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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 64
  • Bibliography of switchgear literature: IEEE committee report

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 824 - 844
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1880 KB)  

    This bibliography was prepared by the IEEE Recognition and Planning Subcommittee of the IEEE Switchgear Committee to be used as a reference for switchgear education. The references generally cover the period of mid-1988 through mid-1992. The last complete switchgear bibliography was published in 1989 covering the period through June 1985. This reference is updated at five year intervals.<> View full abstract»

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  • Bibliography of relay literature, 1993 IEEE committee report

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 684 - 696
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1404 KB)  

    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relaying references, begun in 1827, is presented. This bibliography is in continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature which were published previously and are contained in the references given for volumes of the IEEE Transactions.<> View full abstract»

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  • Development and field testing of an adaptive flicker controller for 15-kV systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1025 - 1030
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    An adaptive flicker controller (AFC) device is developed and field tested. The AFC control strategy is described for systems with large and rapidly varying loads connected to a weak feeder. The control algorithm does not require knowledge of system parameters such as line impedance. The algorithm is fast and adaptive to system variations. The AFC is tested in a utility distribution system having a severe voltage flickering problem. The hardware and software required to implement the AFC is discussed. The results of a field test are presented and analyzed View full abstract»

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  • Optimal distribution feeder capacitor placement considering mutual coupling effect of conductors

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 987 - 994
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    This paper develops a systematic method of optimally locating and sizing the compensation capacitors on distribution feeders by taking into account the mutual coupling effect among phase conductors. The equivalent circuit models of three-phase, two-phase and single-phase conductors are applied so that the mutual coupling effect could be included in the computer simulation. The optimal capacitor placement is solved by minimizing the objective function which is determined by the combination of system peak power loss cost, energy loss cost and capacitor cost. Both the unbalance IEEE 34 bus test system and the balance 10 bus test feeder are selected for computer simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It is found that serious over shunt compensation and extra power loss will be introduced especially for the unbalance distribution system when the mutual coupling effect among phase conductors is ignored View full abstract»

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  • Linear, lumped parameter transformer model reduction technique

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 853 - 861
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    The behavior of large power transformers under transient conditions is of significant interest to both transformer designers and power system engineers. The designer employs computer programs to construct detailed electrical models enabling him to compute the transformer's internal transient voltage distribution. Using this information, and various other tools, the design engineer can develop a reliable and cost effective insulation structure. The power engineer requires a reduced model that accurately represents the transformer's behavior to investigate the effects of power system transients. Reduced models are generally obtained either from detailed design models, or from measurements on fully constructed transformers. The latter technique has the major disadvantage that in the absence of an expensive prototype design, improvements cannot be made. Presently, both methods are subject to varying degrees of error. This paper presents a reduction technique that starts with the linear, detailed design model, and provides a reduced model of any specified size, while retaining the same computational accuracy as the original model. The method is mathematically exact, relatively straight-forward and compatible with time domain transient analysis programs. Application of the technique to the detailed model of a 765/345/34.5 kV, 500 MVA single phase autotransformer is provided View full abstract»

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  • Application of computational fluid dynamics tools to circuit-breaker flow analysis

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 817 - 823
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)  

    This paper presents the results of the application of a computational fluid dynamics computer program to the simulation of cold and plasma flows in circuit breakers. The underlying physical model is based on the axisymmetric form of the conservation equations which are coupled with an arc model including ohmic heating and radiative exchanges of energy in the fluid. Various cases are computed, ranging from steady cold flow to unsteady arc-flow interaction. A good agreement has been found between the computed solutions and the available experimental data, demonstrating a great potential of these tools for circuit-breaker design and analysis in the future View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of stray currents and magnetic fields from single-phase power distribution systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1112 - 1118
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    This paper describes a simple, straightforward method for reducing stray currents and external magnetic fields from single-phase power distribution systems through the installation of a 1:1 current transformer. The current transformer magnetically couples the phase conductor and neutral conductors of a power cable, thereby forcing the return current to travel through the neutral rather than through other paths. Furthermore, if the phase conductor and neutral are sufficiently close together (preferably concentric), the magnetic field created by the return current in the neutral cancels the field created by the current from the phase conductor, thereby eliminating magnetic fields. This isolates the power cable from its environment while allowing it to remain solidly grounded. The current transformer may be applied to all sizes of power distribution systems, from underground residential distribution systems to wiring within buildings. This paper explains the theory behind this method, discusses possible practical applications of the method, and reports the results of a test installation by the City of Austin. These results show that the method can virtually eliminate stray currents and magnetic fields emanating from power distribution systems. However, more research should be done before the method is put into practice View full abstract»

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  • Portable optical AC- and proposed DC-current sensor for high voltage applications

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 595 - 599
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)  

    The design and testing of a passive optical current sensor utilizing the Faraday effect is described. The system, being of the ring core sensor type, is portable and capable of being mounted on existing cables and power lines without disconnection. System performance regarding linearity, temperature dependence and the influence of current conductor displacement relative to the ring core are reported. A proper passive temperature compensation is tested and a scheme for optical measurement of DC-current proposed View full abstract»

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  • Criteria for reliable dual voltage power transformers

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 845 - 852
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    Power transmission systems often have more than one voltage level. They also may have several subtransmission levels or be in the process of converting from an existing voltage level to a new one. In such cases economic pressures dictate the purchase of power transformers with primary or secondary windings (or both) which can be easily reconnected from one operating voltage to another. Transformers can then be relocated as conditions change or emergencies occur with a minimum requirement for spare transformers. Designing and building transformers with reconnectable windings requires special consideration to maintain electrical symmetry at all connections. Impedances and short circuit forces can vary widely on the different connections depending on winding arrangements, tapped out spaces, and other design details. These must all be considered in order to produce a dual voltage transformer with acceptable reliability and performance at all connections. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint transformer users with design techniques that produce such dual voltage transformers. Users may then evaluate their dual voltage transformer reliability and also appreciate that some dual voltage combinations and designs are not compatible with acceptable reliability, particularly in regard to short circuit strength View full abstract»

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  • A new IEEE/ANSI standard for generator circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 811 - 816
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)  

    A new IEEE/ANSI standard for generator circuit breakers applied between generator and step-up transformer has been developed by an IEEE Working Group. This was necessary since the requirements for such breakers deviate in many respects from those of general purpose circuit breakers. This paper highlights special aspects of generator circuit breaker application and describes major differences to the standards C37.04, -06 and -09 for transmission and distribution circuit breakers View full abstract»

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  • Grounding resistance of buried electrodes in multi-layer earth predicted by simple voltage measurements along each surface-a theoretical discussion

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 707 - 715
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    A power system protection earth is modeled as an inhomogeneous conducting medium with multiple horizontal layers. For known layer conductivities and thickness, the voltage distribution and grounding resistance have been computed efficiently using an equivalent image method. In this paper, the reverse sequence is proposed. Without explicitly knowing the layer conductivities, thickness and number of layers, the equivalent images are determined by the voltage measurement results along the earth surface. Then these images are linearly translated to compute the underground voltage profiles and grounding resistance of buried electrodes. Such surface measurements are simple and inexpensive, and should give very accurate results based on the experience of applying these images in the microwave area View full abstract»

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  • New developments on the combined application of charge simulation and numerical methods for the computation of electric fields

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1105 - 1111
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    A new mathematical treatment is proposed to the hybrid method of charge simulation and finite differences for the computation of electric fields, entirely applicable to the similar hybrid method of charge simulation and finite elements. The resulting system of linear equations is solved by making use of the fixed point theory, the QR decomposition (by using the modified Gram-Schmidt method) and the conjugate gradients squared method with a preconditioning technique. New procedures are suggested for the discretization of the boundary conditions, which lead to results with higher precision. Case studies are included View full abstract»

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  • A new directional element for numerical distance relays

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 666 - 675
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    This paper describes a new positive sequence directional element for use in numerical distance relays. The element is incorporated in a numerical relay and the relay is tested on a RTDS (real time digital simulator). Results are also shown from on-line tests in two different locations in the Manitoba Hydro network. Finally an accurate software model of the relay, proved against recorded performance on the RTDS tests, is used in off-line tests on complex system configurations View full abstract»

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  • Removal of DC-offset in current waveforms using digital mimic filtering

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 621 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (75)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the capability of popular digital filters used in relaying applications to suppress DC offset in current waveforms over a broad range of time constants as encountered on real power systems. First, three mathematical performance indices are introduced to be able to compare filters on the same basis. Then the concept of the FIR type of digital mimic filter is described. It is shown that, for filters exhibiting a null response at frequency zero on their frequency response, the addition of a digital mimic circuit, tuned to the middle of the range of time constants to be suppressed, will almost completely eliminate the effect of an exponentially decaying component. Moreover, this is possible without sacrificing the original response speed, although it increases susceptibility to noisy components View full abstract»

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  • Thyristor controlled series compensation application study-control interaction considerations

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1031 - 1037
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    A study of the potential for control interaction between a proposed thyristor controlled series compensation (TCSC) and an existing static VAr compensator (SVC) is presented. The results indicate that a control interaction exists between the voltage-input power swing damping control (PSDC) of the TCSC, the series compensated AC system resonances, and the SVC controls. The addition of recommended filtering and synthesized angle-input PSDC showed improved performance View full abstract»

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  • Transformer model reduction using time and frequency domain sensitivity techniques

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1052 - 1059
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    The paper investigates the use of sensitivity methods to identify the parameters of reduced transformer models. The reduced model retains the structure of the original model. The identification is performed in both the time domain and the frequency domain. The technique is applied to a lumped-linear model of an experimental coil, and the results are promising View full abstract»

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  • A survey of optical channels for protective relaying practices and experience

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 647 - 658
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    The Optical Channels for Protective Relaying Working Group of the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee performed a survey of industry practices for applying optical channels, both planned and installed, for protective relaying communications. This report summarizes the sizes of the existing and planned optical fiber network, the types of construction, whether the relaying channels are on dedicated fiber or multiplexed with other services, experience, and maintenance practices View full abstract»

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  • Decoupling networks for promoting power line carrier systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 580 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    Electricity authorities are constantly confronted by congestion in frequencies on their power line carrier (PLC) networks and they quite often look for alternative modes of communication which could be quite expensive. At a time when there is rapid growth in power systems, the need for exclusive communication circuits becomes significant. Therefore, the issues connected with power line carrier networks become more complex, particularly when the frequency approvals from the Government are not easily obtainable. Network decouplers have emerged as a dependable and economical solution. With the practices of selecting marginally-sized outdoor equipment and wide preference of onsite tuning, decouplers have been tried in some installations earlier. The gains sought thereby seem to be quite limited and often confined to teleprotection. The Indian experience with network decouplers, however, has proved to favour PLC systems not only for the teleprotection requirements but also for speech communication, monitoring measures and supervisory controls. Extensive short-circuit tests and modern dielectric technology have enabled manufacturers and utilities in realising these aims quite economically View full abstract»

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  • Development and practical operation of perfluorocarbon immersed 275 kV transformers with compressed SF6 gas insulation

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 880 - 888
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)  

    A perfluorocarbon (PFC) immersed 275 kV power transformer with compressed SF6 gas insulation has been under development. This paper clarifies the AC partial discharge inception voltage and time characteristics of PFC immersed insulation and also clarifies that a prototype 275 kV 100 MVA three-phase transformer could be operated without any trouble during long-term overvoltage tests. This prototype proved that it had AC partial discharge inception strength of higher than 1.5 times the AC test voltage and lightning impulse breakdown strength of 1.5 times the test voltage. A 275 kV, 250 MVA three-phase power transformer was developed and operated at the outdoor substation of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Japan. This transformer has been successfully operated to date and a detailed internal inspection of the transformer was carried out after one year and 9 months of successful practical operation. No significant abnormal condition was recognized View full abstract»

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  • Neural network approach to fault classification for high speed protective relaying

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1002 - 1011
    Cited by:  Papers (80)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)  

    This paper presents a new approach to fault classification for high speed protective relaying and show its effectiveness in computer simulations on parallel transmission lines. The scheme is based on the use of neural network architecture and implementation of digital signal processing concepts. We begin by classifying several fault types like 1-phase-to-ground, 2-phase-to-ground and 3-phase-to-ground faults. We proceed with classification of arcing and nonarcing faults in order to obtain a successful automatic reclosing. Encouraging results are shown and indicate that this approach can be used for supporting a new generation of very high speed protective relaying systems View full abstract»

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  • An improved non-inductive impulse voltage measurement technique for ZnO surge arresters

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 778 - 785
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)  

    One of the most important parameters of the protective performance of ZnO surge arresters is the residual voltage. In laboratory tests on standard arresters, a thin ZnO disc with a central hole is used in order to pick up the voltage, and a system with a double shielding technique reduces outside effects. Comparative tests of voltage signals from this series divider with those from a conventional parallel connected divider show that inductive overshoot is avoided View full abstract»

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  • Temperature rise tests on a forced-oil-air cooled (FOA) (OFAF) core-form transformer, including loading beyond nameplate

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 913 - 923
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)  

    Results of temperature rise tests performed in accordance with PC57.119/Draft 12, Recommended Procedures for Performing Temperature Rise Tests on Oil-Immersed Power Transformers at Loads Beyond Nameplate Ratings, are presented. Tested data is compared with calculated values using IEEE and IEC loading guide equations and exponential power constants are determined and are compared with those given in the loading guide. Discussion is offered that may be useful in future drafts of and to the users of the proposed test procedure View full abstract»

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  • Design of HVDC converter stations with respect to audible noise requirements

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 747 - 758
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1432 KB)  

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the engineering methods, tools, design solutions and verification methods used in the design of HVDC converter substations subject to acoustic requirements. The sound generation section of the paper describes how the sound power level radiated from electrical components can be calculated based on the load. The sound propagation section describes how the sources affect the sound pressure level at emission points of interest. A method to break down the acoustic requirement to the component level and practical studies to verify the concordance with the requirements are also illustrated. Different solutions for screening and absorption are described as well as measurement methods. The paper also describes a working method used to fulfil outdoor acoustic requirements View full abstract»

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  • Experimental verification of HVDC test sources requirements for pollution tests

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 978 - 986
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)  

    This paper presents the results of tests conducted to verify the effect of the voltage source on the critical flashover voltage of DC insulators under pollution. Tests were performed under 3 pollution levels using voltage sources with different voltage drop x leakage current characteristics. A data acquisition system was used to record all current pulses above a certain pre selected current level and the corresponding voltage evolution during current pulse duration, which made possible a complete analysis of current pulses and voltage drops characteristics. The experimental results show that the present restrictions imposed on the DC voltage sources can probably be relaxed. Also from the experimental data collected it was found that the insulator tested presents a constant impedance x current characteristic. This characteristic can be useful in checking theoretical models for polluted insulator flashover View full abstract»

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  • Interphase power controller adapted to the operating conditions of networks

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 961 - 969
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    This paper introduces a new family of interphase power controllers (IPC) for which the useful portion of the Prsr characteristics are shifted as the power transfer level is increased. Thus, the power characteristics of a specific IPC application can be adapted to the operating conditions of the power network. The response of the IPC is compared to those of the two conventional technologies used in building it: the phase-angle regulator; and series compensation. It is shown how the natural response of the IPC regulates active power passively, without the need for control action. Also, reactive power can be controlled independently of active power slowing for better voltage control. The new IPC retains the inherent qualities of previous IPCs View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811