A hybrid technique that combines the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM) to analyze cavity-backed patch antennas is presented. This technique features the use of FEM in solving the electromagnetic field distribution in the cavity and the use of MoM in solving integral equations outside the cavity. The results of MoM and FEM are combined through the continuity conditions on the boundary of the cavity. Due to the flexibility of FEM, complex cavities filled with inhomogeneous media can be analyzed by this technique. The results obtained by this hybrid technique are compared to the finite difference time domain (FDTD) results and good agreement is found View full abstract»

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  • Advanced ceramic packaging for microwave and millimeter wave applications

    Page(s): 940 - 948
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    Advances in integrated circuit technologies have produced devices with higher speeds, frequencies, powers, and functional complexity. In addition, these attributes have been realized with smaller and smaller semiconductor devices. Such improvements are primarily due to the effective control and management of wafer-scale interconnect technology. It has become apparent, however, that the next level of interconnect technology to be addressed is in the packaging of these high performance semiconductors. As frequency or speed increases, packaging can quickly become the chief inhibitor to electrical response by degrading signal propagation or by contributing to structural configurations that foster cavity resonances or waveguide modes. The paper attempts to lay out the electrical, structural, material, and cost considerations that need to be simultaneously addressed by the microwave engineer to design the best interconnection method possible between the die and the subsystem. Several packaging concepts are reviewed-from single transition design to multilayer, multichip modules for phased-array applications View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of a microstrip reflectarray antenna

    Page(s): 932 - 939
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    Microstrip reflectarray antennas present an alternative to conventional directive antennas in that they are flat, inexpensive, easy to install and manufacture, conformal to the mounting surface, easy to package, and they possess high power and beam steering capabilities. For the first time, a comprehensive, experimentally verified design procedure for the microstrip reflectarray is presented. In this design procedure, the microstrip reflectarray has been shown to be an effective linear array capable of beam switching and dual polarization. The design procedure also allows the array to be fed from a feed-horn offset at any given angle to the plane of the array. The design procedure is well suited for CAD programs View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of electromagnetic coupling through a thick aperture in multilayer planar circuits using the extended spectral domain approach and finite difference time-domain method

    Page(s): 921 - 926
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    Electromagnetic coupling plays a very important role in the design and development of integrated antenna arrays and microwave circuits. With the availability of accurate computer-aided design tools, proper characterization and analysis, this coupling phenomenon could be used to simplify the packaging and fabrication process, to reduce manufacturing cost, and also to add flexibility to the design of multilayer structures in many cases. An accurate and efficient spectral domain approach (SDA) is proposed as a means to study the coupling effect through an arbitrary aperture in a thick common ground plane of multilayer planar circuits. In addition, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is present as an alternate approach to this type of problem and also is used as a validation tool for the spectral domain method because of its simplicity, generality, and accuracy. The proposed methods are applied to different aperture coupled structures for illustration View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung